determines which kind of social functions are relevant. For some people, books are a refuge: a way to unplug and get away from the ubiquity of computers, screens, and digital information. In contrast to the scanning and multi-tasking typical of computer use, books afford a slower, more focused experience. Reading can be generally divided into two: reading for pleasure and reading for some usually educational or work related purpose. Latter is more goal oriented activity; this “active reading” refers to a set of strategies for engaging with written material and is “the combination of reading with critical thinking and learning, and involves not just reading per se, but also underlining, highlighting, and
Literature search has shown that there exists no single and collectively acceptable definition for eBook. Armstrong (2008) considers e-book to be “any content that is recognizably book-like, regardless of size, origin or composition, but excluding serial publications, made available electronically for reference or reading on any device (handheld or desk-bound) that includes a screen”. Vassileiou and Rowley (2008) posit that: ‘(1) an e-book is a digital object with textual and/or other content, which arises as a result of integrating the familiar concept of a book with features that can be provided in an electronic environment’. In a project coordinated by Portico, the consensus among stakeholders comprising of six scholarly publishers and three commercial eBook aggregators defined e-book as inclusive of ‘e-only monographs, monographs appearing both in print and online, digitized print titles, and continuously updated reference databases’. They however took exception to inclusion of audio books, whereas, eleven libraries and a consortium considered an e-book to comprise of ‘e-only monographs, monographs appearing both in print and online, digitized print titles (including objects digitized by the library), and continuously updated reference databases’. But they considered audio books technically speaking to be e-books even though they are not within the scope of their collection (Tracy, 2008). Also Doiron (2011) while describing e-books says that they are considered as the digital version of printed books, as well as those books primarily written for publication in the electronic section of the book trade.
and portable and desktop computers, so that students can access e-textbooks and digital libraries.
?? For physically challenged or sight-impaired, e-books can fill special reading needs. A simple font size change will turn e-book into a large print edition, and e-books are less tiring on the hands. Some file formats are compatible with screen reading technology. People with special reading needs have more books and magazines available to them than ever before with e-books.
The issue is even more pronounced with patrons who have not had much experience with technology in the past. One librarian detailed how the increased popularity of e-book reading devices has resulted in library staff spending more time on the basic tech support: “Many of our older patrons received electronic devices as gifts over the past two years. This group of library users asks for lots of help with their devices, from plugging them in to turning them on to trying to make them interface with the e- book portion of the library website.” (For more about this topic, please see Part 8: Future Thoughts.) It should be noted that even among our panel of librarians whose libraries lend out e-books, not all face a huge demand for their electronic titles. “My library serves an economically challenged area so we have not had the demand for e-books that other libraries are experiencing,” one director wrote. “Large numbers of our patrons have not been able to invest in e-book readers or tablets.” However, she added that the library had also seen “an increase in people using their mobile phones to access library
Money influences the decision to purchase e-books for libraries, since they need to make not just “one off” purchases but continue to fund annual access fees. Given the limited nature of library budgets, that leaves them with difficult choices as to how best to serve their user’s needs. For users, the cost of hardware, Internet access and the fact that e- books currently cost a similar amount to printed books, influences their choices. While it is not possible for those involved in e-book production to change the technological infrastructure, sales models and pricing structures certainly come within their remit. If e-books are to be widely used, the funding and revenue issues of the two main groups of stakeholders, i.e., librarians and academics on the one hand, and publishers and
personalised queries; and support for different modes of reading. Some of these advantages can be obtained, when using e-books with other types of hardware, through the use of special reader software.
Even with these potentially attractive functions, the quality of the display, and hence legibility of the content, in both dedicated-device dependent and independent cases is a critical issue (Chaiken et al 1998; Darnton 1999; Hawkins 2000; Kristl 2000; Landoni & Gibb 2000; Lynch 1999; Terry 1999). Ardito (2000) notes that "displays are improving, but the development of a device that delivers the brightness and resolution of a printed page may be a long time coming." However, Chaiken et al (1998) found that readers were satisfied with the quality of the display of their prototype appliance. These authors consider that the price of suitable high-resolution displays will determine the economic viability of the device. They also note other factors needed to make reading appliances successful including: the weight, orientation and packaging;
Subscription packages generally allow libraries to buy access to a large number of e-books for a set period of time. Frequently, subscription pack- ages consist of backlist titles that publishers make available to aggrega- tors knowing the print book sales have already run their course. they see the small revenue stream generated from these sales as supplementary. Libraries get the advantage of adding a great number of e-books to their collections at relatively low cost. When you are assessing the value of these collections, however, it may be more pertinent to look at the cost per use than the cost per title (Grigson 2009, 63). Generally, the included content is selected by the vendor or publisher, and libraries have no opportunity to shape the title lists. Sometimes content within these packages changes during the contract period, so libraries need to be aware of potential work involved in suppressing or adding mArc records to their systems. As with all subscription products, annual renewal costs can be problematic for libraries.
“Respondents predicted a steady shift towards digital materials over the next five years. They reported that 6% of their materials budgets will be shifted from print books to electronic books (bringing books expenditures in five years to 46% digital and 54% print)…” (Long & Schonfeld, 2010, p. 28). Other studies show similar increases. The 2012 Library Journal survey found that 95% of the academic libraries surveyed carry e- books; this figure has been constant for three years, but the total number of e-books offered increased 41% between 2011 and 2012. In libraries that support graduate programs, this represented an increase from an average of 97,500 to 138,800 e-books per library. Academic spending on e-books increased from 7.5% of the total acquisition budget to 9.6%, and libraries anticipate that this percentage will continue to increase ("2012 ebook usage in US academic libraries: Third annual survey," 2012, pp. 5-6). These statistics indicate that libraries, with a few rare exceptions, 1 are increasing digital
Electronic books in Croatian academic libraries
This paper provides an overview of the development of electronic books and electronic publishing in Croatia with the focus on the role of academic libraries in the distribution of e- books. E-books or electronic books are an electronic (digital) equivalent of a printed book. Electronic books can own and extra content such as online magazine or other books in the digital version composed as audio books as part of e-book itself. Andries van Dam from Brown University in the United States introduced the use of the term e-books or 'ebook' (eng. 'Electronic book') in 1971, the same year that Michael Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, started production and distribution of e-books through through university networks. Since then it is possible to monitor the gradual growth of interest in this type of publishing products. This paper describes some of the most popular digital formats developed for the purpose of creating and distributing electronic books. Electronic books represent a major challenge in today's work of a library. Copyright protection and freedom of information are some of the problem areas (in)directly related to the production and use of electronic book. In this final work was investigated by the method of analysis of web site and online catalogue of Croatian university libraries, the representation of e-books in the library fund higher
In addition to these essential matters, HEB has taken some pains to consider how something should be displayed electronically. All too often mass digitization projects follow along the same, or similar, lines of their printed counterparts by using the page as the unit of measuring text. But HEB considers the unit of ‘chunky text’ to be the natural division by chapter or section rather than page (page units being unnecessary for the electronic format as they are required in the printed ones). This allows for the aforesaid granularity in metadata as well as providing some guideline for displaying the text. Of perhaps no interest to anyone other than a librarian are the free MARC records provided by HEB. MARC records are the electronic version of the once-printed ‘catalog card’ and so provide libraries with a ready way to add the 2,200 titles in toto to their catalogs. It’s an important point as many libraries might take months to include the titles in their catalogs, unnecessarily delaying the use of them by students and scholars. Too many electronic initiatives fail because vendors do not take into account how long before purchased materials will be searchable to their users, and in some cases this can be not weeks but months. Granted, Google has made this much less
“Subscription package based on fixed number of titles, that allows underutilised titles to be exchanged for new titles as part of a collection management
Across several sections of the survey, libraries expressed a slight preference for time- based expiration over loan based expiration. Time limited licenses may be easier to budget for, and there is less wastage from people who borrow e-books but don't end up reading them (although if a title is in demand they will waste some of the time on the license). Respondents would prefer longer licenses than are typically on offer now – the mean minimum loans preferred was 41.5, and the mean minimum time limit was 32.3 months. Of the Big Six publishers, Macmillan currently comes closest, with licenses that expire after the earlier of two years or 52 loans (although their trial only includes titles from its Minotaur imprint). There was not a strong difference of preference for time- or loan-based expiration between library systems of different size.
Library 2.0 tools are able to introduce more suggestions into the readers’ advisory equation. Social networking sites such as Goodreads, LibraryThing and Shelfari all share similar basic functions, such as queuing books to read, marking books as having been read, and listing books to read. Each site provides a means of crowdsourcing book reviews to users, much the same way as Amazon.com crowdsources reviews to consumers (Rapp, 2011). Goodreads uses an algorithm to provide recommendations to users based on the book ratings of other users (Rapp, 2011). Goodreads also provides functions to explore lists of books in its “Listopia” feature, allowing users to browse through popular book lists (Naik & Trott, 2012). Saricks (2013) points out that even though the technology is available, many libraries do not fully use what is freely available in their service plans.
The books advertised here were considered ‘the essentials of a liberal education’, books that should be owned by all American families. This kind of advertisement promised not only knowledge and education, but social prestige and professional success. The prerequisite for attaining all this was to possess a pre-assembled personal library, whose mere presence in the home symbolized a well-educated family. The books were chosen by somebody else, somebody who was considered to be an expert. These kinds of advertisements were directed at families with relatively modest incomes, the so-called middle class, that came into prominence at the beginning of the twentieth century. The middle class had higher salaries, and disposable income. The ability to acquire non-essential goods was evidence of social climbing. This explains the emphasis on the social prestige of owning such books: books were seen as a status symbol.
As defined in Chapter 1, a reading group describes a collective who meet regularly to discuss a book that all members (should) have read. Typically, face-to-face groups meet once a month, so that members have time in between meetings to read the book and formulate their views on it. These meetings can be seen as a literacy event, an activity ‘where literacy has a role’ (Barton and Hamilton 2000: 8) and which involves some talk around texts. Seeing reading groups as events in this way ‘stresses the situated nature of literacy’, emphasising the importance of ‘social context’ (Barton and Hamilton 2000: 8). Groups can be organised across a range of different social contexts, all of which will make for different literacy events. Institutions as diverse as libraries, schools, prisons and workplaces are increasingly running and hosting reading groups, ‘book circles’ (Daniels, 2002; Duncan, 2012), and ‘shared reading’ sessions with a bibliotherapy focus (e.g. Dowrick et al., 2012; Hodge, Robinson & Davis 2007) . For private or ‘closed’ groups that have grown out of friendship networks, members may take turns at hosting or may meet in a pub, bar, or restaurant. In Chapter 1 some of these differences were acknowledged when the reading groups used in the current study were described.
Nor was the culture of Enlightenment reading confined to elites or to urban readers. From his survey of extant library catalogues, Towsey concludes that ‘the books which constituted the Scottish Enlightenment – at least as it is defined by modern scholarship – circulated very widely beyond Scotland’s three cities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen, and they were indeed readily encountered, assimilated and discussed by readers quite far down the social scale’ (p. 305). His evidence bears out his claim, despite a few problematic statements about the books under discussion.(1) Although the library holdings in Towsey’s database were not in perfect sync with production figures – interestingly, some books by Scottish authors that were modest sellers according to publishers’ records turn up in relatively high numbers in different kinds of Scottish libraries, including works of conjectural history – the overall conclusion to be drawn from Towsey’s evidence on libraries is that the most popular books of the Scottish Enlightenment permeated Georgian Scotland. A similar conclusion arises from the chapters in Allan’s Making British Culture that assess the prevalence of Scottish Enlightenment holdings in English libraries.
FSCJ planned to transition from paper-based textbooks to electronic textbooks for many of its 100- and 200-level courses by the fall 2011 semester. As part of the college’s SIRIUS Academics initiative, a college course design and textbook-publishing consortium, as of fall 2012 FSCJ no longer prints and sells paper-based versions of SIRIUS Academics course textbooks. The SIRIUS Academics initiative that was originally introduced to the college in 2003, as a college quality improvement plan, was intended to reduce overall textbook costs to students and to improve the quality of student learning experiences . As a measure that reduces textbook costs to students and makes college education more affordable and accessible, students receive course textbooks in an entirely electronic format that can be used online and on mobile e-book reading devices, with the current price per book set at $48.00. The transition was actually delayed to the spring 2012 semester, due in large part to difficulties associated with establishing a single sign on process for the registering and distributing of immediate access to the e-books. The single sign on process entailed connecting the college’s registration, student portal, and e-book reader software CafeScribe so that the allocation of e-book course resources was immediate and seamless with the registration process.
In conclusion, by using the constructivist paradigm, the researcher takes relativist position in terms of ontology and subjectivist in terms of epistemology.
Participants: The participants of this study were selected from heavy comic book readers around Knoxville, Tennessee. The Knoxville metropolitan area has nearly 700,000 residents and is the third largest city in the state. It is home to the main campus of the state university, and to many businesses and services. A heavy reader is someone who reads more than 7 books per year (Stutman & Cassady, 1983, p.13) . Based on this, for this study we define a heavy comic book reader as one who has read at least 7 graphic novels which translates into approximately 42 comic books 3 . Since there are countless genres in comic books, in order to increase the possibility of science and technology exposure, readers of science and technology related mangas, such as mechas (giant robot mangas), and superhero comics were interviewed. In superhero comics characters and their equipment are mostly developed through science and technology.
Conducting a study on the curriculum involves examining the course books used in the classrooms. Because there are many different ELT course books, the process of choosing the right one for use in the classroom is a daunting task. In addition, this choice often shapes the syllabi, and sometimes even the entire language program (Angell, DuBravac & Gonglewski, 2008; Byrnes, 1988). There are many reasons behind choosing a particular course book. Sometimes, it is based on the teachers’ first impressions and prejudices towards what they believe to be the most suitable and practical for their classrooms. Other reasons might be that the textbook is visually appealing, easy for the teacher to teach, and that it fits well into the timetable (Angell et al., 2008). However, all textbooks should be chosen on the basis of their educational values and whether or not they meet the program objectives. According to Cheung and Wong (2002, p. 226), ‘the major premise of the academic rationalism orientation is that the curriculum should aim at developing students’ intellectual abilities in those subject areas most worthy of study’. This means that the curriculum should provide intrinsically rewarding experiences for the students while developing their affective and cognitive domains. In keeping with this argument, this study examines the level of difficulty in vocabulary in the Touchstone ELT course books.