The most reliable way to study the consumes of the house is the statistical study of existing data, but this information is not always available. It can be directly measured by the energy supplier or from the distributors if they install innovative instruments that measure instantaneously energy flows. This is not yet diffused in Europe and for new buildings this information cannot be provided and an estimation study has to be performed. For existing building the analysis of bills can be realized but usually there is no daily consume because suppliers calculate invoices every two months. This information can be easily obtained and in following part will be considered. Germany already developed a standard  that gives indications on the calculation of reference load profiles of single-family and multi-family houses for the use of CHP systems. There are additional ways to define daily load profile of an house. For example in Italy the Authority for Electric Energy and Gas provides gas standard natural gas consume profile as ratio of annual consume. This tables are divided for climate region and user typology (heating, DHW, both). This values are used by distributors to predict energy consume of standard users and to calculate relative costs but don’t offer daily load profile minute by minute but permits to calculate daily requirements of heat and of DHW .
In our models the generators produce electricity for local needs and for participation in the national energy market (NEM), while delivering space heating and hot water to the residences. The management strategies used optimise economic performance while satisfying the heat and power demands of the residential cus- tomers. The heat and power demand data has been synthesised using multiple information sources and is intended to represent a plausible demand pattern for residential apartment buildings in Victoria, Australia. We present a linear programming based optimisation strategy for controlling micro-CHP generators that pro- vide heating, hot water and electricity for apartment blocks. We assume that the operator of the generators can also participate in the NEM by providing a block of power once a day. Our system assumes that we have perfect prior knowledge about the power and heating demands in the apartment blocks as well as about the prices on the NEM.
Carbon Trust's report titled MicroCHP Accelerator demonstrates the benets of micro-CHP eld trials . The programme included the installation of 87 micro- CHP units based on internal combustion and Stirling engines in domestic and com- mercial applications in the UK. The report presents the energy and cost savings in the eld trials and concludes that the economics of micro-CHP systems can be im- proved further by increasing the electrical eciency of the systems. According to the report the micro-CHP - household system would perform better if the electrical e- ciency of the prime mover was higher and the electricity production similar to heat production. In addition, the report claims that with optimised controls, the car- bon savings by domestic micro-CHP systems could potentially be higher. The trials did not include any fuel cell micro-CHPs as the commercially available products at the period the project started were limited. However, based on the heat-to-power characteristics and higher electrical eciency, fuel cell based micro-CHPs may be more eective over other micro-CHP technologies which are based on thermal en- gines in terms of the potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Despite the benecial technical characteristics of fuel cells, there has been small interest by manufacturers in developing fuel cell micro-CHPs compared to engine based tech- nologies. The Energy Saving Trust places the fuel cell micro-CHP as an emerging technology in the energy market and suggests that this is due to the reason that the cost per kW of fuel cell is still much greater compared to established technologies such as the Stirling or internal combustion engines .
In recent years, due to increasing energy demand and in order to mitigate its impact on the environment, the search for reliable, sustainable and affordable energy sources and new technologies to increase energy efficiency has intensified. The built environment is a large contributor to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1,2]. The commercial and domestic buildings consume about 45% of total energy consumption in the UK . New building regulations, such as Part L 2013 and the European Buildings Directive [4,5], require engineers to minimizing energy losses by introducing improved insulating materials and energy efficient technologies such as Combined Heat & Power (micro- CHP) systems .
We design a model that describes the balance of electricity production and consumption in a multi-prosumer Smart Grid. One strategy to achieve balance in the network is to match production and consumption only inside each prosumer. However, it is clear that if neighbors cooperate and share some information with each other, the balancing could be done more efficiently. Imagine prosumer Y has a high demand, but no possibility to further ramp up his production. Prosumer Z is using her micro-CHP system to cover heat demand, but has excess power production. Prosumer Z could earn money by selling electricity to neighbor Y, while the power is still locally produced and consumed in the network.
In this research study, a Micro-scale Combined Heat and Power (MCHP) plant with a stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimized. The nominal electric power output of the plant is 100 Watt. Currently this plant has run using wood powder as fuel. With consideration of the biomass energy potential, a gamma type Stirling engine with 220cc swept volume and 580cc total volume was designed, optimized and manufactured. The performance is investigated with regard to the operating conditions , the heat fluxes, temperatures and the type of biomass. Electrical energy produced from biomass sources. The results shows that the highest efficiency of the system is reached for moderate speed values of stirling engine approximately 500-600 rpm. Sugarcane bagasse, wood, wheat straw, poplar wood and sawdust as fuel system were selected. Most power be obtained from the sawdust (46 watt) and pruning of trees for wood for low power (21 watts), respectively. Minimum ignition time of the Sawdust (4 min) and the most time flammable wood from pruned trees (10 min) was measured. At maximum power, the internal thermal efficiency of the engine was measured as 16%. The test results confirm the fact that Stirling engines driven by temperature of biomass gases are able to achieve a valuable output power. Results of the present work encouraged initiating design of a MCHP system with 1 kWe capacity for rural electrification. So this operation can be considered as a breakthrough in the utilization of stirling engine for micro-scale CHP plants utilizing wood powder fuels.
The efficient use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in buildings presents a control challenge due to their simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. The use of thermal energy storage coupled with a CHP engine provides an interesting solution to the problem—the electrical demands of the building can be matched by the CHP engine, while the resulting thermal energy can be regulated by the thermal energy store. Based on the thermal energy demands of the building the thermal store can provide extra thermal energy or absorb surplus thermal energy production. This paper presents a multi- input multi-output inverse-dynamics-based control strategy that will minimise the electrical grid utilisation of a building, while simultaneously maintaining a defined operative temperature. Electrical demands from lighting and appliances within the building are considered. In order to assess the performance of the control strategy, a European Standard validated simplified dynamic building physics model is presented that provides verified heating demands. Internal heat gains from solar radiation and internal loads are included within the model. Results indicate the control strategy is effective in minimising the electrical grid use and maximising the utilisation of the available energy when compared with conventional heating systems.
Combined heat and power (CHP) systems in buildings present a control challenge for their efficient use due to their simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. The use of thermal energy storage coupled with a CHP engine provides an interesting solution to the problem – the electrical demands of the building can be matched by the CHP engine while the resulting thermal energy can be regulated by the thermal energy store. Based on the thermal energy demands of the building the thermal store can provide extra thermal energy or absorb surplus thermal energy production. This paper presents a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) inverse dynamics based control strategy that will minimise the electrical grid utilisation of a building, while simultaneously maintaining a defined operative temperature. Electrical demands from lighting and appliances within the building are considered. In order to assess the performance of the control strategy, a European Standard validated simplified dynamic building physics model is presented that provides verified heating demands. Internal heat gains from solar radiation and internal loads are included within the model. Results indicate the effectiveness of the control strategy in minimising the electrical grid use and maximising the utilisation of the available energy over conventional heating systems.
The case study building is an average residential building in Cairo that was chosen to act as a prototype. The building’s inefficiencies were detected and then possible solutions using market available products were proposed. Also, PV suppliers were contacted and price offers for all the used materials were collected. The needed quantities of each retrofit action were calculated and so the overall price of the retrofit plan was considered. Similarly, the pricing for the PV station that would cover the electricity consumption was calculated. Accordingly, a complete plan of how to convert an existing residential building in Egypt into an nZEB is ready for use with actual products, prices, suppliers as well as a return on investment study.
Table V shows the number of residentialbuildings constructed by the MoPW at different time frames in the five emirates in which it builds in. The data in table V shows a drop in the number of public housing units being built every decade. This is due in part to that fact that more UAE nationasl are becoming wealthier and are choosing to build their own customized houses rather than rely on the MoPW pre-designed units. At the same time, the units being built by the MoPW are becoming larger in size. Table VI shows the number and total area of units built by the MoPW in Ras Al Khaimah in different time frames. We can see that the earlier units averaged just under 100 m 2 in area then the average size grows steadily to reach 360 m 2 in the 2000-2012 period. This was the most detailed data that we could get during this study. We need to remind ourselves that to date (September 2012) there is no thermal insulation regulation for MoPW buildings which means that there is great potential for energy savings in all these buildings constructed until the current date.
Designing tomorrow’s buildings today inevitably means questioning the economic logic that will enable them to be funded. It is difficult to move from idea to realization, when the integration of renewable energies and new technologies increases construction costs by 25- 30%. On this front, all the players are unanimous: it will only be possible to finance projects if they take into account the entire life cycle of buildings. The overall cost approach is developing: social landlords are becoming more and more aware of their tenants’ costs and of the reduction in carbon footprint. 
The hot summer, cold winter (HSCW) region of China accounts for 40% of China’s population, and buildings in HSCW zone account for 45% of the country’s energy consumption (L. Xu et al., 2013). The climate in this zone has a large variation. In winter, the average temperature can drop to 0-10°C. In summer, the average temperature can reach up to 25-30°C (Li et al., 2011). According to China's design regulation for the HSCW zone, central space heating is not required (MOHURD, 1993), because central space heating is provided according to geographic location defined by the central government, where HSCW zone lies below the heating line (Guo et al., 2015). The newly enforced construction codes and regulations aim to reduce the building energy consumption in HSCW zone by providing guidelines on the required building fabric and passive design (MOHURD, 2001). However, many urban dwellings (residentialbuildings) were constructed prior to the implementation of building regulations, and thus often lack adequate building fabric (L. Xu et al., 2013).
The Courtyard is a worldwide architectural design element which has been accepted and put into practice for many centuries of years in the entire globe and most particularly in residentialbuildings. And scholars have developed a research interest in recent times on the courtyard subject. The scholars have conducted studies on the courtyard from a different perspective of the courtyard in buildings and each of them had defined what the courtyard is all about in his own point of view. And some of the definitions are as follows: Chen (2012), “Said that the courtyard is an empty space for specific use (somehow all connected with a domestic function) are arranged”. Taleghani and van den Dobbelsteen (2012), “refers to the courtyards as, unique spaces that are external yet almost internal, open to the sky, usually in contact with the ground, but bordered by rooms”. Also, Wazeri (2014), “asserted that a
This paper is the study of damages caused by recent flood in a village at Kerala state and also developing a new strategy for the reconstruction of damaged houses by volunteer contribution of resources and participation by the people lived in that area and as well as nearby area by applying the construction engineering and management techniques in flood disaster management and reconstruction. The strategy developed includes, Damage data collection of affected residential houses, Analysis of observed data for recovery and reconstruction, Development of strategy for reconstruction, Detailed Cost estimation, Scheduling the total reconstruction project, Approval from authorities, Execution and controlling the project, Monitoring and recording the work done, Reassessment of strategy.
The presence of a landscape with green trees provides better environments than open sky (Monteiro and Alucci 2009). The tree canopy has a significant filtration capability which contributes to the reduction of terrestrial radiation, cooling the ground surfaces by capturing more latent heat, reducing air temperature by promoting more evapotranspiration, and effectively improves the outdoor thermal comfort especially in open spaces of the tropical climate region (Shahidan et al. 2010). On average, trees can reduce 38% of the total solar radiation received by residential building rooftops and strong correlations were found between measures of tree structures (average height, tree height variability, and normalized tree volume) and intercepted direct radiation in the summer (Tooke et al. 2011). The
Greenhouse gas reduction: In response to growing concern over climate change, smart grid technology will contribute to the utility industry goal of cleaner emissions. It will do this by flattening peak demands, thereby reducing the need for less efficient and more environmentally damaging plants to come online just to meet the peak demands. Customer price signals: Smart grid aims to create an understanding among consumers that electricity pricing varies significantly during the day. Allowing consumers to readily see this will influence their behaviour, perhaps initiating wiser use of energy. Integration of renewable energy sources: The two most common sources of commercial renewable energy are wind and solar rays. Both are intermittent and tend to be more geographically dispersed than conventional power generation. So the grid will have to be smarter to deal with these less-conventional energy sources, especially as they become more prevalent. (ESRI, 2009).
As per YudiNugrahaet al., evaluation of thermal comfort involves assessment of at least six factors: human activity levels, thermal resistance of clothing, air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and vapour pressure in ambient air. Additional information required for thermal simulation includes: building geometry, including the layout and configuration of the space, grouping of rooms in thermally homogeneous zones, building orientation, building construction, including the thermal properties of all construction elements, building usage including functional use, internal loads and schedules for lighting, occupants, and equipments, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system type and operating characteristics, space conditioning requirements, utility rates, and weather data. It is not easy to measure or to elaborate all of those at a particular location in a building to create thermal comfort. Manual calculation of those values at every point within a building is almost impossible. One way to analyse thermal performance in buildings is by using thermal simulation programs that are capable of calculating all of those values accurately.
One major factor of the complex system of IEQ is Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Gradual strengthening of the requirements on the level of energy performance has been in progress in the European Union, therefore also in Hungary, due to the need of energy saving for buildings . The envelope retrofit of existing buildings and the construction methodology with high performance thermal insulation of newly built residentialbuildings result in the reduction of a natural exchange of the air even below the hygienic minimum . This can result in poor IEQ and IAQ, decreased performance, or poor health conditions.