Top PDF A software engineering lifecycle standard for very small enterprises

A software engineering lifecycle standard for very small enterprises

A software engineering lifecycle standard for very small enterprises

4 Gathering VSE Requirements In 1997, the Technical Council on Software Engineering responsible for the IEEE Software Engineering Standards conducted a survey to capture information from software engineering standards users in order to improve those standards [16]. They gathered 148 answers, mainly from the USA (79%) and large companies (87% of them having more than 100 employees). The main application domains of the survey respondents were IT (22%), military (15%) and aerospace (11%). (It should be noted that the purpose of this section is not to systematically compare the two sets of survey results). Even though the IEEE survey objectives differ from those of the ISO/IEC survey, there are some interesting common findings. In response to the question concerning the reasons why their organization does not use standards, 37% said that the standards were not available in their facilities, while 37% explained that they use other standards. In fact, the IEEE survey underscores the fact that ISO/IEC standards are often used in organizations, rather than the IEEE standards.
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A Novel Lifecycle Model for Web-based Application Development in Small and Medium Enterprises

A Novel Lifecycle Model for Web-based Application Development in Small and Medium Enterprises

An engineering discipline for software applications devel- opment is concerned with all aspects of software produc- tion, and it encompasses a variety of concepts, principles, knowledge, tools, models, and methods, for example, the object-oriented (OO) technologies, unified modelling lan- guage (UML), pattern methods, etc. Software development lifecycle is also one of the major aspects, which incorpo- rates software requirement analysis, design, construction, testing, and maintenance. Software lifecycle incorporates activities of tracking source code as it goes through various stages throughout its life, and most of the existing pro- posed Web application development lifecycle models come from the ideas of traditional software development lifecycle, which usually covers the following five stages [6, 7, 9, 10] :
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Requirements Engineering Current Practice and Capability in Small and Medium Software Development Enterprises in New Zealand

Requirements Engineering Current Practice and Capability in Small and Medium Software Development Enterprises in New Zealand

A summary of the scores is shown in Error! Reference source not found.. The highest score was 24, the average 10.23, the median 10.5 and the standard deviation 5.37. Comparing these results against Nikula, Sajaniemi et al’s [22] findings this study showed more companies in the mid range with a smaller spread of scores (see Error! Reference source not found.). This indicates an overall higher level of maturity in the New Zealand companies using this particular measure. It is also worth noting that 5 of the companies (17%) have implemented all ten guidelines at least to some extent. With the highest score being 24 however, using these criteria there is still room for improvement in all the companies.
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Quality in use: incorporating human factors into the software engineering lifecycle

Quality in use: incorporating human factors into the software engineering lifecycle

Quality in use is a means of applying this principle to the performance which a product enables a human to achieve. An example is the ISO standard for VDT display screens (ISO 9241-3). The purpose of the standard is to ensure that the screen has the technical attributes required to achieve quality in use. The current version of the standard is specified in terms of the technical attributes of a traditional CRT. It is intended to extend the standard to permit alternative new technology screens to conform if it can be demonstrated that users are as effective, efficient and satisfied with the new screen as with an existing screen which meets the technical specifications.
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Enhancing Small and Medium Enterprises

(SMEs) in Africa through Service Oriented

Software Engineering (SOSE)

Enhancing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Africa through Service Oriented Software Engineering (SOSE)

The researcher used service- oriented software engineering (SOSE) approach and against the backdrop that Nigeria is a microcosm of Africa, the study focused on the country[r]

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Software Process Improvement for Small to Medium Enterprises

Software Process Improvement for Small to Medium Enterprises

software production industries. Current standard Software Process Improvement (SPI) models are accused of being cumbersome when applied within the SMEs environment. The SMEs need to adapt to their environmental barriers and to meet the challenging business objectives facing SMEs. This has led to the need to develop a simpler SPI model that is more dynamic and flexible, i.e. not too rigid in comparison to current SPI models. Achieving business objectives is one of the important recipes for information Technology (IT) and business success. The standard SPI models such as Software Capability Maturity Model tend not to focus their software process on the organization business objectives. This research was setup to design a generic SPI process model and roadmap for SMEs that is tailored to the business objectives. In this process model the business objectives help derive the SPI programme. Its phases are kept simple in terms of activities and procedures to adjust to SMEs resource barriers. The process model and the roadmap were applied within four partner SMEs companies so far and the findings indicate that their software processes have successfully improved and this has contributed back into their business objectives.
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The implementation of ISO/IEC 29110 software engineering standards and guides in very small entities

The implementation of ISO/IEC 29110 software engineering standards and guides in very small entities

Keywords. Very Small Entities, ISO Standards, ISO/IEC 29110, VSE. 1 INTRODUCTION In the domain of software development, small and very small companies have the challenge of handling multiple small-scale, fast-moving projects allowing little room for unwieldy management processes, but still requiring an efficient and straightfor- ward monitoring process [1]. Moreover due to the small number of people involved in the project and the organization, most of the management processes are performed through an informal way and less documented [2]. The perception of heavyweight processes, especially in terms of documentation, cost and nonalignment with current development process, are among the reasons why the companies did not plan to adopt a lifecycle standard in the short to medium term [3, 4].
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Software Engineering Standards and Guides for Very Small Entities: Implementation in two start-ups

Software Engineering Standards and Guides for Very Small Entities: Implementation in two start-ups

Software development small and very small have the challenge of handling multiple small-scale, fast- moving projects allowing little room for unwieldy management processes, but still requiring an efficient and straightforward monitoring process (Coleman et al, 2008) Moreover due to the small number of people involved in the project and the organization, most of the management processes are performed through an informal way and less documented (O’Connor and Laporte, 2012). The perception of heavyweight processes, especially in terms of documentation, cost and nonalignment with current development process, are among the reasons why the companies did not plan to adopt a lifecycle standard in the short to medium term (Basri et al, 2010) (Mora et al, 2011).
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The Development of Systems Engineering International Standards and Support Tools for Very Small Enterprises

The Development of Systems Engineering International Standards and Support Tools for Very Small Enterprises

The Generic Profile Group has been defined as applicable to a vast majority of VSEs that do not develop critical software and have typical situational factors (ISO 2011b). The Generic Profile Group is a collection of four profiles (Entry, Basic, Intermediate, Advanced), providing a progressive approach to satisfying a vast majority of VSEs. VSEs targeted by the Entry Profile are VSEs working on small projects (e.g. at most six person-months effort) and for start-up VSEs. The Basic Profile describes software development practices of a single application by a single project team with no special risk or situational factors. The Intermediate Profile is targeted at VSEs developing multiple projects within the organizational context taking advantage of it. The Advanced Profile is target to VSEs which want to sustain and grow as an independent competitive software development business. The ISO/IEC 29110 series were not intended to dictate the use of different life cycles such as: waterfall, iterative, incremental, evolutionary or agile.
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Standard glossary of terms used in Software. Engineering

Standard glossary of terms used in Software. Engineering

Stakeholder: Any person who has an interest in an IT project. Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. Stakeholders can exercise control over both the immediate system operational characteristics, as well as over long-term system lifecycle considerations (such as portability, lifecycle costs, environmental considerations, and decommissioning of the system) [TGilb].

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From ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015 – Challenges for Software Engineering in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

From ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015 – Challenges for Software Engineering in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

Although ISO 9001:2015 does not provide a guideline for a QMS, it consists of a set of mandatory/desirable documents and measurements/tasks, which are essential for certifi- cation in accordance with ISO 9001:2015. The main elements of the process definition are activities. An activity will be described, as well as inputs and outputs. Inputs and outputs can be both tangible and intangible. The standard enables the definition of quantitative measurements for evaluating the process result because they simplify monitor and review. ISO 9001 encourages companies to apply the PDCA (“plan-do-check-act”) cycle.
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Selecting Advanced Software Technology in Two Small Manufacturing Enterprises

Selecting Advanced Software Technology in Two Small Manufacturing Enterprises

This paper documents two small manufacturing enterprises’ (SMEs’) efforts to select advanced software technologies for their business operations. While the two companies’ market spaces are completely different, each faced business and operational issues that are common to the broad SME community. Conducting both companies’ technology selection efforts concurrently allowed the Technology Insertion, Demonstration, and Execution Program to address a wide range of issues and better leverage the selection expense. The generic selection methodology used was a downsizing of the PECA methodology augmented by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) decision support (see Appendix A). PECA was developed by the National Research Council of Canada and the Carnegie Mellon  Software Engineering Institute. The body of this report describes the companies, the process, the issues, and the lessons learned during the software selection. The lessons taught us how important it is for SMEs to
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Software Measurement Activities in Small and Medium Enterprises: an Empirical Assessment

Software Measurement Activities in Small and Medium Enterprises: an Empirical Assessment

The first book on the measurement of software was, to our knowledge, introduced by M. H. Halstead [10] in 1977. This work was bookmarked as a theory of software science, and it established the first analytical laws of computer software. In his proposal, Halstead developed quantitative laws using a set of primitive measures. Halstead’s measurements are considered interesting because they can be applied after the design or completion of code. After that publication, successive books on software measurement are reported in the literature. For instance, ‘A framework on software measurement’, [11] by Zuse takes the theoretical, practical and evaluative view of software measurement. This book investigates software measurement principles and provides the proper guidelines for software measurement. The author evaluated all the existing measurement proposals for software at the time of writing and pointed out their pros and cons and their practical applicability to problems and, accordingly, he suggested a “proper” way of measurement. In addition to measurement, metrics are also researched in the literature; for example, ‘Software Metrics’ by Fenton and Pfleeger [12] is devoted specifically to software metrics; in the work, the authors discuss measurement in a comprehensive way, from the basics of measurement theory to its applicability to software engineering, which is required for software development. They explain the fundamentals of measurements and experimentations in general and software engineering measurements. Furthermore, the authors emphasize planning for measurement programs, measurement in practice, and metrics tools.
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A DISCUSSION ON ASSURING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SOFTWARE ENTERPRISES: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

A DISCUSSION ON ASSURING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SOFTWARE ENTERPRISES: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

Coming back to the customer defined quality, Parzinger and Nath [9] note that retrieving requirements from customer at the beginning of development is problematic and may deprive quality in the end. This communication/ articulation gap between the developers and the end-users has not been newly emerged; when we have a look back to the beginning of the software engineering, in 1968, Rubey and Hartwick [ ] address the software quality as "black box", which accommodates fuzzy criteria usually difficult to nominate by the users. Meanwhile, the same research reports that software quality needs to be acknowledged between the parties (user/developer/distributor) and should be promoted against the increasing development cost due to additional programming effort.
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International systems and software engineering standards for very small entities

International systems and software engineering standards for very small entities

VSEs since a system integrator as well as its prime suppliers have also very small projects. Research shows that small and very small enterprises can find it difficult to relate to ISO standards to their business needs and to justify the application of the standards to their business practices [4]. Most of these enterprises do not have the expertise or can not afford the resources—in number of employees, cost, and time—or see a net benefit in establishing lifecycle processes. There is sometimes a disconnect between the short-term vision of an enterprise, looking at what will keep it in business for another six months or so, and the long-term or mid-term benefits of gradually improving the ways the enterprise can manage its development and maintenance processes. A primary reason cited by many small enterprises for this lack of adoption of systems or software engineering standards, is the perception that they have been developed by and for large companies and not with very small organizations in mind [5]. To date, VSEs have no or very lim- ited ways to be recognized, by large organizations, as enterprises that produce quality products within budget and calendar in their domain and may therefore be cut off from some economic activi- ties. Accordingly there was a need to help VSEs understand and use the concepts, processes and practices proposed in the ISO/ IEC JTC1/SC7’s 1 international engineering standards.
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ERP Software Implementation in Indian Small and Medium Enterprises

ERP Software Implementation in Indian Small and Medium Enterprises

Some of the first Indian companies to have adopted ERP practices are HLL, ONGC, ESSAR, Godrej Soaps, Cadburys, BASF, Telco, Maruti Udyog Ltd., Century Rayon, Citibank, ACC, ANZ Grindlays, German Remedies, Blue Star, Mahindra & Mahindra, Rallis India, Sony India Pvt. Ltd., Ceat Ltd., Indal, Ford Motors, Kirloskar, Knoll Pharmaceuticals, and Glaxo. First tier companies (those with a turnover greater than Rs.10 billion) implement ERP to increase internal efficiency and external competitiveness. Once ERP is established at this level, these large companies begin to desire similarly increased efficiency from their suppliers. Hence, second tier companies are pressured to implement ERP, and a trickle-down effect ensues. Powered by the axiom that a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, Indian industry quickly has recognized that in order to work at maximum efficiency, ERP must be implemented at all levels. Initially, the majority of ERP solutions have been marketed to companies with greater than Rs. 2 billion, and generally, according to industry reports, the total cost of deploying ERP has ranged between 1 and 2 percent of companies' gross sales. Lower cost solutions are available for comparatively smaller sized companies. Though the market seems to be very encouraging for ERP implementation, the time-frame for deployment may be an issue. However, since many companies that have not yet implemented ERP are leaders in their markets, it reasonably can be assumed that they will go for it within next five years. In fact, the ERP market should grow at a rate somewhere near the industrial growth rate. Some industry categories, such as Automotive, Steel, Consumer Durables, Engineering, and Textiles have shown a very high ERP penetration. This means that these categories represent the greatest potential markets in next two years - other industries will follow.
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Software Engineering Challenges in Small Companies

Software Engineering Challenges in Small Companies

The challenges in running small software companies seem not only to be networking, marketing, business issues, but also to creating and leveraging technological knowledge and know-how. Though having similar objective in providing high quality softwares and services to satisfy customers, small and large companies cannot both apply same development methodology or techniques without any modification and optimization. Actually, due to the limitation of resources and business issues, those best practices proved in large firms might be too expensive or time consuming to perform in small companies. Accordingly, the recent researches start to find special solutions to improve small companies' software processes in several aspects. In addition, the standardization organizations set up modified standards and improved approaches on SE Life-Cycle Profiles for Very Small Enterprises (VSEs refer to companies with fewer than 25 people) [Riw07].
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Software development process standards for very small companies

Software development process standards for very small companies

Finally, research studies have been undertaken to understanding the perception of VSEs towards the adoption of process standards (Basri et al, 2010) and also to evaluate management senti- ment towards ISO/IEC 29110 (O’Connor, 2012) and management commitment to SPI and ISO/ IEC 2910 in particular in Europe (O’Connor et al, 2010) and South America (Sanchez-Gordon et al, 2015). These revealed that the acceptance level of any type or model of software quality or lifecycle standard in VSEs is a very low priority item, but the level of awareness of standards and potential benefits was high. Furthermore these studies showed the main reason for not adopting standards was a lack customer requirement, a lack of resources and the perceived difficulties in defining an organizational process. Furthermore, this analysis reveals a pattern that indicates that the acceptance level of quality standard such as ISO among VSEs are still low even though the staff and management are knowledgeable and aware the benefit of adopting such standards. The main reasons are more related to the lack of the customer requirement and the limited resources
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A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials

A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials

Claude.Y.Laporte@etsmtl.ca, roconnor@computing.dcu.ie Abstract. Very small entities, organizations with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. The products they develop are either developed specifically for a customer or are integrated into products made by larger enterprises. To address the needs of Very small entities, a set of standards and guides have been developed using the systems engineering lifecycle standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 as the main framework. The systems engineering handbook, developed by the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), is used as the reference for the development of a set of systems engineering deployment packages. Two pilot projects, using the new ISO/IEC 29110 guide for systems engineering, are presented as well as a cost and savings analysis. Finally, the certification scheme is discussed as well as the future developments.
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An Innovative Approach to the Development of an International Software Process Lifecycle Standard for Very Small Entities

An Innovative Approach to the Development of an International Software Process Lifecycle Standard for Very Small Entities

With any new initiative there is much to be learned from conducting pilot projects. One issue of major importance to VSEs which is emerging from these pilot projects and similar work by the ISO working group is the need for a light-weight flexible approach to process assessment. Whilst work is currently underway on an assessment mechanism for ISO/IEC 29110 (ISO, 2011b), a clear niche market need is emerging which may force the process assessment community to change their views on how process assessments are carried out for VSEs (O’Connor & Laporte, 2011b). In particular there is a strong need to ensure that VSEs are not required to invest anything similar in terms of time, money and other resources on process assessments, as may be expected from their larger SMEs (small and medium enterprises), or even MNC (multinational corporations) counterparts. Indeed some form of self-assessment, possibly supported by Internet based tools, along with periodic spot-checks may be a suitable alternative to meet the unique needs of VSEs. It is clear that the process assessment community will have to rethink process assessment, new methods and ideas for assessing processes in VSEs.
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