The CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems (AAS)
• WorldFish is leading the CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems together with two other CGIAR Centers; the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and Bioversity.
This publication should be cited as: Govan, H., Schwarz, A.M., Harohau, D., Oeta, J., Orirana, G., Ratner, B. D. (2013). SolomonIslands: Essential aspects of governance for AquaticAgriculturalSystems in Malaita Hub. CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems. Penang, Malaysia. Project Report: AAS-2013-19.
The CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems is a multi-year research initiative launched in July 2011. It is designed to pursue community-based approaches to agricultural research and development that target the poorest and most vulnerable rural households in aquaticagriculturalsystems. Led by WorldFish, a member of the CGIAR Consortium, the program is partnering with diverse organizations working at local, national and global levels to help achieve impacts at scale. For more information, visit aas.cgiar.org.
1. Executive Summary
The CGIAR Research Program (CRP) AquaticAgriculturalSystems (AAS) will target five countries, including SolomonIslands. ”Hubs”, defined as a “geographic location providing a focus for innovation, learning and impact through action research”, have been identified in each of the countries. In the initial proposal document prepared in 2011 (CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems 2012b), the proposed hubs for SolomonIslands were to cover most provinces, referencing the Western, Central and Eastern regions. Scoping of the initial ‘Central’ hub was undertaken in Guadalcanal, Malaita and Central Islands provinces and this report details findings from all three. As scoping progressed however, it was agreed that, based on the AAS context and priority needs of each province and the Program’s capacity for full implementation, the Central Hub would be restricted to Malaita Province only and renamed “Malaita Hub”. Consistent in each AAS country, there are four steps in the program rollout: planning, scoping, diagnosis and design. Rollout of the Program in SolomonIslands began with a five month planning phase between August and December 2011, and scoping of the first hub began in January 2012. This report, the second to be produced during rollout, describes the findings from the scoping process between January and June 2012. Scoping consisted of one-on-one meetings with stakeholders, identification of existing reports and documents related to previous and current development and research initiatives, and a site visit to Malaita in February 2012. The scoping team also drew on WorldFish experience from ongoing bilateral projects in Honiara, rural Guadalcanal, Central Islands Province and Malaita. The scoping phase culminated with a stakeholder consultation workshop held in Auki, Malaita Province.
In some circumstances, decision-making at the community level is reached through collective input from village members, with the final decision made by the village chief. Despite differences in opinion, the most important thing for all group members is that they remain a harmonious collective. Given the importance of harmony and the cultural perceptions of the role of women, women are unlikely to participate in public meetings or put forward their views in the same way, or in the same forums, as men (CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems 2012, p.8). Men tend to dominate decision-making processes and hold most of the leadership positions in the community (Boso et al. 2010; Kruijssen et al. 2013). Generally, women’s education levels are much lower than men, with reports that three-quarters of rural women in the Western Province are illiterate (Western Provincial Government 2012). This is due to the general cultural perception that women have a reproductive role in society, further excluding them from involvement in decision-making (Vunisea 2008). This cultural barrier is particularly evident in female involvement in decision-making regarding natural resource management. For instance, landownership in the Western SolomonIslands (unlike other parts of the country) is matrilineal, yet the decision-making about land resides with men. In communities where WorldFish had been active in working with resource owners and users to implement CBRM, only small numbers of women (and youth), relative to men, were actively involved (Boso et al. 2010; Paul et al. 2010) leading to a more specific consideration of gender in recent years.
In spite of pessimistic provisions by the donors, improved security allowed them to double their assistance from SBD53 Mio in 2001 to SBD108.7 Mio in 2002. This is still less than 50% of the aid for 1999 and also not taking into account the depreciation of the SBD. Yet, SolomonIslands remained highly dependent on financial support from external donors, to the extent that at the end of 2002 close to half of merchandise imports were financed from donor funds, which compares to 20-30 percent in 1996/1997. The Development Budget for 2002 had been prepared on the unrealistic assumption that the donor community would again be ready to finance 100 percent of development expenditures (as was the case in 2001).
THIS study seeks to trace, account for and evaluate the development of Catholic (in the sense of Roman Catholic) missionary activity in the SolomonIslands. In more general terms, it attempts to examine the efforts made to establish a European institution in a changing but resilient Melanesian cultural environment. The subject is, therefore, considered in the broad context of culture cont act, for Catholicism was not planted in the SolomonIslands as an isolated or merely religious phenomenon. It came as part of a broad range of European influences which, by the end of the nineteenth century, had begun to make a significant impact on the lives of the islanders. Moreover, although the
WorldFish (previously called ICLARM) has been present in SolomonIslands since 1986 and has worked with a wide range of communities in different provinces, together with the SolomonIslands Government (Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources and Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology) and other institutions. Research projects have covered a diverse range of topics, ranging from community-based fisheries management and climate change planning, to mariculture (giant clams, post larval fish and invertebrates and corals), and aquaculture (pearls, sponges and pond aquaculture). Since 1991, WorldFish has worked in Western Province either directly with communities or through partnerships with organizations that include: WWF, Roviana Conservation Foundation and the University of Queensland (see Figure 1). The primary focus over the last five years has been on Vella Lavella, Shortland Islands and Gizo Island. Scoping for AAS rollout has enabled us to step back from our previous experience and review in a participatory way, the priorities for development for the government and people of Western Province; and explore how research in development through the AAS program can have a positive impact on poor people’s livelihoods. There were three main activities during the scoping phase:
ongoing commitments to new development projects, with a view to keeping debt levels in check. The prevailing debt situation, and a moratorium on further public-sector borrowing, will put additional pressure on domestic revenues, particularly if budget balance is to be maintained. Domestically sourced revenues accounted for only 45 per cent of the SBD$1.4 billion recurrent expenditure in the 2005 Budget. Some of the SBD$770 million provided by donors to the recurrent budget is spent outside SolomonIslands, including on overseas training, equipment and supplies. While the donors continue to fund nearly the entire development budget, there is a risk that donor support will be withdrawn from the recurrent budget exactly when the absorptive capacity for greater assistance is established. 6 The improving law and order situation, for example, allows expansion of basic services to rural communities but this can only be done with donor support given the prevailing fiscal position. The medium-term framework covers the recurrent budget only—the failure to account for the implications of the development budget on the future recurrent budget could be problematic. A clear set of development priorities together with a corresponding set of monitoring and evaluations framework could see better use of the available resources to the public sector.
During the 1950-2004 period cyclones alone accounted for 76 % of the reported disaster events in the Pacific, accounting for almost 90 % of total direct costs and 79 % of fatalities (World Bank 2005). The majority of other natural disasters are accounted for by floods, droughts and storm surges (Lal et al. 2009). Tropical cyclones already have damaging impacts on agriculture, infrastructural development and wider commerce. Tourism, which is an important source of income and foreign exchange for many islands, inevitably faces severe disruption after major cyclones. Human health is also affected by cyclone activity through human exposure to diseases and stress, both during the event and throughout the recovery period which can take years. Cyclones may also damage infrastructure, boats and the reef itself (Tompkins et al. 2005).
Environmental concerns expressed in the CSP remain. SI has fragile ecological systems including marine systems (coastal and marine, such as mangroves, fish, plants and coral reefs) and the remaining primary and secondary forests, in which unsustainable and ill-managed logging and over-fishing represent real threats. Landowners and successive provincial governments and some national leaders and officials have allowed/enabled the resources to be exploited for quick revenue generation. International loggers make deals with the landowners, which government allows through a relatively crude and inadequately supervised licensing system. The legislative and regulatory framework is inadequate to ensure sound resource allocation and management, including the application of a sound code of logging practice, which could help reduce the damaging impact of operations and facilitate earlier recovery. Unfortunately the current arrangement results in very limited local benefits, which are also of short duration, with the overseas operator creaming off the majority of the log value, with much of the tax burden falling on the local landowner company, which is the current permit holder (this burden has resulted in many tax exemptions being granted on log export tax, when the local company realises the disproportionate distribution of benefits).
can be controlled, operated, maintained and repaired by the local people who use it. They also stress the importance of developing environmentally responsible technology taking into consideration the important role that environment plays in the lives of SolomonIslands people. Above all, their most important role is to educate people about the meaning of development and convincingly illustrate the legitimacy of an alternative model. The work which they have accomplished in IRIRI village, situated in the Western Province of the SolomonIslands, for example, has demonstrated that self-sufficiency is the central consideration of any development project. This will not only help the economy by saving' foreign exchange and decrease export orientation, but will also help to keep the money within the country rather than being absorbed by foreign
We have provided a framework for the design of document database systems that includes both a basis for modelling of document structure and a basis for efficient retrieval from very large collections of documents. Complex objects based on nested relations are a suitable data model for representing documents, and can be accessed and manipulated using TQL — a query language which has special text operators and allows access to complex objects via reference attributes. A logical schema which represents documents as complex objects should be designed to allow queries to be expressed in a simple manner, by modelling each type of entity (such as documents, nodes, and links) as a separate class of objects. Such a logical schema can be mapped to any one of several equivalent nested relational physical schemas; choosing the best physical schema is an optimization problem to minimize the cost of query processing. Comparing the cost of text based queries under different physical schemas requires a model of word clustering to provide an estimate of the probability that a fragment of text contains a given word.
The MECDM is the focal Ministry in the SolomonIslands‟ government for conservation (as per Environment Act 1998, Wildlife protection and Management Act 1998 and Protected Areas Act 2010) but there are also other actors involved in conservation activities. They include traditional land owners, international development agencies, implementing agencies (often NGOs), the state (provincial governments and the national government), private sector and Community Based Organizations (CBOs). Often stakeholders have different rights, priorities and interests in conservation, making it difficult to achieve collaboration. Traditional land owners are among the main stakeholders in conservation because they own most of the land in the SolomonIslands. Often they expect their interests to be considered but this is not always the case, despite the fact that conservation activity cannot be implemented without approval from the land-owning community (Keppel et al. 2012b). This research found that when land-owners receive inadequate benefits they tend to resort to illegal or controversial activities that often undermine the goals and objectives of the project. Theme 5 of the NBSAP deals with „benefit sharing and access to genetic resources‟ but was not implemented. Working with local communities is difficult because they are not homogenous but consist of different groups and actors even within one
Money raised from ‘marketing’ is in some more remote communities the main or even only source of cash for households and thus the primary source of cash flow to communities. The data demonstrates that women are heavily engaged in the production and sale of a large variety of lower-value staples such as vegetables (beans, legumes), nuts and fruits, while male producer-vendors dominate the production and sale at market of heavier high-value cash crops, particularly fruits such as melon and pineapple. Agricultural production for domestic consumption reproduces gendered norms and assumptions around men engaging with the cash crop economy, while women generate assets through market sale. Access to and control over resources in the hands of women supports basic household expenses, as well as school fees and food & community (i.e. church) obligations. Even when men sell produce at market, women hold the cash and return it to the community (Georgeou & Hawksley 2017: 84). Estimates of revenue from this study indicate that market revenue on Fridays is far more profitable than minimum wage labour, even at the new higher rate of SI$8 an hour. As such, the numbers of vendors and diverse geographic links of market selling plays an important role in the asset creation of villages and communities in many parts of rural SolomonIslands, as well as the food security of urban Honiara residents.
• Protection of turtles in migratory corridors through use of “turtle-friendly” fishing methods: Post-nesting satellite tracking of Hawksbill and Leatherback turtles nesting in the ACMCA and Isabel (Sasakolo and Litogahira nesting beaches) showed they migrate south through similar corridors and fishing zones within the SolomonIslands EEZ and those of neighbouring countries like Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and New Zealand. Turtles migrating through these corridors and fishing grounds should be protected through mandatory use of turtle friendly methods such as circle hooks for long-line, and TEDS for nets. De-hooking gear should be mandatory on long-line fishing vessels as well. Although there are no records available on any turtle by-catch in the commercial long line fishing operation, it has now become a common practise everywhere in the world to use “turtle friendly” fishing equipment and gear and to have available on board equipment for the safe release of any hooked turtle.