This publication should be cited as: Govan, H., Schwarz, A.M., Harohau, D., Oeta, J., Orirana, G., Ratner, B. D. (2013). SolomonIslands: Essentialaspects of governance for AquaticAgriculturalSystems in MalaitaHub. CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems. Penang, Malaysia. Project Report: AAS-2013-19.
The CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems is a multi-year research initiative launched in July 2011. It is designed to pursue community-based approaches to agricultural research and development that target the poorest and most vulnerable rural households in aquaticagriculturalsystems. Led by WorldFish, a member of the CGIAR Consortium, the program is partnering with diverse organizations working at local, national and global levels to help achieve impacts at scale. For more information, visit aas.cgiar.org.
The situation: Rural people in MalaitaHub in SolomonIslands face major challenges from rising population and declining quality and availability of marine and land resources.
The development challenge is to improve their lives through more productive, diversified livelihoods that empower communities to be better able to adapt to change and make more effective use of their resources.
1. Executive Summary
The CGIAR Research Program (CRP) AquaticAgriculturalSystems (AAS) will target five countries, including SolomonIslands. ”Hubs”, defined as a “geographic location providing a focus for innovation, learning and impact through action research”, have been identified in each of the countries. In the initial proposal document prepared in 2011 (CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems 2012b), the proposed hubs for SolomonIslands were to cover most provinces, referencing the Western, Central and Eastern regions. Scoping of the initial ‘Central’ hub was undertaken in Guadalcanal, Malaita and Central Islands provinces and this report details findings from all three. As scoping progressed however, it was agreed that, based on the AAS context and priority needs of each province and the Program’s capacity for full implementation, the Central Hub would be restricted to Malaita Province only and renamed “MalaitaHub”. Consistent in each AAS country, there are four steps in the program rollout: planning, scoping, diagnosis and design. Rollout of the Program in SolomonIslands began with a five month planning phase between August and December 2011, and scoping of the first hub began in January 2012. This report, the second to be produced during rollout, describes the findings from the scoping process between January and June 2012. Scoping consisted of one-on-one meetings with stakeholders, identification of existing reports and documents related to previous and current development and research initiatives, and a site visit to Malaita in February 2012. The scoping team also drew on WorldFish experience from ongoing bilateral projects in Honiara, rural Guadalcanal, Central Islands Province and Malaita. The scoping phase culminated with a stakeholder consultation workshop held in Auki, Malaita Province.
Figure 3. Proportion of households that have “fished in the past year” according to 1999 Census data available in the SPC POPGIS program.
The 1999 census reported that 45% of the labor force (those aged 15 years and over who stated that they do some kind work) was mainly occupied by unpaid activities, largely subsistence farming, fishing within coral reef-related artisanal fisheries, and household-related craft work. At least one estimate suggests that 75% of the total labor force is dedicated to agriculture, fisheries and forestry (The World Factbook 2009). Coconut is an important food crop and a valued cash crop in the form of copra, while staple foods are roots and tubers such as cassava, sweet potatoes and yams. At the macro level, fishery products (mostly tuna) account for 19% of the total export revenues of the country. Apart from their contribution to output and foreign exchange earnings, fish and fish products are also valuable food sources for the population. The 2006 National Household Income and Expenditure Survey indicated that fish accounted for 73% of total expenditures on animal protein. In this context, AAS provide an essential source of income, food and well-being for a large part of the SolomonIslands’ population. High reliance on the state of natural resources raises alarming prospects for the future well-being of the majority of the population given the threats that have been identified to
Nevertheless, there were a number of factors which helped Adventists succeed in spite of the challenges and outright opposition. By the time the Adventist missionaries arrived, the frequency of contact with Europeans meant there was much wider acceptance of missionaries than there had been in the nineteenth century (Whiteman, 1983, 171). Increased contact with Europeans also fuelled an interest in learning English and provided motivation to adopt Christianity. It was evident from the lifestyle of the white missionaries that they had something that worked, and therefore their rituals were considered by many to be more powerful than their own (Whiteman, 1983, 66). Accepting the Christian methodology, they assumed, would help them to also acquire the blessings of the Europeans (Steley, 1983, 90). Moreover, the creation of a British protectorate in the southern Solomons in 1893 had made the country safer since the commissioner was charged with maintaining law and order and suppressing head- hunting which had previously been common in this part of the western SolomonIslands, perpetrated mainly by people from Roviana.
There is a need, however, to keep an eye on inflation in the short term as the recent increases in global food and fuel prices have not been fully absorbed. Fortunately, there has been no suggestion of using the government budget to subsidise fuel or food prices, which would be unwise even if there were sufficient revenue. In SolomonIslands, inflation in the last quarter of 2007 and the first quarter of 2008 remained high, at 10 per cent and 9.7 per cent, respectively (CBSI 2008a). In July 2008, the Central Bank of SolomonIslands (CBSI 2008c) released a warning that the May 2008 inflation rate had risen to 13.1 per cent in annual terms. In Vanuatu, the June 2008 quarterly figures (RBV 2008) showed a consumer price index (CPI) increase of 1.5 per cent. In annual terms, this would be equivalent to the highest rate of inflation since the 1980s.
SINU has been guided in its objective of meeting the Government’s mandate, by a number of priority areas. These are: to provide relevant academic programs, a proper physical learning environment, suitable staff and appropriate governance, management and academic structures.
Since SINU’s establishment it has achieved a number of notable goals. Five new academic
Forming a scattered archipelago of mountainous islands and low-lying coral atolls, the SolomonIslands stretch about 900 miles in a south-easterly direction from the Shortland Islands to the Santa Cruz Islands. There are six major and approximately 992 smaller islands, atolls and reefs. The archipelago covers are area of about 249,000 square nautical miles while the land area is 28,446 sq. km. The six biggest islands are Choiseul, New Georgia, Santa Isabel, Guadalcanal, Malaita and Makira. They are characterized by thickly-forested mountain ranges intersected by deep, narrow valleys.
Accepting and managing funds from PEPs that are related to crime will severely damage a reporting institution’s own reputation and can undermine public confidence in the ethical standards of the SolomonIslands’ financial system. In addition, a reporting institution may be subject to costly information requests and seizure orders from law enforcement or judicial authorities (including international mutual assistance procedures in criminal matters) and could be liable to actions for damages by the state concerned or the victims of a regime. Under certain circumstances, a reporting institution and/or its officers and employees themselves can be exposed to charges of money laundering, if they know or should have known that the funds stemmed from corruption or other serious crimes.
Many stories are told of the work of the early missionaries to the SolomonIslands and how they were evacuated when news of the Japanese invasion came to the church in the Western SolomonIslands. After the Japanese surrender, however, and before the end of 1945, the missionaries returned from Australia on mission ships. As recorded by Eager (2007), those involved in medical work were advantaged by the stockpile of medical supplies donated by the exiting American army. However in the post-war era, for education in many ways it was a matter of starting over again because more was being expected of the schooling system: “The needs of the education program were very high with teachers requiring a higher standard of education” (Eager, 2007, p. 17)
Part of the Human Rights Law Commons , and the International Law Commons
Recommended Citation Recommended Citation
Nicole Dicker, Aiding Transitional Justice in SolomonIslands, 21 Buff. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 77 (2015). Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.buffalo.edu/bhrlr/vol21/iss1/4
Leisz’s (2009) projections showed that by 2040 ocean acidification will begin to impact the areas around SolomonIslands. One of the main parameters used to describe the change in carbonate ion concentration that results from ocean acidification, is aragonite saturation (Ωar). There is strong evidence to suggest that when Ωar of ocean waters drops below 3 (Langdon & Atkinson 2005) reef organisms cannot precipitate the calcium carbonate that they need to build their skeletons or shells, although note that Guinotte et al (2003) suggest that Ωar of above 4 is optimal for coral growth and the development of healthy reefs. To the south of SolomonIslands in Leisz’s (2009) projections, Ωar was projected to fall to just below 3, a level at which corals may have trouble producing the calcium carbonate they need to build their skeletons. To the north of the country aragonite saturation levels were projected to remain at or slightly above 3 (Leisz 2009) (Figure 7).
three parts, which correspond to three phases in the recent development of the SolomonIslands - early contact, colonial, and post-colonia1. In the first period, 1845-55» the missionaries were confronted with a society in which traditional values and procedures were still virtually intact and in which Christianity was
SolomonIslands are confronted with the most challenging economic and socio-political situation since its independence. Over the past three years the government’s finance and fiscal situation has gone from bad to worse. There is little indication that the situation improved in 2002, although the government is making progress on some fronts. As the result, both social and economic services especially in the areas of education, health and small income generation in the rural areas have deteriorated with majority not receiving basic services required. Living conditions in the rural areas, although sustained by subsistence lifestyles, still face a number of hardships. The absence of strong influence and presence by government and weak private sector in the rural areas have created the affinity for provinces to go ahead with a de-centralization process with the intention to create a federation as ultimate goal.
It seems therefore that a low priority is still being given to environmental sustainability in favour of raising financial revenues and macro-economic growth. Major donor initiatives and inputs are needed to prevent the already dire situation from worsening even further. As yet no comprehensive environmental profile has been prepared, although a recent assessment of coral reef and marine resources has been carried out. A National Environmental Management Strategy (NEMS) was prepared in 1992 and remains as valid today, but implementation of the strategies incorporated in the report is lacking. An Environment Act with sound objectives and powers has been recently passed but not yet applied and requires appropriate regulations to be drawn up and effected. The impact of poor environmental practices on rural incomes and tourism is also significant. The preparation of a country environmental profile that will bring environmental matters into mainstream development planning is needed and could be incorporated in the preparation of an agricultural strategy. A summary of the main environmental needs/issues, programmes/activities required and the main critical points are presented in Annex 14.
In some circumstances, decision-making at the community level is reached through collective input from village members, with the final decision made by the village chief. Despite differences in opinion, the most important thing for all group members is that they remain a harmonious collective. Given the importance of harmony and the cultural perceptions of the role of women, women are unlikely to participate in public meetings or put forward their views in the same way, or in the same forums, as men (CGIAR Research Program on AquaticAgriculturalSystems 2012, p.8). Men tend to dominate decision-making processes and hold most of the leadership positions in the community (Boso et al. 2010; Kruijssen et al. 2013). Generally, women’s education levels are much lower than men, with reports that three-quarters of rural women in the Western Province are illiterate (Western Provincial Government 2012). This is due to the general cultural perception that women have a reproductive role in society, further excluding them from involvement in decision-making (Vunisea 2008). This cultural barrier is particularly evident in female involvement in decision-making regarding natural resource management. For instance, landownership in the Western SolomonIslands (unlike other parts of the country) is matrilineal, yet the decision-making about land resides with men. In communities where WorldFish had been active in working with resource owners and users to implement CBRM, only small numbers of women (and youth), relative to men, were actively involved (Boso et al. 2010; Paul et al. 2010) leading to a more specific consideration of gender in recent years.
investment, both foreign and domestic. Much of this work to date has revolved around improving governance by increasing transparency of decision-making and thus reducing corruption. Logging and fisheries pose particular challenges given the large rents and the challenge of ensuring sustainable management of these resources. Reef fish around the heavily populated areas, for example, are already being harvested well beyond regenerative capacity. Work has commenced on new foreign investment legislation and a new tax system, both of which are aimed at reducing the regulatory barriers to investment. The government signed the Pacific Islands Air Services Agreement on 12 May 2005; it is hoped that this ‘open skies’ policy will reduce the market power of the incumbents and thus lower the costs of air transport. The government has also signed the Pacific Islands Civil Aviation Safety and Security Treaty in the hope of improving air safety. Enabling legislation for the above were being drafted at the time of writing. Trade liberalisation is continuing with tariff rates reduced from five bands, ranging from 5 to 70 per cent in 1998, to three bands ranging from 5 to 20 per cent in 2004. While some progress has been made in the aviation sector, little has been done to improve inter-island shipping. The latter is important given the fragmented domestic market and the critical role of inter-island shipping in raising private sector output. One option for the central government in reducing regulatory barriers to investments in transportation and communications infrastructure would be to take carriage of policies for the two sectors. This will reduce anomalies between provinces and provide greater security of market access for investors. While regulatory reforms are targeted at reducing red tape, obtaining secure, long- term access to land remains a difficult issue. Landowner concerns continue with respect to both the gold mine and the oil palm