Top PDF Solutions for wireless internet connectivity in remote and rural areas

Solutions for wireless internet connectivity in remote and rural areas

Solutions for wireless internet connectivity in remote and rural areas

These days internet connectivity is listed in the basic needs of human habitat. Internet provides inevitable support in getting knowledge, professional and social connectivity, entertainment media, and in running majority of businesses. Human dependency on internet for efficient, proficient and time saving work has increased the demand of internet connectivity worldwide. The global index shows a percentage increase in internet users from 16% to 48% (of the world population) from 2005 to 2019. The users are accessing internet via different media, inclusive of fixed lines and wireless connectivity. In wireless connectivity by 2019, 86% of the world population is using mobile broadband services offered by different telecom operators in different regions. Around 44.7% of the world population lives in rural areas as projected in 2018. Telecom operators are now seeking to cover all urban and rural, segregated, and dense, plateaus and hills, small and big geographical areas for internet connectivity. The majority of challenges faced by operators for deployment of internet connectivity services are in rural areas. Internet users cited in rural areas experience poor coverage and bad quality of service (QoS) in wireless internet access. This thesis covers the rural area internet connectivity challenges, existing deployable solutions against the challenges, and provides example solutions to overcome these challenges, to provide wireless network coverage in rural areas of Finland. Many of the existing wireless communication services are directly deployable or adjustable to the remote or rural areas almost the same way as for the urban areas. The major challenge is the low annual revenue per unit and segregated population densities of rural areas, which increase the return of investment time of network service providers. There are other challenges like ease of assembly
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'Digital by Default' and the 'hard to reach': Exploring solutions to digital exclusion in remote rural areas

'Digital by Default' and the 'hard to reach': Exploring solutions to digital exclusion in remote rural areas

local news and events and to organise and conduct some of their shopping and leisure activities. The women were apprehensive about the mechanics of going online, one saying ‘I don’t think I can do it’ (i.e. lack of computer literacy), but were willing to try. The men in these households were quite ambivalent about being online at the pre-deployment stage as suggested by the comment, ‘You don’t miss what you’ve never had’. The mid-life couple household were frustrated with their existing broad- band service, delivered via a mobile dongle, finding it inconsistent, unreliable and very slow. They had not got round to organising the installation of a satellite broadband service in their home. As with other farming households in the area it was not possible to install a DSL broadband connection to their property. Satellite broadband provision was an alter- native adopted by neighbouring farms of which the couple were mindful; a satellite broadband ISP partners with the National Farmers Union to deliver its services (Farming UK, 2015). This couple was aware of what could be done online and had the technical competence to exploit the Internet to meet their needs. The fourth household, the only multi-genera- tional household in the study, were next generation Internet users (Dutton and Blank, 2011): they were trying to use their fixed home broadband service to support up to eight Internet-enabled devices. They were already active in all domains of Internet use (work, social, shopping, communication, etc.) and were putting their connection under considerable pressure. They were keen to see if the Rural PAWS technology could improve the ‘basic’ connectivity with which they had been living.
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Development of Rural Areas and Improving Their Resilience with Smart Solutions

Development of Rural Areas and Improving Their Resilience with Smart Solutions

Less favorable conditions or the proximity of larger cities leads certain areas to reduce agricultural activity while at the same time ideally they can expand industrial or service activities. Some rural areas of developed economies, especially those close to big cities, have undergone a change of function over the last decade, providing comfortable living conditions, decent work opportunities, and many functions similar to cities in many areas (e.g. services, shopping). Typically, areas remote from large cities are characterized by low agricultural productivity, which can only bring benefits if it is of high quality and at the same time, it is coupled with high prices
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Extending 3G Coverage to Remote and Rural Areas Solving the Backhaul Conundrum

Extending 3G Coverage to Remote and Rural Areas Solving the Backhaul Conundrum

In these circumstances, and also in the case of raw data throughput simply exceeding the capacity of the TDMA remotes to carry the traffic, the iDirect system can switch a standard Evolution series remote to become an SCPC Return terminal. This is done with a few clicks of a mouse in the Network Management System. This flexibility allows operators to change remotes between SCPC and TDMA as often as they like, such as day and night, or during the tourist season for a site at a resort. This also provides an operator the ability to start with a very small variable throughput at a remote site and then switch to a dedicated connection when a site grows and has the business justification for needing SCPC. Rather than having to send a team to physically swap a remote modem, this can be done centrally with the same hardware still in the field. This means a single satellite network can deliver both types of connectivity and adapt as mobile operators add subscribers and resulting traffic to their networks. Clearly, having a single network technology that can deliver both types of service leads to many types of savings such as having a single NMS staff, having only one set of spares and having a platform to train employees. The third key development that is impacting the deployment of 3G networks is the introduction into the mobile market of new products derived from femtocell technology. While femtocells originally gained exposure to mobile operators as a way of offloading data from the wireless network to the terrestrial network, they also have the ability to cost effectively expand the service area for an operator. Firms such as Public Wireless have built vendor agnostic outdoor platforms capable of integrating several femtocell platforms, combined with power amplifiers, power supplies and outdoor enclosures to produce packages that can support 30 – 60 voice calls plus HSPA data traffic and backhaul that traffic using any available IP connectivity – cable modems, ADSL or satellite. The prices of these packages can be much lower than those from traditional macro-cell vendors and combined with a satellite remote router can deliver a rapid and economic build-out of 3G coverage in rural areas.
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Rural Internet connectivity : a development in Dwesa-Cwebe, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Rural Internet connectivity : a development in Dwesa-Cwebe, Eastern Cape, South Africa

In South Africa, particularly in places where there is low teledensity, PLC offers the opportunity to deliver telecommunication services to remote areas. According to MyADSL (2006), a pilot project deploying PLC in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area is underway. Goal Technology Solutions (GTS) had finalized its trials in the Tshwane region; they are now ready to roll out commercial services to residential users utilizing the current power grid as an access medium to consumer’s homes. The initial service offering will be equivalent to DSL 512, with a 5-GB usage allowance, at an all-inclusive cost of R479 (R420 ex VAT). This is cheaper than the comparable ADSL offering, which costs over R700. Telephone services can also be offered on top of the broadband offering. This will cost the consumer a basic monthly telephony cost of just under R100, while the call costs will be on average around 15% cheaper than Telkom rates (MyADSL, 2006). This signifies yet another large milestone to offer broadband for residential homes in South Africa.
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E Governance in Rural India: Need of Broadband Connectivity Using Wireless Technology

E Governance in Rural India: Need of Broadband Connectivity Using Wireless Technology

India is increasingly embracing wireless technologies. Cellular phones based on various wireless technologies have revolutionised telecommunication in India. Wher- eas the growth of fixed-line subscribers has slowed over the past several years, cellular usage has sky rocketed, nearly doubling in 2003 and growing by 159 percent so far in 2004, with 1.4 million new subscribers added every month. But these cellular technologies have not been sufficiently applied to deliver the broadband data con- nectivity to households in rural area due to high both cost and complexity. Yet, India needs a way to provide wide- spread Internet access. With widespread wireless broad- band facilities, the Indian information technology (IT) industry would grow beyond cities reaching out to the rural populace. Students in rural areas could videocon- ference with educators across the country, and enter- tainment programs could be telecast to remote and oth- erwise unreachable areas along with Internet telephony services, using technologies like Voiceover Internet Pro- tocol (VoIP). Improved communication could bring re- mote villages into the mainstream world economy. In- formation access could speed rural productivity and the faster communication between producers and suppliers would fuel greater demand for Indian products.
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Next Generation Rural Wireless Connectivity Model for Developing Countries

Next Generation Rural Wireless Connectivity Model for Developing Countries

In the proposed model, the telecenters will have the Internet connectivity as well as WRP access. The connection between the RRN and telecenters can be made in both of the ways. So, by using WRP access, separate mobile networks will not be necessary for the bidirectional communication between the telecenters and the users. Requests for any information from the villagers’ WRPs will reach to RRN. RRN will send the request to telecenter if the information needed is not found in the RRN server. The telecenter staffs will search the information and then send the information back to RRN and RRN will send it to the particular WRP through SMS, MMS etc. Thus, m-commerce where buying and selling of goods and services using mobile device is accomplished; can be used from this proposed model by the WRPs of rural people in the form of SMS, MMS, micro-payments, information services etc. Next generation wireless technology usage can offer secured electronic transactions in m- commerce. As most of rural people are unable to operate computers, telecenter staffs can educate the people with basic knowledge to use Internet. Language may be a problem here because most of them also don’t know English. So, preparing updated information in local language becomes important here to make the telecenters useful. Selling of handicrafts and other products in local and international markets via our proposed model can be very useful for women empowerment in rural areas. Unemployed and young people can discover job opportunities by getting updated information at their WRPs or telecenters or they can be employed in the new jobs created though the deployment of ICTs. GPs Village Phone (VP) concept is a testimony of this initiative and as of August 2005, there are more than 165,000 VP subscribers in Bangladesh. Also, Chilean people are learning how to use telecenters to help in their current job or to find new jobs [2].
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Verizon Wireless Broadband Network Connectivity and Data Transport Solutions. Verizon Wireless White Paper

Verizon Wireless Broadband Network Connectivity and Data Transport Solutions. Verizon Wireless White Paper

4. Why use direct-connect circuits? Direct-connect circuits have multiple uses for businesses of all sizes. Improved access speeds, low latency, and the added security of data not traversing the Internet all factor into a business’s decision to use a direct-connect circuit. In conducting its day-to-day operations, a company may find that using a direct-connect circuit lends itself to a specific situation, such as credit card processing or temporary ATM machines at a concert venue, or to an ongoing business need, such as remote offices communicating back to corporate headquarters. Specific examples include:
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Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking-Based Routing for Rural Internet Connectivity (DRINC)

Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking-Based Routing for Rural Internet Connectivity (DRINC)

Facebook’s Internet.org [13] and ARIES [14] projects are some of Facebook initiatives to connect rural people to internet. The Internet.org project, also called Free Basics, is an initiative in developing countries and rural areas where local users with a mobile phone can access a limited version of Internet via a local mobile carrier. Facebook, in agreement with local governments and mobile carriers, give this limited internet access free of charge. The ARIES project is one of the Facebook’s initiatives to bring connectivity to areas where there is not networking infrastructure available. ARIES is an antenna array that uses Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) technology to transmit up to 24 simultaneous streams over the same spectrum. It is a base station with 96 antennas that tries to improve the spectral efficiency of wireless communications, working at different frequencies and reaching 71 bps/Hz. Facebook is developing this technology with the idea to reduce deployment costs of networking in urban areas; besides, it is aiming at connecting, through this antenna, rural population living in a radius of 40 km. of urban centers. Facebook estimates that 97% of the world’s population live inside these areas.
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A study conducted on internet coverage in rural areas using broadband technology

A study conducted on internet coverage in rural areas using broadband technology

The development of information technology is a process which takes place with a breathtaking speed , so an emerging country like Kosovo, should be prepared for this challenge. The most important sector of information technology is broadband, otherwise as known for the public three in one i.e. in an equipment three services are spread ( TV, sound and broadband Internet) , from which Kosovo's future economic development should be focused. This is especially true for rural areas which are most likely to benefit from this technology. Broadband technology is a term, which defines multiple methods of information distribution through internet at great speed. Concerning the broadband, it should be analyzed which technology should be used for its distribution, so the businesses that use it, don't have any obstacles. Therefore, for many reasons, it is estimated that broadband (which had an optic fiber as transmitter), is optimal from the perspective of efficiency in transmission, and price. Some of the broadband technologies are: optic fiber, coaxial cable, DSL, Wireless, mobile broadband, and satellite connection. The ultimate goal of any broadband service provider is being able to provide voice, data and the video through a single network, called triple play service. The future of world economy is strongly connected with broadband technology.
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Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review

Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review

The evidence about the effectiveness of rural retention in- terventions comes mostly from advanced economies like Australia, Canada or the USA [10]. Among studies of nurse or health worker retention in remote areas from developed countries, the rural background [7,10,15,18] or the rural in- tegration [18,19] may constitute a powerful predictor of rural practice. These personal and social factors are interconnected with others that influence the decision of nurses or health workers to stay in or leave rural and re- mote areas: financial aspects, career aspirations, working and living conditions and bounding or mandatory service [11,13]. In order to have a better understanding of the fac- tors influencing the retention of health staff, the WHO has elaborated a model of heath workers’ decision to relocate, stay, or leave rural and remote areas that proposes four ca- tegories of interventions to improve their retention in these settings: education, regulation, financial incentives, and per- sonal and professional support [13].
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Broadband Usage and Internet Diffusion Initiatives in Rural Areas: A Correlational Study

Broadband Usage and Internet Diffusion Initiatives in Rural Areas: A Correlational Study

Internet was introduced in Malaysia in 1987 by the Malaysian Institute of Microelectronic Systems (MIMOS) through its RangKom Project. RangKom, which stands for Rangkaian Komputer Malaysia (Malaysia Komputer Network), connects several universities in Malaysia, and as the experiment was a success. RangKom was then turned into Malaysia’s Internet Service Provider (ISP) offering services to a limited number of members of the public in 1991. In the following year, MIMOS launched Malaysia’s first ISP called JARING. Currently, there are a total of nine ISPs in Malaysia. Telekom Malaysia (TM) has been a broadband player since 2001 when they introduced the Streamyx DSL service, and since then, TM have been consistently driving down the cost and ramping up the service and quality of broadband experience (Mohd Isa, 2009A). Malaysia’s National Broadband Initiative is a government program designed to make high speed Internet accessible and affordable to the country’s citizens, with a special emphasis on rural areas, children and the poor. The public- private partnership, announced by Prime Minister Y.A.B Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Haji Abdul Razak on March 24, 2010, combines the efforts of the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) and TM. Moreover, 1Malaysia Internet Centre, 1MIC (formerly known as Community Broadband Centre) is one of the Malaysia’s National initiatives under Budget 2013, is a program where MCMC to provide broadband Internet performance collectively in 100 pieces Housing Program area primarily in the ports of the selected throughout the country.
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Renewable Energy Sources based Hybrid System for Remote and Rural Areas

Renewable Energy Sources based Hybrid System for Remote and Rural Areas

Abstract: Irregular production of renewable resources is the main hindrance in front of high penetration of them. A hybrid system of sustainable resources and energy storage is a reasonable solution to compensate for periodic power generation of stand-alone systems. In this paper, on the basis of solar, biomass and battery storage, a hybrid system is proposed to supply power to rural and remote areas. To extract maximum power from solar PV system at different operating and load conditions, MPPT controller has been used in this proposed system. There are some problems in conventional power generation systems like volatility on fuel costs, environmental pollution etc. In this study, using biogas instead of natural gas is proposed to reduce the loss of using fossil fuels. In order to produce electricity from biomass, this proposed framework uses direct combustion technology, in which there is more economic and environmental justification for use especially in rural areas. The proposed strategy has high specialized and financial possibilities to actualize in rural and remote areas.
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Wireless Connectivity

Wireless Connectivity

The 9469-ET provides a low maintenance 802.11 compliant secure network in hazardous areas. The wireless network can support mobile operators and third party devices such as CCTV cameras and I.S PDAs. Through the use of the 9469-ET’s WDS configuration, it is possible to connect remote access points wirelessly providing area coverage with minimal equipment. An intrinsically safe power over Ethernet connection provides a single cable for both power and signal.

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Exploring the perspectives of community members as research partners in rural and remote areas

Exploring the perspectives of community members as research partners in rural and remote areas

To help make research more relevant to the public, it is important that researchers partner with community members. People living in rural and remote communi- ties tend to be further away from where research typic- ally takes place and may be excluded from participation as team members. The goal of this project was to under- stand how researchers can better work with or engage community members from rural and remote areas as partners on research projects. We talked to 12 commu- nity members with an interest in physical activity who live in northern British Columbia, Canada. Transcripts were analysed by researchers and knowledge users work- ing in population health at the local health authority and a regional non-profit organization. We identified three factors that were important for research partnerships: relevance, communication, and empowering participa- tion. Community members stated that they would not be interested in joining a research project that did not benefit their community. Participants also identified that they wanted to receive regular feedback about the re- search project, such as the findings, and to know that the results were used to create change. Community members should be recognized as the experts on the ap- proach that would work best in their community, be of- fered training on the research process, and compensated appropriately. In rural and remote communities, it is es- pecially important to focus on building trust and rela- tionships in-person before beginning research partnerships as there is a history of researchers coming in from other areas (often urban centres), collecting data, and leaving.
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INTERNET CONNECTIVITY

INTERNET CONNECTIVITY

In 2002, there was only one submarine cable – SAT 3 – along the West African coast for Internet connection. Telecommunications operators that participated in a consortium for construction and maintenance of the submarine cable are all incumbent operators. Landlocked West African countries that are not members of the consortium have thus become dependent on SAT 3, which remains indispensable in the provision of international Internet connection. These countries have developed terrestrial optical fibre infrastructure to connect to SAT 3 in order to minimize the relatively high costs of satellite connection and ensure better quality of service with the submarine cable.
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Remote Database Connectivity

Remote Database Connectivity

My Research is Remote Database Connectivity The research on Remote Database Connectivity is completely attached with current or previous database system. In this research we can attached with current database or previous database. At a time we can attach with only current database if we required some information before few years then what we should do? So my research is that if we required some information before few years then we will use this research and get the past information. I have explained this research with a form which is used to connect the current or previous database on the run time window or screen. We can modify this research according to our requirements. This research is completely based on coding.
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Mobile Internet. The Mobile Internet and Wireless Networking: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions. A Revolution in Motion

Mobile Internet. The Mobile Internet and Wireless Networking: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions. A Revolution in Motion

The mobile Internet will likely go beyond Bluetooth and 2G/3G access technologies, taking advantage of 5 GHz spectrum wireless networking technologies, such as HiperLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a. These alternatives promise wireless networking with even higher performance than currently provided by today’s initial Bluetooth offerings, and also operate over unlicensed segments of the radio spectrum. Applications and services that leverage these technologies will arise quickly, as users and operators alike recognize the opportunities they represent. The Access Point product family and the AXIS MIS will be enhanced to provide connectivity solutions for other wireless protocols beyond Bluetooth, as market demands evolve. Axis will leverage its history of positive industry alliances to deliver comprehensive support services to those who build applications and services based upon the Bluetooth Access Point product family and the AXIS MIS. The flexibility of the Axis architecture will enable Axis and its partners to take advantage of important future wireless and wired networking technologies as they emerge, quickly, economically and effectively.
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MSP430 Internet Connectivity

MSP430 Internet Connectivity

The circuitry connected to MSP430F149 contains the described connection to the LAN controller as well as a JTAG interface, a crystal oscillator and a reset circuit. The JTAG interface is designed for programming and debugging purposes. It can be used to directly connect the MSP430 flash emulation tool (FET). All required signals (for example TCK, TDI, TDO/TDI, TMS) are available at a 14-pin header (X6). An RS232 interface can be added if needed, for example to establish an SLIP or PPP Internet connection after appropriate software changes. You can use the TI device MAX3221. This part operates from a single 3.3-V supply voltage and only needs four small 0.1 µF external capacitors. It has one serial line receiver and one serial line transmitter and also low-power features which make it very suitable for this task. To get the maximum MCU performance possible, it is sourced by an 8-MHz crystal. Two capacitors with 15 pF each are used to connect the oscillator pins to ground.
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Internet Connectivity Options

Internet Connectivity Options

Some customers may choose to obtain Internet Connectivity via different Service Providers. Several combinations are possible depending on whether the customer network uses full mesh or hub and spoke model. In either case, exit points in the network needs to be planned out so that traffic load is well distributed. Exit point will be selected based on the best path determined by a routing protocol.

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