Top PDF Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

A novel system and method for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad- band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object.
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Sonic hedgehog controls enteric nervous system development by patterning the extracellular matrix

Sonic hedgehog controls enteric nervous system development by patterning the extracellular matrix

The most dramatic ECM effects, however, were observed with members of the CSPG family, which are known inhibitors of neural crest cell migration (Ring et al., 1996; Dutt et al., 2006). We observed significant Shh-induced changes in collagen IX, CS-56 (which marks the glycosaminoglycan portion of CSPG core protein) and versican isoforms [including immunostaining with anti-GAG β or anti-GAG α protein domain-specific antibodies and an antibody that recognizes common epitopes on the core protein in the V0 and V2 isoforms (Landolt et al., 1995; Zanin et al., 1999; Dutt et al., 2006, 2011)]. As shown in Fig. 5, collagen IX and versican V0/V2 are normally expressed strongly in the inner mesenchymal layer, just beneath the epithelium. CS-56 has a similar expression pattern (Fig. S4B). After Shh treatment, both collagen IX and versican V0/ V2 were dramatically upregulated and distributed throughout the mesenchyme (Fig. 5K,O). The same pattern was observed with isoform-specific antibodies to versican (data not shown). By contrast, cyclopamine treatment markedly reduced collagen IX and versican, limiting them to a small ring of subepithelial mesenchyme (Fig. 5L,P).
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Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system

Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system

specimens per group (first experiment n = 4, second n = 6, last experiment n = 8 specimens per group). Each ex- periment consisted of three treatment days (d1, d2, d3). Prior to each treatment, measurements of the metabolic activity were performed to obtain baseline values for each specimen. Then, specimens were placed carefully into an interproximal device with 2 specimens in a dis- tance of 0.5 mm face to face (Fig. 1). The brushing de- vice for electric toothbrushes was build in a co- operation between the Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zürich and the Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology of the University of Zur- ich, Switzerland. For experimentation, 25 ml water of 36 °C was pipetted into the device to cover the inter- proximal regions and the specimens. For the WF-group, the oral irrigator (Waterfloss, Waterpik® Sensonic WP- 100E) was adjusted using the JT-100E Classic Jet Tip at a 90° angle towards the interproximal region as de- scribed in the manufacturer’s information. The pressure control was positioned at level 10 (highest water pressure) and activated for 10 s. Afterwards, the specimens were carefully taken from the interproximal device and restored in plates with 0.9 % NaCl. For the WPa-group, the sonic toothbrush (Waterpik® Sensonic SR-3000E) was adjusted onto the device using the respective standard brush head with a load of the brush head onto the interproximal re- gion of < 0.9 N as measured for sonic toothbrushes (total load 70 ± 5 g) [2, 16]. The brushing was performed for
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Laser‐Induced Focused Ultrasound for Cavitation Treatment: Toward High‐Precision Invisible Sonic Scalpel

Laser‐Induced Focused Ultrasound for Cavitation Treatment: Toward High‐Precision Invisible Sonic Scalpel

Regulated by laser-induced focused ultrasound within its tight focal volume (≈100 µm), acoustic microcavitation has similar advantages to those of histotripsy, but it has higher precision for applications, e.g., cavitation therapy of vital organs such as brain and eyes with small lesions surrounded by vulnerable nerves. Additionally, compact PA transmitters (<15 mm) could allow an easier experimental setup, and can be easily integrated to an endoscopic system. Despite these advantages, the main limitation of microcavitation previously demonstrated through PA lenses was that targets such as cells or tissue had to be placed on a rigid substrate (e.g., glass) that serves as a sound reflector. Without the rigid substrate, the photoacoustic pulses were not found to be strong enough to cause microcavitation, as the rigid substrate induces acoustic reflection and interference, resulting in pressure doubling near the substrate. [14] Such limitation hinders from applying
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Studies with the aerosol mass spectrometer

Studies with the aerosol mass spectrometer

system includes a 85 Kr neutralizer (TSI model 3077), a long cylindrical column differential mobility analyzer (DMA, TSI model 3081), and a condensation particle counter (CPC, TSI model 3760). The flow rates of the SEMS systems are controlled to 2.5 LPM for sheath and excess flows and 0.25 LPM for polydisperse and monodisperse aerosol flows. In addition, the total number concentration of particles in each chamber was measured by additional CPCs (TSI, models 3010 and 3025). A hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) was used in a number of experiments to determine the hygroscopic behavior of the SOA. Furthermore, bulk filter samples were collected for organic speciation analysis (9,11).
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The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

Abstract. The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF) technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time- of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD) show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.
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O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

The spectral lines in atomic hydrogen and helium were then measured and their corresponding wavelengths calculated using the data obtained through the calibration... Introd[r]

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Sonic Superradiance in Bose Einstein Condensates

Sonic Superradiance in Bose Einstein Condensates

involves calculating the Fourier transform of each variable field across the entire space. On a two dimensional spatial lattice with sufficient density of points to faithfully reproduce the physics of the equations in the problem in question this Fourier transform is very time consuming. Since this is performed at each time step, it rapidly becomes the single most significant contributor to the total time taken by the simulation. Since the Bogoliubov deGennes equations are a coupled system involving two separate perturbation fields, there are two things that must be transformed at each time step. This means that although a system of equations using only one field that varies in time will not exactly halve the time taken by the simulation, it will reduce it significantly, and since a full simulation was initially expected to run for several hours at least, it is well worth seeking an alternative. There are a number of alternative equations of motion that use one complex field to represent the perturbation, which are more attractive. The performance enhancement that such a system would provide could in principle be canceled if it were possible to remove an extra dimension from the simulation in the case of the BdG equations, but as was shown in Section 6.1, this places very strong constraints on the angular behaviour of the system, and although the analytic conclusion that in that specific case superradiance is unlikely to occur is not necessarily conclusive, given the approximations made, the constraints on the angular behaviour seem to be unhelpful if they are not required.
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CMOS Based Compact Spectrometer

CMOS Based Compact Spectrometer

Spectrometer is a device used to represent the intensity as a function of wavelength. It consists of two parts: a monochromator and a photodetector. Monochromator is an optical device used for separating component wavelengths of light. The preferable diffraction element used is a grating. The grating element is traditionally kept movable to get mechanically selectable wavelengths which can be detected using a photodiode. But due to advent of CMOS/CCD imaging sensors fixed and compact optical design is possible.

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A Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

A Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

This signal is fed into a variable amplitude square wave generator.. The sawtooth is twice the freqency of the square wave, and the two are phase-locked to produce the composite s[r]

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Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

I designed it. I built it. I tested it. Like all technical devices, it needs to be tested some more. The primary purpose of this project was to build a spectrometer that works. This has been demonstrated with use of the HeNe laser with a fairly high degree of accuracy. In the case of taking 128 samples, there was only a 1.6 % relative error, and when 512 samples were taken, the correct wavelength was found. To build an inexpensive imaging Fourier transform spectrometer is no easy task. Further testing and analysis should be able to yield the spectra for any type of light source along with a 2-D image spectrogram. I have provided a tool that is functional, now it must be studied further.
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Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

The design was to represent a LEO imaging system with global daily coverage to meet the Sentinel 5 requirements. The target nadir ground resolution was set to 5 × 5 km with a swath width of 2500 km to provide global daily coverage, which in the demonstrator correlated to an entrance slit of 52 mm length consisting of 500 resolved elements 90 µm in size. The target along-track resolution and orbit constrain the sampling time to less than 0.8 s. The target spectral resolu- tion was 0.5 nm, sufficient for DOAS retrievals of the target species, with a sampling factor of 7 pixels per FWHM to assess the instrument line shape in both spectral and spatial domains. Taking these factors into account the CompAQS demonstrator was designed with a focal plane consisting of 2048 spectral pixels, giving spectral sampling of 0.075 nm per pixel, and 4096 spatial pixels with a corresponding spa- tial sampling of 13 µm (650 m from LEO) per pixel. The rel- ative aperture at the slit was f /3.06 in the spectral domain, f /1.25 in the spatial domain, and the spectrometer had unit magnification, such that the width of the entrance slit was the same as the FWHM of a resolved spectral element on the focal plane. The target specifications described above deter- mine the size and layout of the CompAQS demonstrator as the size of the optical components, including the radius of curvature of the grating, lens and mirror, scale linearly with the size of the focal plane. A comparison of the target specifi- cations of the CompAQS space system against the Sentinel 5 requirements and other relevant existing or planned systems is given in Table 1.
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Design and testing of a nanoparticle spectrometer

Design and testing of a nanoparticle spectrometer

Modern instruments such as the Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) and the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) 2 enable time resolved measurements of number concentration and size distribution from an engine’s exhaust. A standard emission testing involves the operation of vehicle engines under a simulated “real-life” drive cycle, which includes a significant portion of transient operating conditions. Fast- response instruments can be used to monitor particulate emissions under these transient conditions. The ability to make these measurements is particularly helpful to engine manufacturers in determining which conditions lead to the release of high concentrations of particles and developing hardware and software to ameliorate problematic conditions. The objective of the project described in this thesis was to design build and test a prototype of a fast response Nanoparticle Spectrometer of novel design. This spec- trometer was designed to measure the size distribution of an aerosol sample weighted by number concentration. The instrument was tailored, but not limited, to taking measurements of combustion generated aerosols from IC engines.
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A wideband spectrometer for the measurement of permittivity

A wideband spectrometer for the measurement of permittivity

The class of 2-arm bridges may be sub-divided into three types; unbalanced, p a r t i a l l y balanced and balanced. Examples of the unbalanced bridge include the dielectric spectrometer of Edmonds and Smith (67) and the computer controlled method of Hayward et al (47). The common form is shown in Figure 2.6. The reference arm is fed from a voltage source in antiphase with the sample arm voltage source. In this way, some or all of the real part of the sample response can be backed-off to preserve the detector dynamic range. (A similar technique has been used in time domain measurements, see for example Hyde (44).) The sample impedance is then calculated from the amplitude and phase of the out-of-balance signal. By using the virtual earth detector, Hayward et al have removed the effects of impedance to ground at the point of detection, which is normally a problem with unbalanced bridges, at some cost to bandwidth. Since both bridge arms contain impedances of a similar type, the frequency range is effectively limited by the VLF behaviour of the detector and the high frequency errors in both the phase-splitter and the phase-sensitive detector. Edmonds and Smith detected loss angles below 10~3 rads from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, whilst Hayward et al measured below 10~4 rads between 10“3 Hz and 104 Hz.
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Lost & Found Orchestra   Sonic Screwdriver

Lost & Found Orchestra Sonic Screwdriver

The goal of this experiment is to get a bode plot of the frequency response of one dinner plate and Daniël Maalman’s porcelain artifact. This will show in which spectra the resonances are located, but this time more precisely and with a better visual representation than in the previous experiment. To accomplish this, a different machine will be used, which is the HP 4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer. Its output will send a logarithmic sine sweep from 100 Hz (as low as it goes) to 20000 Hz through the surface transducer, which is attached to the plate the same way as in the first experiment. The plate, placed on its suspension system, will vibrate and send these vibrations to the piezo that is also attached in the same way as in the first experiment, which is connected to the reference input of the HP 4194A via a probe. The same thing will be done to the artifact. The impedance analyzer draws up a bode plot, of which conclusions about the resonant frequencies will be drawn. Note that the bode plots are not screen captures but rather actual photos of the display, as the device is from 1985 and does not have a conventional means of making screen prints
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Characterization of a thermodenuder-particle beam mass spectrometer system for the study of organic aerosol volatility and composition

Characterization of a thermodenuder-particle beam mass spectrometer system for the study of organic aerosol volatility and composition

A reasonably accurate description of the gas-particle parti- tioning of the OA can be achieved by allowing each bin in the “volatility basis set” to cover one order of magnitude in effective saturation concentration. The distribution of mass within (gas vs. particle) and among the bins changes with emissions, dilution, temperature, and chemical transforma- tion, with the fraction of mass in each bin that is in the par- ticle phase depending on the effective saturation concentra- tion and the total OA mass concentration according to gas- particle partitioning theory (Pankow, 1994a, b). Successful application of this approach requires measurements of OA volatility for a variety of conditions. However, there is cur- rently no method available to measure the volatility distribu- tions of ambient aerosol with order-of-magnitude accuracy, and the estimates commonly used in atmospheric models can be highly inaccurate (Huffman et al., 2009). Thus, the im- portance of having online techniques for measuring particle vapor pressure distributions is clear. A thermodenuder (TD), which is a flow-through system consisting of a heated va- porizer section in which particles evaporate, followed by a denuder section in which the vapor is removed by adsorption onto activated charcoal, is a useful tool for such measure- ments.
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Signal dynamics in Sonic hedgehog tissue patterning

Signal dynamics in Sonic hedgehog tissue patterning

During development, secreted signaling factors, called morphogens, instruct cells to adopt specific mature phenotypes. However, the mechanisms that morphogen systems employ to establish a precise concentration gradient for patterning tissue architecture are highly complex and are typically analyzed only at long times after secretion (i.e. steady state). We have developed a theoretical model that analyzes dynamically how the intricate transport and signal transduction mechanisms of a model morphogen, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), cooperate in modular fashion to regulate tissue patterning in the neural tube. Consistent with numerous recent studies, the model elucidates how the dynamics of gradient formation can be a key determinant of cell response. In addition, this work yields several novel insights into how different transport mechanisms or ‘modules’ control pattern formation. The model predicts that slowing the transport of a morphogen, such as by lipid modification of the ligand Shh, by ligand binding to proteoglycans, or by the moderate upregulation of dedicated transport molecules like Dispatched, can actually increase the signaling range of the morphogen by concentrating it near the secretion source. Furthermore, several transcriptional targets of Shh, such as Patched and Hedgehog-interacting protein, significantly limit its signaling range by slowing transport and promoting ligand degradation. This modeling approach elucidates how individual modular elements that operate dynamically at various times during patterning can shape a tissue pattern.
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Sonic Performances in a Time of Turmoil in Contemporary Iran

Sonic Performances in a Time of Turmoil in Contemporary Iran

In this regard, those groups of people who support the state have separate understandings of resilience from those who are located further from the establishment. The former tends to understand resilience through the specific official political reading of religion. Those groups of people who are located further from the state maintain more independent sonic practices of resilience, such as holding religious events in their local communities and consuming (popular) music. They tend to have a personal take on religiosity, community values and mysticism. State propaganda has an unsuccessful record of generating widespread and universal support. The unilateral overemphasis on politics has always failed to communicate with the masses. The optimum aim is to animate the public with ’arzeši religious values. However, as the state views popular culture as a stigma and potential threat, the loyalty of the producers of a ‘cleansed’ popular culture has been a state priority. As a result, the state could never quite reach the artists nor had enough popular artists on their political side.
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Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment Using a Combination of Onyx and a New Detachable Tip Microcatheter, SONIC: Short Term Results

Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment Using a Combination of Onyx and a New Detachable Tip Microcatheter, SONIC: Short Term Results

quired during later Onyx injection make it easier to detect advancement of Onyx. No doubt, when the nidus is larger and the amount of Onyx is higher, the detection of Onyx becomes more challenging. We acquire zero roadmaps from different positions to get a better 3D understanding of the spread of the embolic material. Second, during treatment we continuously compare the Onyx cast to the pre-embolization super selective and large vessel contrast injection to try and determine which part of the nidus is currently being filled. Third, when we de- tect Onyx passage from small to larger vessels, it is usually a sign that a vein has been reached. Based on our experience we now try not to inject ⬎ 6 mL of Onyx per session; however, if this amount is approached and the AVM is almost completely occluded we will continue to achieve complete obliteration.
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Comparison of ozone retrievals from the Pandora spectrometer system and Dobson spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

Comparison of ozone retrievals from the Pandora spectrometer system and Dobson spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

Abstract. A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer sys- tem and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct- sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boul- der, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an on- going study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 Decem- ber 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO re- trievals required a correction, TCOcorr = TCO (1 + C(T )), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T E , de-

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