While ULVZ provinces are often considered to be patches of dense partial melt, no measurements exist for the **sound** **velocities** of partially molten mantle material at CMB conditions. The connection between ULVZs and partial melting was popularized by the correlation between ULVZ and hot spot locations (Williams et al., 1998). However, not all ULVZs are related spatially to hot spots. An alternative explanation of several ULVZ observations is a dense, localized solid layer containing some amount of **iron**-**rich** (Mg,Fe)**O**. A solid dense layer would not require the intersection of the local geotherm and solidus of the mantle and can produce low **sound** speeds independent of partial melting (Figure 2.10).

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When investigating explosives, to understand physics of detonation and formulate equations of **state** (EOS) of explosion products, plane-wave experiments are most often fulfilled. However, equilibrium thermodynamics is closely associated with rates of a chemical reaction in such experiments. In other words, to simulate and analyze experiments, there is a need to separate the data relative to rates of a reaction, from the data typical for equations of **state**. The values of **sound** **velocities**, measured with the same accuracy, as the values of **velocities** of detonation in plane-wave experiments with HE provide the determination of derivatives at a surface of an **equation** of **state** with the same accuracy, as the surfaces of EOS. The data on a **sound** velocity together with the Hugoniot adiabat for overcompressed detonation make it possible to calculate the Grueneisen coefficient and a pressure at the Chapman-Jouguet point (Ch-J). The Ch- J pressure can be deduced with a good accuracy through thermodynamic **state** parameters, which are not connected with the effects of a reaction zone [1].

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termined using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan **equation** of **state** based on volumes and elastic parameters reported in Boffa Ballaran et al. (2012) (sample S4850) and Glazyrin et al. (2014) (samples U1219, SL16, SL18, S4883), where the generalized model in the latter work was used to cal- culate values relevant to the different compositions. Equa- tions of **state** parameters for majorite were taken from McCammon and Ross (2003) (cell volume) and Kavner et al. (2000) (elastic parameters). The adiabatic bulk modulus can be used to calculate longitudinal wave (V P ) and trans-

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using powder x-ray diffraction at 300 K up to 167 GPa and 175 GPa, respec- tively. By using tungsten powder as pressure calibrant and helium as a pressure transmitting medium, we minimize error in determination of compositional ef- fects due to pressure calibration and non-hydrostatic stresses. The results are a suite of high fidelity data sets fit with equations of **state**. By systematically comparing our findings to those of pure **iron** (Dewaele et al., 2006), we con- strain the effect of nickel and silicon on the density, bulk modulus, and bulk **sound** speed of **iron** alloys, which is a critical step in constraining the inner core’s composition. We find that for **iron** alloys, constraining the **equation** of **state** at 300 K significantly reduces the uncertainty of high-temperature equa- tions of **state** extrapolated to inner core conditions. After extrapolating our hcp-Fe 0.91 Ni 0.09 and hcp-Fe 0.8 Ni 0.1 Si 0.1 equations of **state** to inner core condi-

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In this paper, we report the experimental and theoretical ultrasonic **velocities** of the binary liquid mixtures of **o**- chlorophenol (OCP) with methylacetate (MA), ethylacetate (EA) and n-butylacetate (BA) evaluated by using various theories such as Nomoto, impedance relation, Van Dael and Vangeel, , Junjie's and Rao's specific velocity relation at 303.15-318.15K over entair composition range. Further, a comparative study of theoretical results with experimental values using Chi-square test and the study of molecular interactions from the deviation ( α ) in the value of U 2 exp / U 2 imx (from unity) have also been studied. Of these models, Nomoto relation and Impdance relation were

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subspace. The redundant states are eliminated following the procedure outlined in Refs. [26, 27], based on the Cholesky decomposition method. It allows to extract a basis of linearly independent states spanning the physi- cal subspace to obtain a non singular eigenvalue **equation** whose iterative solution yields a basis of orthonormal cor- related n-phonon states of the form (5).

The principle aims of this thesis are to determine the proper motions of as many southern hemisphere pulsars as possible using the Parkes-Tidbinbilla radio interferometer, and use this p[r]

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exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The Fe—N and Fe—**O** bond lengths are in the ranges 1.917 (3)– 1.969 (3) and 1.846 (2)–1.913 (2) Å, respectively. The Fe1—O2 and Fe1—N2 bonds are much longer than the other related ones. Thus the atoms O1, O3, N1, and N3 may be considered to lie in the equatorial plane, and O2 and N2 in the axial coordination sites.

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Data collection: SMART Siemens, 1996; cell refinement: SAINT Siemens, 1996; data reduction: SAINT; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 2008; programs used to refine str[r]

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Abstract: Recent astronomical observations with respect to measurements in distant supernovas, cosmic microwave background and weak gravitational lensing confirm that the Universe is undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion and it has been proposed that this cosmological behavior is caused by a hypothetical dark energy which has a strong negative pressure that allows explain the expanding universe. Several theoretical ideas and models related dark the energy includes the cosmological constant, quintessence, Chaplygin gas, braneworld and tachyonic scalar fields. In this paper, we have obtained new relativistic stellar configurations considering an anisotropic fluid distribution with a charge distribution which could represents a potential model of a dark energy star. In order to investigate the effect of a quadratic **equation** of **state** in this anisotropic model we specify particular forms for the gravitational potential that allow solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. For these new solutions we checked that the radial pressure, metric coefficients, energy density, anisotropy factor, charge density , mass function are well defined and are regular in the interior of the star. The solutions found can be used in the development of dark energy stars models satisfying all physical acceptability conditions but the causality condition and strong energy condition are violated. We expect that these models have multiple applications in astrophysics and cosmology.

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We undertook a theoretical calculation of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of our phage, loosely based on the calculation for Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (Symons et al., 1963; Kaper & Litjens, 1966). Our approach is based on the assumption that the phage is composed of three parts: capsid, DNA, and proteins/polyamines. Excluding polyamines and non-capsid proteins, the approximate C:N:P ratio was determined to be approximately 25.2 : 7.8 : 1. Syn33 data were used for the DNA calculation, but T4 phage data were used for the capsid proteins (Leiman et al., 2003; Sullivan et al., 2010). Our calculation demonstrated that the virus is enriched in phosphorus relative to the Redfield ratio of 106:16 :1, which is generally considered as a measure of ocean biology (Redfield, 1934; Redfield, 1958; Arrigo, 2005). The virus-**iron** interaction may therefore have had a significant influence on the biogeochemistry of the Archean ocean. This abiotic process may have been responsible for depositing phosphorus to sediment in the form of viruses and contributing to the phosphorus signals we see in BIFs today (Planavsky et al., 2010).

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Many published data have been used to test the **equation** of **state**. Most of these are hydrocarbons. Table I shows a complete list of sub stances studied, together with the range of temperature and pressure for which data are avalaible. It was observed that in most cases, both K and Q behave in a systematic way. K decreases with increase of temperature while Q usually increases with temperature. In some cases, however, the trend of Q was not obvious. For K, the only exception observed was water, for which K tends to be a maximum at about room temperature.

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The subject of the present work is the **equation** of **state** of strongly interacting matter in the region near the “phase border line” depicted in Figure 1.1. The starting point is an analysis of results from lattice QCD within a phenomenological quasi-particle model (QPM). In chapter 2 this quasi-particle model is outlined. The description of how the model can be derived from QCD is relegated to Appendix E, since such a derivation is still subject of intense research. In chapters 3 and 4 sets of available lattice QCD data are analysed in detail. The quasi-particle model itself rests on work done by Peshier et al. [Pes96, Pes00, Pes02a]. However, in this thesis the new lattice data for µ > 0 (cf. [All03, Kar03b, Fod03a]) are quantitatively analysed. Basing on the parameters found in the analysis, the quasi-particle model is used to extrapolate the **equation** of **state** in the region of large baryon density. The quantitative results are summarized in chapter 5. This region is not yet accessible by lattice QCD or other methods based on first principles. In chapter 5, consequences of the results are also discussed, such as implications on quark stars or on central heavy-ion collision

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One of the main goal of the study of relativistic heavy ion collisions is to study the deconﬁned matter, known as Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which is expected to form at large densities. It has been suggested that the transition from hadronic to QGP **state** can be treated by the percolation theory [1]. The formulation of percolation problem is concerned with elementary geometrical objects placed on a random d-dimensional lattice. The objects have a well deﬁned connectivity radius λ, and two objects can communicate if the distance between them is less than λ. Several objects can form a cluster of communication. At certain density of the objects a inﬁnite cluster appears which spans the entire system. This is deﬁned by the dimensionless percolation density parameter ξ [2]. Percolation theory has been applied to several areas ranging from clustering in spin system to the formation of galaxies. Figure 1 shows the transition from disconnected to connected system at high densities.

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Equations of **state** at high pressures have been extremely useful for studying the thermoelastic properties of solids [1-3]. Bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives are important physical quantities for understanding the thermoelastic properties [4, 5] such as the Grüneisen parameter and its volume derivatives. is related to the thermal and elastic properties of materials by the formula [6, 7].

P = 1 atm [14.67 psia]) for a wide range of uids are well documented. The objective of this work is to use the thermodynamic properties at those three points, coupled with the inection point criteria of temperature, isotherm and isenthalpic (Joule Thomson inversion curve) to develop a three parameter **equation** of **state** similar to **Equation** 1.

On the basis of our findings it may be concluded that in the most of the cases of materials the widely used fundamental EOS are still most suitable and valid for the bulk as well as nanocrystalline materials to predict their compression with pressure. In the present work it is found that the Murnaghan and Usual-Tait **equation** of **state** is most suitable and competent for this prediction of compression behavior of nanocrystalline TiO 2 . The expression of

pressure and high temperature. The input parameters used in this work have been shown in Table 1. It has been shown that the compression at high pressure can be successfully explained using presently proposed EOS. In present study, this **equation** is further extended for a high temperature and high pressure range by introducing the concept of thermal pressure. After the study it is found that the results obtained by new equations of **state** show good agreement between calculated and available experimental data. The overall study demonstrates the validity of proposed **equation**.

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Abstract. We report the **equation** of **state** at finite chemical potential, namely the baryon number density and the baryonic contribution to the pressure, using a resummation of the Taylor expansion. We also report the freezeout conditions for a measure of fluctua- tions. We examine the major sources of systematic and statistical errors in all of these measurements.