Top PDF Soybeans and soybeans products having high palmitic acid content

Soybeans and soybeans products having high palmitic acid content

Soybeans and soybeans products having high palmitic acid content

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid contents of at least about 18.0% up to 30.0% or more. The novel soybean lines are obtained from a soybean seed designated A1937NMU-85 and its descendants, particular desirable progeny resulting from the cross of A1937NMU-85 with ElginEMS-421, and further with the cross of selected progeny with A89-259098.

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Soybeans having low linolenic acid content and palmitic acid content of at least eleven percent

Soybeans having low linolenic acid content and palmitic acid content of at least eleven percent

Methods are described for the production of soybean varieties and lines exhibiting linolenic acid contents of less than about 2.5% of the total fatty acid composition as determined by gas chromatography, preferably less than about 2.2% and, more preferably, less than about 1.9%, and in one aspect of the invention, soybean varieties and lines having the low linolenic acid characteristic and a stearic acid content of at least 20%, preferably at least 25%, and, more preferably, at least about 30%, and in a further aspect, soybean varieties and lines having the low linolenic acid content and a palmitic acid content of at least 11%, more preferably at least about 13 or 14%. In accordance with still further aspects of this invention, soybean lines are provided which exhibit a low linolenic acid content and an oleic acid content of at least about 60% of the total fatty acid composition, such lines may, if desired, also contain a palmitic acid content of less than about 6.0% and/or a stearic acid content of less than about 3.5%. There is also disclosed soybean lines having low linolenic acid contents and a palmitic acid content of less than about 5.0%, preferably less than about 4.0%.
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Elevated palmitic acid production in soybeans

Elevated palmitic acid production in soybeans

Soybeans (i.e., Glycine max L. Merr.) possessing a novel genetic determinant for the enhanced production of palmitic acid in the endogenously formed vegetable oil of the seeds are provided. Such genetic determinant is the homogeneous recessive fap5fap5 gene pair that has been found to be capable of formation through mutagenesis. Once formed, such genetic determinant can be readily transferred to other soybean lines and cultivars where it is similarly expressed on a reliable basis under conventional field growing conditions. In a preferred embodiment when a soybean plant possesses the combined presence of the homogeneous recessive genes (1) fap2-bfap2-b, (2) fap4fap4, as well as (3) fap5fap5 for enhanced palmitic acid formation in the seeds, it has been found that an unusually high expression for palmitic acid production in the resulting vegetable oil of the seeds is provided that is in excess of 30 up to approximately 37 percent by weight based upon the total fatty acid content. A resulting vegetable oil is made possible in this instance that is particularly well suited for margarine preparation in absence of the need for hydrogenation.
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A16 soybeans having low linolenic acid content and descendents

A16 soybeans having low linolenic acid content and descendents

soybean lines are provided having not only the desired low linolenic acid trait but also characterized by an extremely high oleic acid content Such soybean lines may be obtained crossing[r]

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Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid content of at least about 14.0% and a stearic acid content of at least about 14.0%. Such high saturated fatty acid content soybeans may also, if desired, have a linolenic acid content of less than about 3.0%. The novel soybean lines are obtained by crossing A6 and A17 or by crossing A89-259098 with AX4663-5-4-5.

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Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid content of at least about 14.0% and a stearic acid content of at least about 14.0%. Such high saturated fatty acid content soybeans may also, if desired, have a linolenic acid content of less than about 3.0%. The novel soybean lines are obtained by crossing A6 and A17 or by crossing A89-259098 with AX4663-5-4-5.

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Studies on the host-parasite relationship of three leaf-spot diseases of soybeans.

Studies on the host-parasite relationship of three leaf-spot diseases of soybeans.

There was some slight disappearance of this pigment. When- the effect of the two fungi were considered, the results showed that the infected areas generally contained more carotenoids than the uninfected areas of the same leaf. This observation indicated that carotenoid synthesis was stimulated in the host cells by the presence of the fungi, and the in­ crease of oarotenoids is due only to this effect, and not due to possible fungal carotenoids, since paper chromatography of the mycelia of the two fungi was negative for carotenoids. It is well known, however, that many fungi'contain carotenoid pigments (21, 21;, 25). Allen (2) has noted that carotenoid levels were increased or decreased in host tissue by the ac­ tion of several different fungi. It appears that no uniform effect is produced by fungi as to carotenoid levels in infected leaves, since it was also reported (I/. 5) that carotene content was reduced in white clover infected by leaf rust and, since carotene is a precursor of vitamin A, the value of the clover as animal food dropped markedly.
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Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

concentration-dependent manner. The biological effect of TG accumulation on PA-induced lipotoxicity seems still controversial. Traditionally, TG accumulation is thought to be indicative of dangerous signal in the development of pathogenesis associated with disordered lipid metabolism. TG accumulation in pancreatic β-cells has been closely as- sociated with impairment in insulin secretion to glucose [37]. Moreover, it was claimed that lipotoxicity of β-cells was associated with glucose-dependent esterification of fatty acids into neutral lipids [38]. On the contrary, it has been published that unsaturated fatty acids with high abil- ity to synthesize TG are implicated in the prevention of PA-mediated apoptosis by sequestrating deleterious PA into TG storage form [15]. Also, TG has been proposed to play a critical role in trafficking and modulation of free fatty acids [39]. In our experiments, neutral lipid mass was augmented upon coincubation of PA with arachidonic acid (AA), accompanied with a decrease in PA-induced lipotoxicity. Cnop et al., has demonstrated that an inverse correlation is observed between the percentage of dead β- cells and their cellular TG contents [40]. It was further demonstrated that exogenously or endogenously gener- ated unsaturated fatty acids rescued PA-induced apoptosis in non-adipose cells by promoting PA incorporation into TG, accumulation of which represents an initial cellular
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Establishing a Flowering Threshold and Feeding Behaviors between Helicoverpa zea and Soybeans.

Establishing a Flowering Threshold and Feeding Behaviors between Helicoverpa zea and Soybeans.

Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly referred to as the bollworm, corn earworm and tomato fruitworm, has been recorded as a pest on soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] since the early 1900s (Hardwick 1965) and can cause widespread damage to this crop, especially late in the growing season. Helicoverpa zea may feed on wild and cultivated leaves, seeds, and fruits and are often difficult to control if they feed internally on reproductive structures (Nuenzig 1963; Hardwick 1965; Sharma 2005). Corn is the preferred H. zea host in eastern North Carolina (Hardwick 1965; Martin et al. 1965; Sharma 2005), but the first two annual generations may also feed on wild hosts. After corn matures, H. zea disperse to other crops including soybeans (Hardwick 1965; Terry et al. 1987a; Terry et al. 1987b; Head et al. 2010). Infestations from H. zea can affect yields of soybean crops (Eckel et al. 1992a), but the extent of this impact varies with infestation timing and density. Soybean development is divided into vegetative (pre-bloom) and reproductive growth stages. Reproductive growth stages are further divided into flowering (R1-R2), pod development (R3-R4), seed
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In situ evaluation of ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of extruded soybeans

In situ evaluation of ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of extruded soybeans

Soybean heating over the optimum temperature may protect against microbial degradation in the rumen and also make protein indigestible in the intestine due to Maillard reaction between sug- ars and proteins. Lin and Kung (1999) suggested that overheating increased a possibility of form- ing insoluble melanoidins which are toxic both for microorganisms and for the host animal. In the present study the extrusion of whole soybeans decreased rumen disappearance but intestinal di- gestibility of undegraded protein was not affected by the temperature of heat treatment, suggesting that heat extrusion did not have a negative effect on intestinal digestibility (Table 3). The values of CP intestinal digestibility of extruded soybean were somewhat higher, however the observed differences between treatments were not significant (P < 0.05). Estimated intestinal digestibilities were 87.2, 89.7, 92.0 and 92.6% for E0, E145, E155 and E165, re- spectively. Heating the soybeans over the optimum temperature may protect against microbial activity in the rumen and also make protein indigestible in the intestine. Stern et al. (1985) and Aldrich et al. (1995) reported that the heat process increased intestinal protein digestibility by destruction of the Table 2. Degradation parameters and effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein of extruded soy- beans
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An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Marketing Contract Structures for Corn and Soybeans

An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Marketing Contract Structures for Corn and Soybeans

Variables HHNW, OFI, VFP, DTA, Age, and CropInsD are postulated to be related to the agent’s behavior toward risk, whereas Experience, Education, and HobbyD are posited to be associated with the agent’s productivity. Ceteris paribus, farmers with greater levels of net wealth (HHNW), off-farm income (OFI), and value of farm production (VFP) are likely to be willing to bear greater levels of risk under the common assumption of decreasing absolute risk aversion. In contrast, following the findings of Lajili et al. (1997), operations with high debt-to-asset ratios (DTA) are assumed to induce farmers to take on less risky activities relative to similar operations with lower leverage levels. 5 Similarly, other things equal, older farmers (Age) are likely to be less willing to take on risks that may imperil their retirement income due to their life-cycle stage (Fukunaga and Huffman, 2009).
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Utilizing Rolled Rye Mulch for Weed Suppression in Organic No-Tillage Soybeans

Utilizing Rolled Rye Mulch for Weed Suppression in Organic No-Tillage Soybeans

Rising demand for organic soybeans ( Glycine max L.) and high price premiums for organic products has stimulated producer interest in organic soybean production. However, organic soybean producers and those making the transition to organic production cite weed management as their biggest limitation. Current weed management practices rely heavily on cultivation. Repeated cultivation is expensive and has negative consequences on soil health. Research is needed to improve organic reduced tillage production. Rye ( Secale cereale L. cv. Rymin) cover crops were evaluated for weed suppression abilities and effects on soybean yield. Experiments were planted in 2008 and 2009 at three site locations. Rye was planted in the fall of each year and killed at soybean planting with a roller crimper or flail mower, creating a thick weed-suppressing mulch with potential allelopathic properties. The mulch was augmented with one of three additional weed control tactics: pre-emergence corn gluten meal (CGM), post-emergence clove oil, or post-emergence high-residue cultivation. Roll crimped and flail mowed treatments had similar weed suppression abilities at most sites. There were no differences between CGM, clove oil, or cultivation at most sites. Sites with rye biomass above 9,000 kg ha -1 of dry matter had sufficient weed control. In Goldsboro
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Impact of different processing of full-fat soybeans on broiler performance

Impact of different processing of full-fat soybeans on broiler performance

In the last years, the feed industry showed a growing interest in the use of full-fat soybeans (FFSB) and, as a result, its large-scale process- ing became a common practice. Due to their high oil content, FFSB are particularly suitable for manufacturing high-energy poultry diets, as post-pellet application of fat may be reduced or eliminated (Waldroup 1982). However, the nutri- tional potential of FFSB is limited by the presence of antinutritional factors, mainly trypsin inhibi- tors, which interfere with digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients (Liener and Kakade 1980). Trypsin inhibitors form complexes with pancreatic proteases, thus reducing their acitiv- ity in the upper small intestine. In an attempt to
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Locus Interactions Underlie Seed Yield In Soybeans Resistant to Heterodera glycines

Locus Interactions Underlie Seed Yield In Soybeans Resistant to Heterodera glycines

Genome architecture associated with yield was detected in the ExF population. Most impressively the markers revealed a very strong linkat to QTL association between yield on genetic linkage group K and I. Both LGs were shown to contain QTL for seed yield (Yuan et al., 2002; Kassem et al., 2007a). In Williams by Essex there were more recombination events and smaller linkats on LG K among high yielding cultivars compared to the population as a whole (Stephaniak et al., 2005). Linkage group I did not differ in linkat size or recombination events in that study. The beneficial allele for the LG K QTL was from Essex (Yuan et al., 2002; Kassem et al., 2006; 2007a) and so the association with long linkats of Essex alleles may indicate a locus with several underlying genes distributed over a large region of the genome. Equally the beneficial allele for the LG I QTL was from Forrest (Yuan et al., 2002; Kassem et al., 2007a) and so the association with long linkats of Forrest alleles may indicate a locus with several underlying genes distributed over a large region of the genome. Several other yield QTL were detected on LG A2, C1, C2, J. and N but they were not associated with linkats or recombination frequency variation (Lark et al., 1995; Kassem etal., 2006; Guzman et al., 2007). Such loci might be underlain by single genes, small gene clusters or sets of epistatic loci.
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THE EFFECT OF AMINO ACID COMPOUNDS IN FERMENTED SOYBEANS AGAINST FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR IN MICE PANCREATIC β CELLS FIGURES

THE EFFECT OF AMINO ACID COMPOUNDS IN FERMENTED SOYBEANS AGAINST FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR IN MICE PANCREATIC β CELLS FIGURES

Thirty chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus), fertile, not cracked, and taken with care were used for this study, and there should be no excessive shocks. The eggs were put into an incubator that contains fermented soybeans at a temperature of 38–39°C for 9 days. In each day, the eggs were turned for twice. The eggs that were cracked with the white part, and the yolk part was separated. Egg whites were made into powders with freeze-drying method then homogenized, shaken with an egg beater manually and then poured onto a Petri dish, then dried with a freeze dryer tool.

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Genetically Modified Grain Corn and Soybeans in Quebec and Ontario in 2000 and 2001

Genetically Modified Grain Corn and Soybeans in Quebec and Ontario in 2000 and 2001

The survey data for 2000 and 2001 show that more Ontario and Quebec farmers are adopting GM crops. It also appears that, as farmers gain more experience in growing GM crops, operators of large farms have become much more interested in GM grain corn and soybeans than they were in the first few years that the seeds came on the market. This is a different portrait of the GM growers identified in the 2000 survey, who tended to be drawn largely from among the operators of what would normally be categorized as small to medium farms. That large farms are pulling ahead in the race to adopt GM crops can be interpreted as a sign of the end of the experimental phase in GM grain corn and soybean crops.
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Modelling of solid liquid extraction process of total polyphenols from soybeans

Modelling of solid liquid extraction process of total polyphenols from soybeans

The results show (Figures 2, 4 and 6) that the maximum extraction degree was achieved at the extraction temperature of 80°C and extraction time of 120 min (4.322 mg GAE/g db ), while for the same extraction time the lowest amount of total polyphenols was extracted at 26°C (3.256 mg GAE/g db ). With the increase of the extraction tem- perature and extraction time, the amount of total polyphenols extracted from soybeans variety Ika also increased. The temperature increase resulted in most cases in an increase of the diffusion rate and solubility of the extracted substances while, on the other hand it should be taken into account that some important biologically active substances degrade at high temperatures (Cacace & Mazza 2003).
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The likely impact of genetically modified soybeans in the Brazilian collective feeding service

The likely impact of genetically modified soybeans in the Brazilian collective feeding service

The labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods is expected because of the Consumer Protection Code (Law No. 8078 of 11/09/90 - art. 6, III and art. 8˚) [8] and De- cree No. 4680 of 24 April 2003 [9]. It is a regulation to assure citizens information on food product and enable them to make an informed decision about what to buy [10]. Moreover, it enables traceability because in cases of effects on human health, labelled food products would be easily identified and collected. Thus, it is of utmost im- portance that food manufacturers realize that labeling should represent an important tool to clarify the origin of the grain used in the occurrence of transgenic soybeans in the case of the emergence of public health problems.
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Sudden death syndrome – A growing threat of losses in soybeans

Sudden death syndrome – A growing threat of losses in soybeans

Taxonomy of the Glycine spp., and domestication [45], origin, history, and uses of soybean [27, 45, 61], history and growth of soybean plants including germplasm collections, utilization, plant improvement, growth and development [44] have been well documented. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the leading oilseed crop produced and consumed in the world with the crop grown in 70 countries with an annual production of 268 million metric tons (mmt). Average world soybean production has increased from 115 mmt in 1993 to 308 mmt in 2014 and soybean prices (USD/ton) in top five producers (Argentina, Brazil, China mainland, India, and United States) fluctuated significantly between 1993 and 2014 [24]. According to Hymowitz et al. [44] top producers of soybean are the United States (31% of the world’s total), Brazil (31%), Argentina (19%), China (5%), India (4%), Paraguay (3%) and Canada (2%). As of August 2016, USDA global production analysis projection of 2016/2017 world soybean production was 330.41 mmt, an increase of 17.74 mmt or a 5.67% compared with previous year [pecad.fas.usda.gov]. According to USDA Agricultural Projections to 2025, world trade is projected to increase in soybeans by 22%, soybean meal by 20%, and soybean oil by 30% [ers.usda.gov].
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JL: Basically soybeans and cotton and vegetable farming – produce.

JL: Basically soybeans and cotton and vegetable farming – produce.

JL: Well you have to watch the market and it has brought me more attentive to the market because at times the market is at less rates and we have to be able to find when the market is peaked in order to be able to book your cotton or your crops. To try to get it at a high price. Because like at harvesting system the market may come down so you tend to have to be very attentive to the market situation, and realize what you have to have out of the crop in order to get a fairly decent price that you can (inaudible).

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