Top PDF Spatial analysis of energy use and GHG emissions from cereal production in India

Spatial analysis of energy use and GHG emissions from cereal production in India

Spatial analysis of energy use and GHG emissions from cereal production in India

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1.Introduction The intensification of agriculture in global food production has entailed disproportionately high increases in inputs, including energy. Embedded energy inputs increased by 137 percent in the last four decades while land use increased 10 percent (Pellegrini & Fernandez, 2018). Although agricultural energy’s share of global primary energy is still small – 1.6 percent, this increase is linked to a number of local environmental and social problems, related to water scarcity, energy and food security, and climate impacts. Globally, irrigated agriculture provides 40 percent of food production, from 18 percent of land (Khan & Hanjra, 2009). In many developing countries, such as China, India, Iran, Mexico and Pakistan, groundwater extraction for irrigation has expanded rapidly, often with the support of energy subsidies for agricultural pumpsets (Karimi et al, 2012; Jinxia et al, 2012; Scott, 2011; Shah et al, 2012; Siddiqi and Wescoat, 2013). This has had a number of negative consequences, such as enhanced pressure on water availability for other uses (e.g., Davis et al., 2017), loss of financial viability of the electricity sector, and increased food security risks (Shah et al, 2012).
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Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

Our research builds upon the life cycle analysis conducted by Zhang et al. [20]. At present, new data are available for roundwood harvest and transport activities in Michigan from Handler et al. [21], with whom we worked closely. It was necessary to conduct a new assessment to improve the accuracy of the estimates. Estimates of life cycle energy use are included in this study which is not in the previous research due to data unavailability. Different harvesting scenarios with three harvesting types and three equipment configurations were considered. Three main harvesting/forwarding equipment configurations were used to characterize the logging industry in Michigan include [21]: (a) cut-to-length full processor/forwarder; (b) feller-buncher/skidder/slasher; and (c) chainsaws/skidder. Three harvesting types considered included: (1) clearcutting all merchantable timber; (2) a 70% (shelterwood) removal treatment; and (3) a 30% (selective cut) removal treatment [21]. In our previous study the estimates of harvesting and forwarding activity were assumed to be completed using 100% cut-to-length (CTL) processor/forwarder and only the clear-cutting harvest type was discussed. Our current research broadens the scope of our previous work and extends the contribution to the body of knowledge.
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Analysis of Life Cycle Energy Use and GHG Emissions of the Biomass to Ethanol Pathway of the Coskata Process under Chinese Conditions

Analysis of Life Cycle Energy Use and GHG Emissions of the Biomass to Ethanol Pathway of the Coskata Process under Chinese Conditions

The WTW energy consumption (EC) and GHG analysis considers the well-to-pump (WTP) and pump-to-wheels (PTW) stages. The WTP stage is the upstream production stage, including the exploitation of raw resources/feed- stock plantation, feedstock transportation, fuel produc- tion, and fuel transportation, storage and distribution (TSD). The PTW stage relates to downstream fuel com- bustion in a vehicle engine. The WTW analysis has been used to clarify the EC and GHG impacts of conventional gasoline as well as several existing ethanol pathways, as described in Table 1 [7].
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Energy use and CO2 emissions of eggplant production in the Philippines

Energy use and CO2 emissions of eggplant production in the Philippines

more intensive energy however has led to various environmental problems such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, loss of biodiversity and pollution of the aquatic environment by chemical fertilizers and pesticides (Nemecek et al., 2011). It is reported that increasing energy input requirements may not always provide maximum profits due to the increased also in the production cost (Erdal at al., 2007). With this, the analysis of the energy utilization is usually undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of energy and environmental impacts of agricultural production systems (Ozkan et al., 2004). The effective use of energy will lead to sustainable production due to financial savings, fossil fuel preservation and reduction of air pollution (Pahlavan et al., 2012).
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High resolution spatial modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from land use change to energy crops in the UK

High resolution spatial modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from land use change to energy crops in the UK

not possible for oxidation of CH 4 to significantly affect the net GHG balance. Rotational grass The permanent grass land-use type used in these simu- lations represents permanent, uncultivated grassland. Grassland, however, may also be temporary, used in rotation with arable crops, and in these circumstances can be regarded as a crop within an arable rotation. Per- manent grassland is the most abundant type of grass- land in the United Kingdom, covering 5.3 million ha in 2010, compared to 1.1 million ha of temporary (mostly rotational) grassland (Khan et al., 2011) at any one time. Rotational grassland in any given year would be catego- rized as arable crops in different years, so the 1.1 mil- lion ha in any year represents a snapshot of the area of rotational grass. As such, rotational grass is not a land use; it is simply one component of rotational farming, which includes all-arable rotations as well as grass-ara- ble rotations. Rotational grassland is usually repre- sented as a crop within a rotation in most existing soil organic matter models and in ECOSSE is assumed to be a subset of arable rotational land. Permanent grassland represents a separate land-use transition as this land is only used for grass/livestock production. Rotational grass (by definition) occurs on the same land as is used for growing arable crops, so bioenergy conversion on rotational grass is equivalent to removal of land used for arable production. Rotational grassland can there- fore be simulated in ECOSSE in the same way as arable- only rotations.
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Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas
emissions of production of bioethanol from
sorghum in the United States

Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

A handful of life-cycle analyses (LCA) of sorghum etha- nol have been conducted. Wang et al. [17] conducted an LCA of US GS ethanol. They reported a positive net en- ergy benefit of 7.11 MJ per liter GS ethanol. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final rule approving GS fuel pathways [18]. EPA ’s analysis indicates that GS ethanol produced at dry-mill fa- cilities using fossil natural gas (FNG) for process energy meets the GHG emissions reduction threshold of 20% relative to baseline petroleum fuel, thus qualifying as a renewable fuel under the RFS. The rule also specifies that GS ethanol produced at dry-mill facilities that use biogas from landfills, animal waste, or waste treatment for pro- cess energy meets a GHG emission reduction of at least 50% relative to petroleum gasoline, thus qualifying as an advanced biofuel. The EPA ’s rule and analysis target GS as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Despite recogni- tion of SS and FS as possible ethanol feedstocks, LCAs of dedicated ethanol production pathways for SS and FS as advanced biofuels feedstocks have yet to be conducted.
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A structural VAR analysis of renewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: Evidence from India

A structural VAR analysis of renewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: Evidence from India

autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach for the USA found that, in the long-run, industrial production and employment were the key determinants of fossil fuel, hydro, solar, waste and wind energy consumption, but did not have a significant impact on natural gas and wood energy consumption. Chang et al., (2009) by using Panel Threshold Regression (PTR) model for the OECD countries over the period 1997-2006 asserted that there was no direct and simple relationship between GDP and the contribution of RES to energy supply. They concluded by documenting that the level of economic growth of a country influenced the use of RES as a way to respond to oil price shocks. High-economic growth countries used RES to minimize the effects of adverse price shock, but low-economic growth countries were unable to do so. Therefore, the first countries exhibited a substitution effect towards RES to avoid the negative relationship between oil prices and GDP. Sadorsky (2009a) used a panel data model to estimate the impact of RES (which includes geothermal, wind and solar power, waste and wood) on economic growth and CO 2 emissions per capita and oil price
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The Impact of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Crop Agriculture: A Spatial- and Production-Level Analysis

The Impact of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Crop Agriculture: A Spatial- and Production-Level Analysis

Given the above complexities in dealing with the estimation of GHG emissions, previously reported carbon equivalent (CE) emission factors were used to estimate the amount of emissions gener- ated as a result of input use by production prac- tice (Table 1). In essence, multiple GHGs associ- ated with global warming were converted to their carbon equivalents to obtain a “carbon foot- print”—a process stemming from a rich engi- neering literature on carbon equivalence. Values provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA 2007, 2009) were used for diesel and gasoline combustion emissions and combined with EcoInvent’s life cycle inventory database through SimaPro (2009) to calculate the upstream emissions from the production of fuel. Values provided by Lal (2004), a synthesis of nu- merous studies measuring carbon emissions from farm operations, were used for all other inputs. Since many different types of fertilizers (e.g., ammonium nitrate, liquid nitrogen, diammonium phosphate, urea, potash, phosphates, and combi- nations of the above) require different amounts of energy, production technologies, and hence CO2 emissions during fertilizer production, Lal’s (2004) CE emission values for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were used to arrive at GHG emissions from combinations of fertilizers used in produc- tion by weighting by their component values (i.e., 1 lb of 18-24-15 N-P-K fertilizer would have 0.18 × 1.3 CE from N + 0.24 × 0.2 CE from P and 0.15 × 0.16 CE from K, or 0.31 CE per pound of 18- 24-15 fertilizer applied without N2O emissions and 0.54 CE with N2O emissions).
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Food and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Food and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Other activities with mitigation include: reducing food miles, as locally produced food avoids all the transport-based emissions of imported food ( http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6064 ); including agricul- ture in the Emissions Trading Schemes together with reduction targets; increasing consumption of organic goods (this should, however, be carefully interpreted as there is no concrete correlation be- tween organic food and food responsible for low GHG emissions (Niggli et al, 2007).

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Residential energy use emissions dominate health impacts from exposure to ambient particulate matter in India

Residential energy use emissions dominate health impacts from exposure to ambient particulate matter in India

in India per sector from both subtraction and attribution methods. Values in parentheses represent the 95% uncertainty intervals (95UI). Sectors are agriculture (AGR), biomass burning (BBU), dust (DUS), power generation (ENE), industrial non-power (IND), residential energy use (RES) and land transport (TRA).

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The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

In Northeast China, the average yield of all crops de- creases under both two climate change scenarios. In both the SRB and the LRB, rice and wheat suffer the most neg- ative impacts of climate change and vegetables will also ex- perience a considerable yield loss. These crops have a rel- atively high water sensitivity under irrigation, which means that they will be more affected when the irrigation water sup- ply decreases because of climate change. The total profits at the basin level also decline, but the profits of crops widely vary. Cotton and sugar crops will experience a huge increase in profits, whereas the other seven crops will face losses in the profit. RCP8.5 in the LRB has the most profound impact on agricultural production, especially for rice. All of these changes are highly in line with the fluctuation in the irriga- tion water supply.
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Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

Biofuels have been promoted in the US and other coun- tries for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum fuel consumption. The US 2007 Energy Inde- pendence and Security Act (EISA) administers the Re- newable Fuel Standard (RFS) program with a total volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renew- able biofuels by 2022 [1]. This total includes 56.8 billion liters of renewable biofuel, 18.9 billion liters of advanced biofuel, and 60.6 billion liters of cellulosic biofuel, which have a life-cycle GHG emission reduction by at least 20%, 50%, and 60%, respectively, relative to gasoline [2]. Bioethanol is now the dominant biofuel used in the trans- portation sector. The current US bioethanol industry has been developed to use high starch content feedstocks, pri- marily corn, to produce ethanol. To meet the EISA volu- metric requirement, a variety of feedstocks may be used including other starch- and sugar-based crops, as well as crop residues (corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, and sug- arcane straw, among others), dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, miscanthus, mixed prairie grasses, and short- rotation trees), and forest residues.
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Uncertainty analysis of GHG spatial inventory from the industrial activity. A case study for Poland

Uncertainty analysis of GHG spatial inventory from the industrial activity. A case study for Poland

eqv SF6 CO2 eqv % Industrial Processes 19648,8 12,88 3,79 7442,3 56,13 0,00154 28629,4 19305,9 12,88 3,78 7442,2 56,08 0,0014 28284,9 1,2 A. Mineral Products 10152,9 10152,9 9878,4 9878,4 2,7 B. Chemistry 3622,9 11,44 3,74 5023,7 3881,9 11,44 3,73 5279,4 5,1 C. Metal production 5536,8 1,44 0,05 42,64 0,00018 5628,2 5537,1 1,44 0,046 42,04 5628,8 0,1 D. Other Production 8,6 8,6 8,6 8,6 0,0 F. Consumption of

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Biofuel Expansion, Fertilizer Use, and GHG Emissions: Unintended Consequences of Mitigation Policies

Biofuel Expansion, Fertilizer Use, and GHG Emissions: Unintended Consequences of Mitigation Policies

Academic Editor: Silvia Secchi Copyright © 2013 Amani Elobeid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Increased biofuel production has been associated with direct and indirect land-use change, changes in land management practices, and increased application of fertilizers and pesticides. This has resulted in negative environmental consequences in terms of increased carbon emissions, water quality, pollution, and sediment loads, which may offset the pursued environmental benefits of biofuels. This study analyzes two distinct policies aimed at mitigating the negative environmental impacts of increased agricultural production due to biofuel expansion. The first scenario is a fertilizer tax, which results in an increase in the US nitrogen fertilizer price, and the second is a policy-driven reversion of US cropland into forestland (afforestation). Results show that taxing fertilizer reduces US production of nitrogen-intensive crops, but this is partially offset by higher fertilizer use in other countries responding to higher crop prices. In the afforestation scenario, crop production shifts from high-yielding land in the United States to low-yielding land in the rest of the world. Important policy implications are that domestic policy changes implemented by a large producer like the United States can have fairly significant impacts on the aggregate world commodity markets. Also, the law of unintended consequences results in an inadvertent increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.
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The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China

The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China

Energy and emissions intensities are given in Figure 9 and Figure 10 respectively. The ref- erence projections in both cases reflect the combined effects of autonomous energy efficient im- provement (AEEI), a representation in the EPPA model of technology and other improvements made in the household transport and other sectors which do not occur in response to price, yet re- sult in decreasing energy intensity of production (in this case, of passenger travel volume) with time. In Figure 10, AEEI can be observed within the own-supplied transport subsector; how- ever, because of the mode shift from purchased transport with a low emissions-intensity to own- supplied transport, the mode-weighted average emissions intensity of household transport in- creases in the reference case. In Figure 9, a small effect of higher demand is visible: faced with higher costs to provide that demand, households invest slightly more in vehicles with better fuel economy.
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Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia

Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia

The most significant contribution during the industrial phase can be attributed to the production of methanol due to the use of fossil fuel as energy source. GHG emissions from methanol production are highest compared with ancillary material production, mill process and transport. The according proportions of the emissions are 41%, 24%, 15%, 15% and 5% respectively, in Kalimantan. In Sumatra the the production parts similarily contribute to the overall GHG emission accounting for 42%, 24%, 16%, 16%, and 2% respectively. GHG emissions could be avoided by substituting waste stream of raw materials in the production for energy or materials taken from outside the studied system boundary. Emissions can be avoided by using less GHG emitting practices instead of GHG intensive practice to produce energy (Henson, 2009; Brinkman, 2009). A good example is the substitution of the fossil fuels with biofuels or by the incineration of production waste. In addition, emissions can be avoided by material substitution or by changes in the end- of-life treatment.
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Current and near-term GHG emissions factors from electricity production for New York State and New York City

Current and near-term GHG emissions factors from electricity production for New York State and New York City

Marginal GHG Emissions Factor (New York City) 215 kg CO 2 e/MWh 540 kg CO 2 e/MWh Lastly, the generator types modeled as reservoirs, i.e. hydroelectric power plants and the im- ports, leads to a very flexible resource. Figure 9 depicts the modeled hourly generation by generator and fuel type for winter, summer and summer weeks. Generally the base-load generation is pro- vided by nuclear, coal-fueled, and combined cycle power plants. The load following is provided by the hydroelectric power plants and imported electricity. In the summer periods, load following is also provided by natural gas fueled steam and gas turbines. While it is possible for the aggregate hydroelectric plant to provide a flexible resources, in reality the imports typically do not respond to demand changes as rapidly as they are governed by the generator constraints of the neighboring regions. This could be reducing the amount of generation coming from fast acting but less efficient GT and ICE generation.
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Energy, Emissions and the Economy: Empirical Analysis from
      Pakistan

Energy, Emissions and the Economy: Empirical Analysis from Pakistan

Kolstad and Krautkraemer (1993) point out that the resource use (particularly energy) cede instant economic benefits, its negative blow on the environment may be observed in the long run. Since, most of the theoretical work is dynamic; the empirical studies are mostly static in nature, entailing the need for dynamic empirical analysis. Jorgenson and Wilcoxen (1993) find out that the common feature of the models is relying on the effect of policies on capital accumulation in modelling the relationships between the economy, energy and environment. Theoretically, there may be several transmission mechanisms through which environmental policy and economic growth may relate; partly due to some models considering pollution as an input to production; and partly, as a negative by-product [Ricci (2007)]. Generally, environmental policies are considered to have negative impact on growth, due to their role as additional constraints in the models. Certainly, Dudek, et al. (2003) show that the additional benefits from reduction of emissions will exceed the average cost. Hence, the methodology for empirical analysis should base on the dynamic effects in the energy-environment-economy nexus. Theoretical studies mainly believe that any effective policy should take the dynamic nature of the relationships and long run perspective.
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Reducing GHG Emissions by Abandoning Agricultural Land use on Organic Soils - A Cost Assessment

Reducing GHG Emissions by Abandoning Agricultural Land use on Organic Soils - A Cost Assessment

Source: Own calculation based on GUEK 200, BASIS-DLM and ASE 4.3 Results of model simulations with RAUMIS It is assumed that restored wetlands are not eligible for direct payments related to agri- cultural land. The tax implemented on peatland has thus to exceed the returns on arable or grassland use, including direct payments. A tax of 300 € per hectare is mobilesing about a third part of all agricultural used peatland. Marginal land uses are reduced, such as grassland at very low stocking densities, set-aside and coarse grain (Figure 5). In case of these activities, part of the direct payments covers the production cost, so that areas are abandoned more easily. In parallel, temporary grassland is increased on remaining arable land as a substitute for lost permanent grassland. Up to a tax of 700 € per ha, the area of marginal arable crops and especially grassland is increasingly reduced, and almost 80 % of all peatland under agricultural use is abandoned. At higher tax rates less additional area is abandoned, because more competitive land uses have to be reduced. For example, green maize a comparatively competitive crop, used e.g. for subsidized biogas production, and is significantly reduced only at higher tax rates.
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High-resolution spatial modelling of greenhouse gas
emissions from land-use change to energy crops in the
United Kingdom

High-resolution spatial modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change to energy crops in the United Kingdom

We combine data on global distribution of biodiversity with data on rapidly expanding land-based renewable energies to identify areas of conflict between biodiver- sity and energy development. We show that global key areas for biodiversity protection may be under threat from increasing renewable energy development in the near future. The magnitude of risk is dependent on the type of RE source harvested, the restrictions imposed on energy harvest and the region considered, with Cen- tral America appearing at particularly high potential risk from RE development. When no restrictions on the extraction of RE apply, we identify a major potential threat to biodiversity from bioenergy cultivation, while the potential impact of wind energy and solar PV appears comparatively lower. However, these differ- ences are reduced when energy potential is restricted by external factors, in particular by local energy demand. Overall, we found that areas of opportunity for developing solar PV and wind energy with little harm to biodiversity could exist in several regions of the world, although without conversion of large land areas and long-scale power transmission, the contribu- tion to satisfying existing demand is very low. In con- trast, areas of opportunity for bioenergy production in land with low priority for biodiversity protection are scarce, irrespective of any additional external factors restricting energy production potential. This result arises from the fact that productive land in the tropical regions is usually good for biodiversity as well as for bioenergy generation (Gaston, 2000; Koh & Wilcove, 2008; Pogson et al., 2013).
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