Criteria used for aquaculture zoning
Based on the baseline information, it was decided to explore the possibility of site suitability for finfish cage farming, rack culture of bivalves, pen culture of crabs and re-laying of clams. Multi-criteria decision analysis methodology (Eastman, 1996) was used for the study taking into consideration of navigational path, water current, water depth, water quality, sediment characteristics, organic load of the bottom of water body for selecting sites for coastalaquaculture. While assessing the investment capacity of the village population, it was understood that their, investment capacity is limited to low cost technologies and introduction of technologies in estuarine part was found to be more acceptable over marine side. Based on this low investment scenario, detailed aquaculture zoning was carried out in estuarine part of the village. For finfish cage farming, the criteria described by Chua (1979) and Phillips et al. (2009) was used for aquaculture zoning. For mussel culture, criteria described by Appukuttan et al. (2003), and for identifying sites for clam relaying, criteria suggested by Narasimham (1998) were used. For crab farming site selection, criteria suggested by Shelley and Lovatelli (2011) was followed, and for suggesting sites for shrimp farming and selection of hatchery and nursery sites the criteria described by Ross et al. (2013) was followed. Methodology for “spatialplanning” in which the area with respect to aquaculture and non-aquaculture activities were considered, the steps described by Ehler and Douvere (2009) and Maeden et al. (2016) was used as guideline and for “aquaculture zoning” of the area identified for aquaculture the methodologies described by Aguilar-Manjarrez et al. (2017) was followed. For this study, open source DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data was extracted from United States. Geological Survey website and global modified ETOPO5 seafloor data was extracted from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India website in making demographic structure of the area. For mapping, monitoring and developing the DM model, ArcGIS domain and its underlying processes of modelling was used (Rolf Gabler- Mieck and Rainer Duttmann, 2007).
ture when it is integrated and forward-looking with respect to regulation, management and protection of the marine environment; the allocation of space should address the multiple, cumulative, and poten- tially conflicting uses of the sea (FAO 2013b). The shared use of public domain areas and the conserva- tion policies adopted for coastal areas reduce the availability of sites. At the same time, however, the demand for aquaculture products is increasing, espe- cially because this activity can supply a constant stream of quality products at stable prices (FAO 2010a). Preliminary site selection processes should define the geographical location and extent of aquaculture in a determined region (Ross et al. 2013). As part of this process, physical, ecological and socio-economic criteria should be taken into account. Next, a location that minimises conflict with the other users of coastalwaters, such as shipping, fishing, recreational activi- ties and the energy industry (Dempster & Sanchez- Jerez 2008), should be identified to site the farm. As aquaculture is often the ‘new kid on the block’ in terms of its use of space, in many coastal areas it will be difficult to find suitable sites which do not conflict with pre-existing uses that may well be considered more important socio-economically for the region (Toledo-Guedes et al. 2014). As this scenario of mul- tiple pre-existing uses of coastalspatial resources is widespread, we suggest that the AZA concept should be considered to provide space for marine aqua - culture, and avoid environmental degradation and negative interaction with other traditional users. Here, we define an AZA as: ‘a marine area where the de - velopment of aquaculture has priority over other uses, and therefore will be primarily dedicated to aquaculture. Identification of an AZA will result from zoning processes through participatory spatial plan- ning, whereby administrative bodies legally estab- lish that specific spatial areas within a region have priority for aquaculturedevelopment’.
pursue offshore wind development in its coastalwaters and, if so, how offshore wind and aquaculture might accommodate each other. Such discussions might in turn prompt members of the two industries and research institutions to collaborate on an experimental co-located facility—a small wind farm constructed to support one or two types of aquaculture . Washington might also enact offshore permitting regulations that gave procedural and substantive preference to combined-use facilities but that also required experimental facilities to engage in true adaptive management, with public participation, reporting, and accountability obligations akin to those in Craig and Ruhl’s  Model Adaptive Management Procedure Act. By mandating participatory forums that could foster creative but polycentric approaches to ocean management issues and by implementing legal procedures that foster public participation, scientific and technical experimentation and learning, and increased collaboration, Washington might well find that socially legitimate adaptive governance emerge, resulting in new governance institutions that could allow its marine aquaculture industry to more nimbly and painlessly adapt to climate change and ocean acidification while simultaneously making room for other innovative uses of the ocean—all while preserving the transparency, public participation, and sense of fairness that would make such innovations socially legitimate.
Inland and coastal waterbodies are critical components of the global biosphere. Timely monitoring is neces- sary to enhance our understanding of their functions, the drivers impacting on these functions and to deliver more effective management. The ability to observe waterbodies from space has led to Earth observation (EO) becoming established as an important source of information on water quality and ecosystem condition. How- ever, progress toward a globally valid EO approach is still largely hampered by inconsistences over temporally and spatially variable in-water optical conditions. In this study, a comprehensive dataset from more than 250 aquatic systems, representing a wide range of conditions, was analyzed in order to develop a typology of opti- cal water types (OWTs) for inland and coastalwaters. We introduce a novel approach for clustering in situ hyperspectral water reflectance measurements (n 5 4045) from multiple sources based on a functional data analysis. The resulting classification algorithm identified 13 spectrally distinct clusters of measurements in inland waters, and a further nine clusters from the marine environment. The distinction and characterization of OWTs was supported by the availability of a wide range of coincident data on biogeochemical and inherent optical properties from inland waters. Phylogenetic trees based on the shapes of cluster means were constructed to identify similarities among the derived clusters with respect to spectral diversity. This typification provides a valuable framework for a globally applicable EO scheme and the design of future EO missions.
Disturbance from the coastaldevelopment in the west might have contributed to the shift of both SDE and SD ellipses. The shifts of SDE ellipses’ directions show that seagrass in ‘Pulau Gazumbo’ had experienced shifts in its directional trend. A higher abundance of seagrass in station 1 was thought to have influenced the directional trend of the ellipse in 2003. In 2006, the direction of ellipse turned slightly to the north. High seagrass abundance recorded at station 1 was thought to influence the predominant orientation of the ellipse in the west. However, the increment of seagrass abundance in station 8 could have caused the ellipse to tilt towards the north direction in 2006. In 2009, the ellipse had completely tilted towards the north-west direction. Decrement of seagrass abundance in station 1, and increment of its abundance in station 5 and 4 had probably caused the SDE to shift from west to the east side of the islet.
Israeli aquaculture began in the 1920s, with common carp monoculture. This was followed by polyculture of carp with tilapias, grey mullet, and planktivorous carp. Scientific research on polyculture started in the 1950s and has since contributed to the global science and practice of green water aquaculture, especially with novel polyculture approaches and concepts. Today, the industry is characterized by intensive freshwater polyculture, implemented in earthen fish ponds and reservoirs. In the Mediterranean coastal plain, fresh, brackish, and marine water polyculture is carried out in semi-intensive fishponds. Polyculture in Israel is an entrepreneurial activity that combines ecological principles of Chinese polyculture with local technologies and objectives. The Biofloc approach (active suspension ponds, ASP), periphyton, and aquaponics, were developed in the 1980s in response to rising public and policymakers‘ concerns and regulations on land use, pollution, use of chemicals, and organic manures. R&D on marine integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems began in the early 1970s at the National Center for Mariculture (NCM) in Eilat. It started with sea bream and mullet in earthen seawater ponds, whose plankton-rich water recirculated through bivalve and macroalgae biofiltration modules. An advanced form of the concept was deployed in the early 1980s and was studied in detail using nutrient budgets. Several system models with fish, bivalves, and algae, on small and pilot scales, were studied and quantified. Abalone, sea urchins, shrimp, brine shrimp, Salicornia, and periphyton, were added to the Eilat marine IMTA models, beginning in the 1990s. Upon entering the third millennium, Israeli research further examined the relationship between the sustainability and economics of IMTA in world aquaculture.
Bekkelagsbassenget (1997 and 1998), and Hvervenbukta and Breivold/Bunnefjorden in 1997 and 1998 (Berge 2009). The discharge of mercury in Norway has been reduced by 60 % from 1995 to 2005. From 2008 products containing mercury was prohibited in Norway. In 2009 a survey of contaminants in freshwater fish in Norway revealed very high concentrations of mercury (Fjeld and Rognerud 2009). This increase was unexpected as the atmospheric mercury depositions most likely have decreased in southeast Norway since the beginning of the 1990s. Mercury in fish exists mainly as methyl mercury, and factors stimulating the mercury methylation, such as warmer and wetter climate and also forestry lumbering, may have contributed to the observed increase. This might also be the case for the contamination of cod in the Oslofjord. The mechanism for the increase of Hg in fish in Norway is not fully understood. An alternative explanation might be the increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that have been shown in surface waters in Norway (De Wit et al. 2007) and boreal areas elsewhere in North America and Europe (Monteith et al. 2007) which were attributed to a decline in sulphate deposition. The DOC is derived from soil organic material and may act as a carrier for organic pollutants (Ding and Wu 1997). Thus, the increase in DOC would contribute to increased transport of Hg sorbed to dissolved humic substances and wash-out to the fjord.
accurate data in coastal and inland systems. In this context, Morel and Prieur (1977) distinguished two water types, depending on the predominance of phytoplankton and autochthonous production of dissolved and particulate detri- tal material (Case-1), or the input of external particulate and dissolved material into the system causing an uncoupling of phytoplankton with bulk optical properties (Case-2). More recent studies have moved toward the differentiation of water types in optically complex environments using in situ and/or satellite-derived reflectance data. Most of these stud- ies have considered the range of optical classes in marine systems (English Channel and North Sea: Lubac and Loisel 2007; Tilstone et al. 2012; Vantrepotte et al. 2012, Iberian coastalwaters: Spyrakos et al. 2011; Adriatic Sea: M elin et al. 2011, Yellow Sea: Ye et al. 2016; Northwest Atlantic shelf: Moore et al. 2001, global ocean: Moore et al. 2009, 2014, global coastalwaters: M elin and Vantrepotte 2015) with only a few studies focussed on inland systems (lakes and res- ervoirs in China: Le et al. 2011; Shen et al. 2015; Estonian and Finnish lakes: Reinart et al. 2003). Overall, these classifi- cation schemes can substantially improve the remote sensing products associated with individual optical water types (OWTs), and have demonstrated the need for a better under- standing of the underlying variability especially in nearshore and inland waterbodies (Moore et al. 2014). In parallel, opti- cal water typologies based on remote sensing data have found further applications in ecological studies (Martin Tray- kovski and Sosik 2003), the detection of blooms (compre- hensive list in Blondeau-Patissier et al. 2014) and in the more detailed study of the relationships between absorption parameters and water constituents especially when these can be determined in large datasets from different aquatic sys- tems (Torrecilla et al. 2011).
5. In an effort to coordinate management of coastal areas and small islands national level through the process of harmonization and synchronization efforts, and synergy between the implementation of management of coastal areas and small islands at the national level in an integrated and sustainable, the Government released a policy, by issuing Presidential Decree number 73 year 2015 on the Implementation Coordination of Coastal Areas and Small Islands, as the implementation of Article 53 paragraph (3), Article 3, paragraph (2). The Presidential Decree stipulates that the management of coastal areas and small islands at the national level include: a. the activities of a cross-province; and b. activities in Particular National Strategic Area. This setting does not sync vertically with Law Number 1 year 2014 as an amendment to Law number 27 year 2007, because the activities are coordinated at the regulation does not regulate the activities of national strategic importance as stipulated in Article 50 of Law number 1 year 2014. So planning, utilization, utilization control, and monitoring of activities in the coastal areas in the sea which is in a national strategic area can not be coordinated by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, including reclamation activities that take place in the North Coast Jakarta and Makassar
Project Area Description:
The project area is located on the northeast side of Lake Maurepas, adjacent to the Joyce
Wildlife Management Area (WMA). The area supports characteristic Louisiana wetlands such as freshwater coastal swamp forest dominated by water tupelo and bald cypress (Figure 3a and 3b). The project area is owned by the LDWF, Williams Land Company, LLC, and Rathborne Land Company, all of whom have expressed interest in participating in this project. The project area was originally part of a contiguous West Joyce Wetlands complex. The wetlands are now bisected by Interstate-55/US-51and railroad tracks, essentially creating two hydrologically distinct wetland units. In the 1960’s, Anderson Canal and South Slough were dredged. The spoil was placed on the south side of the canals, effectively blocking the flow and directing it to the canal running parallel to I-55. The canals created a conduit for saltwater movement into the system during northward wind driven surges. Since the construction of the Anderson, South Slough, and I-55 canals, saltwater intrusion has killed vast areas of cypress-tupelo swamp forests. Restoration of this large wetland complex will enhance habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals, improve water quality, and provide increased freshwater management for both the project area and the adjacent Joyce WMA.
Strategies for sustainable development are currently being worked out in many different contexts. These include various local, regional, national and international geographical territories and various sectors of society. In this review, more forcefully emphasizing the role and potential of spatialplanning in achieving some beneficial objectives. Spatialplanning can be used as an instrument to co-ordinate socio-economic development by preventing environmental problems and simultaneously protecting the natural environment and the cultural environment .The challenge for planning is to ensure the efficient use of limited land resources and to contribute to balanced use of resources ,including natural and landscape resources, soil ,water air .Since Spatialplanning has a long term perspective, it can also include important principles of development. Spatialplanning is used to create solutions that are bound to specific geographical territories. Socio- economic development cannot solely be achieved at the local level because spatialplanning enables various territorial dimensions to be considered: local, regional, interregional, intraregional and global. Spatialplanning as an instrument creates solutions that target specific geographical territories while the solutions are integrated with solutions in other larger or smaller territories. The challenges of spatialplanning change as society develops. Spatialplanning can co-ordinate various aspects of socio- economic development across the sectors of society: urban development in rural districts, urban rural relationships, the development of infrastructure and environmentally sound use of land and should be developed further to ensure the involvement of the public in a democratic decision-making process so that various societal interests can be weighed and balanced in decision on development (Roy and Singh, 2013). It is true that in many cases the size of the region will be determined by the problem in hand but it must also be realized to tackle it at its most appropriate spatial level. It means that if we want to develop an area through the technique and process of regional planning we have to work at a number of spatial levels. The success of regional planning will be determined partly by regional policies and partly by the success of sub-regional planning and programmes. Here it can be opined that in order to bring the backward areas and deprived people into the development process there is a need for multi-level regional planning within the framework of national planning.
Variation in physico-chemical parameters showed an effect on phytoplankton abundance and distribution (Rajkumar et al., 2009; Nowrouzi and Valavi, 2011). The present study revealed that the pH values in most of the investigated sites lie on the alkaline nature. The high pH value (8) was reported in stations 14, 25 and 27. These values appeared suitable for phytoplankton growth and reached its maximum value of production 8984.44 cell/L at station 25, and bacillariophyceae, dinophyceae have their maximum growth noticed at pH >7. But some fluctuations are seen in the present observations, recorded an acidic pH of 5.2 (station 6), 6.1 (stations 1, 2 and 4) and 6.7 at station 3. According to the observation made previously by Bijumon et al. (2000), the pH below 5 considerably reduces the primary productivity of coastalwaters. The low density of phytoplankton resulted in these coastalwaters in the order 201.11 cell/L, 136 cell/L, 112.73 cell/L and 191.33 cell/L at stations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Salinity distribution within the coastal water reflects the relative influx of freshwater supplied by rivers. Salinity levels fluctuate with the penetration of tidal flow and with mixing of fresh water and marine water by wind and water current. In non monsoon periods, the fresh water was mixed by the tides and winds out of the estuary and bay. This water was replaced by more oceanic water from offshore, thus showed increased salinity. Salinity value ranges between 6.05 psu to 31.74 psu at stations 20 and 27 respectively. The measured salinity could be attributed to the plankton diversity which act as a limiting factor that influence the distribution of plankton community and earlier findings also supports these inference (Balasubramanian and Kannan, 2005; Sridhar et al., 2006). In most of the stations phytoplankton had shown a direct relationship with salinity. Maximum phytoplankton density was recorded at stations 25 and 14(8984.44 cell/L and 3497.90 cell/L) where salinity was high (14.02 mg/L and 15.64 mg/L) as observed. The same inference was reported earlier from Bay of Bengal by Rajkumar et al. (2009).
to be proven.
Many of the clusters described in these previous studies are represented in Figs. 4–7. Moreover, here we have consid- ered waters with extreme scattering and/or absorbing proper- ties, which have typically been omitted from previous optical classification schemes as outliers. In some cases, sur- face waters with extreme optical properties were found to form discretely identifiable optical clusters (e.g., cluster I3 and I10). The current analyses and results show a greater number of clusters in inland than in coastal and open-sea systems. This is, at least in part, explained by the larger size and geographical and seasonal coverage of the inland water dataset. However, given the diversity in inland waters, it is not unreasonable to suggest that these system could also comprise a larger portion of the optical diversity of natural waters. Despite these differences, the cluster analysis per- formed here has shown that some optical clusters are com- mon to both inland and coastalwaters. The phylogenetic tree of Fig. 12 represents the similarity of the second deriva- tives of all cluster means based on L2 norm distances and identified seven major groups. In parallel, it provided useful information regarding the parts of the spectra responsible for the observed similarities/dissimilarities between the clusters. These principally concern R rs (k) peak shifts, changes in the
developing shellfish aquaculture dog conch and blood clamps. Keywords: bacteria, parameter, shellfish, aquaculture.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas perairan laut P. Pari yang akan digunakan untuk kepentingan budidaya perikanan ditinjau dari aspek mikrobiologisnya. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei dan September 2011. Parameter mikrobiologis yang dianalisa adalah kepadatan total bakteri koli, E.coli, patogen, heterotrofik, halotoleran, pemecah fosfat-nitrat-amonia dan total sel. Analisis total bakteri koli menggunakan metode filtrasi, identifikasi bakteri patogen berdasarkan uji biokimia, analisis kepadatan bakteri heterotrofik, halotoleran dan bakteri pemecah fosfat-nitrat- amonia menggunakan metode tuang, analisis total sel menggunakan Acridine Orange
sustainable nearshore fisheries, mariculture, and livelihoods. These practices are being developed and applied in biologically significant and/or formally designated protected areas in Tanzania, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Thailand. The Program has initiated livelihood projects in several globally dispersed field sites under the premise that providing tangible benefits to coastal communities through livelihood development will help build constituencies and demand for integratedcoastal management initiatives. Quantitative and anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that early actions, such as livelihood development, that demonstrate tangible benefits for coastal communities are crucial to sustained success of ICM programs (Pollnac, Crawford et al. 2001; Christie, Lowry et al. 2005). Thus, a primary building block in our overall livelihoods approach is the premise that: tangible benefits to quality of life are a necessary (but not
increased attention at U.S. ports as international trade continues to grow. 42
As larger vessels enter U.S. waters bringing more cargo, ports must expand their shore side operations to accommodate this growth. As landside infrastructure expands, truck and rail traffic to and from U.S. ports also increases. While this increased trade yields tremendous economic benefits for port communities, as well as local, state, and federal governments, it can impact air quality, land quality, and water quality in and around port communities if the growth is not carefully planned. 43
Another factor which reinforces concerns about the inefficient public transportation system, is the fact that the Cape Town’s rail system is not closed. Because of this, the majority of the poor, who are the primary users of the rail system, waste valuable time and money because of the system does not offering direct routes to core destinations from the Metro South-East. A further problem with the transportation system is the fact that all the different public and private transportation modes compete against one another (Turok & Watson, 2001). The rail, BRT, minibus taxis and private vehicles compete for long haul passengers rather than supporting and reinforcing one another to create an integrated and more efficient transportation system. Further, as a result of the limited access routes, the inaccessible street grid of the CTMA, operates as an obstacle, forming isolated neighbourhood cells which reinforce the fragmentation and separation within the city. The sprawling nature of Cape Town also makes the provision and maintenance of infrastructure and service delivery extremely costly, and thus straining the public sector’s limited resources which could have been utilised for other public functions (Dewar & Uytenbogaardt, 1991).
Koukamma Municipality, together with JNS Manufacturing which is a Kareedouw based Sawmill, intend to erect a Biochar Plant using waste produced from the establishment. The company and the municipality envisaged this concept after discovering that there are three other sawmills in its proximity that could also contribute and dispatch their waste materials to the project, to support the operation to function effectively. The benefits of the project are that it will boost the economy of the area, present job opportunities from long term to permanent, attract investment in the industry, grow and diversify the economy, create a greener environment and carbon credits. The purpose of the project is to generate Biochar that will be used by farmers to prevent the run of fertiliser downstream, which is destroying the ecology. The plant will also utilise invasive plants and other waste to fuel the plant whilst also creating jobs and presenting education and training opportunities. Moreover, a future use will be to generate energy. The concept supports and maximises opportunities relating to projects, commodities, technologies, economics, social development and environmental sustainability.
Overall the experimental study of coastal stakeholder practices has been developed using a "user)centred" approach as suggested by a series of previous works (Masser, 2005, Nedović)Budić et al., 2008, Sadeghi)Niaraki et al., 2010, Hennig et al., 2013). The analysis and interpretation have been performed thanks to the combination of SNA and DFD modelling methods applied to an online questionnaire and semi)structured interviews. The results reveal a better understanding of the SDIs’ use. The SNA analyses have identified the main SDIs used by coastal stakeholders and the main structural properties that emerge. For instance, the bipartite graph visually presented by institutional levels, highlights the respective roles of the SDIs at each institutional level in the exchange and sharing of geographical information. This multi)SDIs and multi) levels use is structured around several key SDIs (e.g., Geoportail and CRIGE)PACA) whose role is particularly significant, but complemented by a series of ‘minor’ SDIs. This reveals the fact that most users interact with key SDIs while also interacting with SDIs playing a minor role, this combination being necessary for coastal stakeholders acting in specific territories.