Following Congedo (2016) , atmospheric correction was conducted using the Dark Object Subtraction method, spectral radiance and at- satellite brightness temperature were calculated, and degrees Kelvin were converted into degrees Celsius by means of the Semi-Automatic Classiﬁcation plugin on QGIS 2.18. Table 1 shows the minimum, maximum and mean LST of each date at the study areas. The LST variation was signi ﬁcant, reaching at least 10℃ diﬀerence on each date. To reduce potential bias deriving from the speciﬁc weather or ground conditions of one speciﬁc day, the mean value of LST data from three thermal images was used to de ﬁne dependent variables at the pixel level. At neighbourhood levels, both mean and mode values of LST were applied to detect possible inﬂuence from extreme values caused by di ﬀerent land cover types. While some studies found a close relation- ship between surface and air temperature ( Coppernoll-Houston & Potter, 2018 ; Middel et al., 2014 ), others suggest a more complicated relationship and variationsbetween surface and air temperature ( Shiﬂett et al., 2017 ). This diﬀerence may be caused by oversampling horizontal areas, such as rooftops, treetops, roads, and open grounds, and neglecting vertical surfaces and areas below canopy ( Arn ﬁeld, 2003 ). We hence pay cognisance to this characteristic and its potential inﬂuence in the interpretation and discussion of our ﬁndings. Table 1
An additional challenge embedded in the prevalent (S)UHI urban versus rural comparison is the premise that population, the amount of built or impervious land, and the extent of heating are all positively related [ 22 ]. Generally at whole-city scales (i.e., ~10–50 km dimension) they are (e.g., [ 22 ]), but this assumption does not always hold at finer spatial scales; i.e., high-intensity development is frequently hotter and green parks are frequently cooler (e.g., LC features of dimension ~0.005–5 km), but this is not an absolute rule. A large proportion of recent studies of UHI or LST in urban areas have focused on the apparent cooling effects of urban green spaces, trees, and water bodies, which are typically correlated with cooler air temperatures and LST (e.g., [ 52 – 63 ]). However, cities contain a wide variety of types green spaces (e.g. lawns, gardens, riparian greenways, etc.). These are placed by urban planning in contexts ranging from the heart of office park parking lots to the peri-urban fringes of the city. There are, likewise, a wide variety of urbandevelopment types (e.g., industrial, high or low density residential, mixed use, etc.) among different neighborhood LC contexts. Much of the literature on urban heating and (S)UHIs treat green spaces as fairly monolithically cool, and dense development as fairly monolithically hot. Even if this were true, how does the highly heterogeneous LC and thermal landscape of a city upscale to a single “characteristic urban” temperature for use in an overall (S)UHI calculation? Hamstead et al. (2016) needed 22 land use/land cover-combination classes to divide New York City into a suite of characteristic land surface temperatures [ 64 ]. Many fewer classes typically comprise LC data, however. It is not yet clear how much LC distinctions within the landscape are important for characterizing a city’s overall (S)UHI value. It is certain, however, that these distinctions are important if considerations of UHI are to come into management, policy, and design decisions for urban landscapes at scales to address human experiences and social (in)equities of urbanthermal environments.
In contrast to UHI results based on the measurement of air temperatures, Weng et al. (2004) demonstrated that UHI intensity is highest in the daytime during the summer, and lowest at night, a finding that contradicts UHI results based on air temperature measurements. They profiled the UHI of Indianapolis City, Indiana by estimating the relationshipbetween LST vegetation abundance using the vegetation fraction method derived from a spectral mixture model based on a single ETM+ image from the year 2000. This method involves splitting the image into three fraction images (green vegetation, dry soil, and shade) using the constrained least-square solution, which were then used to create land cover classification based on a hybrid classification procedure combining maximum likelihood and decision tree algorithms. According to the authors, “the fractal dimension of these transects was estimated using the divider method,” where “the total length of a curve/transect is plotted against the step size in a log – log form,” and the slope of the resulting regression mode is used to estimate the “fractal dimension D”. Resultant variations in the imagery delineated the spatial patterns of urban heat islands, and the research produced a more efficient method for tying vegetation abundance to the radiative, thermal, and moisture properties that determine LST. In order to insure accuracy, geometric and radiometric correction was applied to the images.
Even more recently, a study fused MODIS and Landsat reflectance data in addition to LST derived from Landsat thermal data and found that in general, Ogden, UT experienced earlier start of season, later end of season, and consequently longer length of season than the surrounding exurban areas [ 26 ]. There are multiple reasons why the Upper Midwest is an ideal location for studying the impacts of urban areas on LSP within and surrounding cities. The region is a relatively flat, continental, temperate plain that is distant from confounding meteorological influences such as major mountain ranges or large water bodies. Cities in the region are relatively isolated and embedded in a vegetated landscape (Figure 1 a). The cities span size (area and population) and latitudinal gradients, but precipitation is relatively uniform over the region. The combination of WELD-derived NDVI, MODIS LST-derived accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD), and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Type (LCT) and Impervious Surface Area (ISA) data, all freely available, spanning at least a decade, at a spatial resolution that is appropriate for urban areas, provides an opportunity to investigate the UHI-related impacts on LSP at the local to regional scale at 30 m spatial resolution.
= 99 × n
100 For Odd data (1)
= × + For Even data (2)
As a result, a 600 × 1264 database was constructed for extreme precipitation thresholds. With the aim of developing a better understanding of precipitation threshold variations, this matrix was divided into five decades (1960–1970, 1971–1980, 1981–1990, 1991–2000, and 2001–2010). Because almost recent researches into Iran’s precipitation show that extreme precipitation have a return periods about 10 to 13 years [36–41]. Therefore, according to these research, 10-year periods were also selected in this study. In order to gain an overall view of the spatialpattern of extreme precipitation threshold variations in the northwest of Iran, mean, anomaly, and weighted mean center maps of extreme precipitation thresholds were designed. Subsequently, in order to find out the dominant pattern in these thresholds, Hot Spot Analysis, Getis-Ord Gi (which is one of the common indices for identifying spatial autocorrelation of observations and their spatialpattern) was exploited. This analytical procedure helps researchers find out if the studied elements follow a cluster or dispersed pattern. Using Z-score as a yardstick, this analytical procedure shows the areas in which clusters are formed. In this procedure, every phenomenon is interpreted in the light of its neighboring ones. High values of a phenomenon may be indicative of an interesting or significant issue; however, it may not represent a statistically hot spot. Both the particular phenomenon and its neighboring ones should
Considering theories of place, this study will present its conceptual and theoretical framework based on two main components of a place: physical attributes and activities. The link between these two components of a place has long been evaluated by public space researchers, particularly planners and urban designers. To provide the more clear illustration of the link’s importance, however, researchers must develop an alternative framework for the relationships of the two components of physical settings and activity. Therefore, the set of typologies of the physical features and activities must be refined, and more empirical knowledge of the actual use of the space and the activity-physical patterns relationship must be developed. The principal theories of place introduced above will form the foundation for this exploration. Especially, by considering the theory of place it would be adapted for
Globally, agricultural production has managed to meet the demands from a rapid growth in the proportion of the workforce not producing food and rapid changes in food demands towards more energy- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive food. However, hundreds of millions of urban dwellers face under-nutrition today, although this is far more related to their lack of income than to a lack of capacity to produce food. That much of the migration over the past 60 years has been from rural to urban areas is hardly surprising in that most of the growth in economic activities over this period has been in urban centers. Today, around 97 per cent of the world's gross domestic product (GDP) is generated by industry and services, and around 65 percent of the world's economically active population works in industry and services—and a very high proportion of all industry and services are in urban areas (Satterthwaite et al., 2010). Iran's population increased dramatically during the past 60 years and from 16.2 million persons in 1951 increased to 75 million persons in 2012 (Iran statistic center, 2013). Population growth in recent years has been accompanied by migration from rural areas and urban growth. So that the urban population has increased from 32% of the total population in 1956 to 69 percent in 2011 that in comparison with the world is 19 % higher (Iran statistic center, 2013; World Bank, 2013). The number of cities has increased from 199 in 1956 to 1,200 in 2011, and in contrast, a higher number of villages of the country is empty from the population. For example, in Kerman Province, from 14321 villages, 8300 are empty from the population (Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution of Kerman Province, 2009).
The relationshipbetween historical development and potentially toxic element concentrations in urban soils
McIlwaine, R., Doherty, R., Cox, S. F., & Cave, M. (2017). The relationshipbetween historical development and potentially toxic element concentrations in urban soils. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.040
combination of multiple reflectance or emissivity values recorded by the remote sensor at a given location. The ideal ‘pure’ pixel would record only one type of ground reflectance or emissivity. While the effect is reduced when the pixel size is quite small (e.g., less than 1 meter), an urban area image with only pure pixels does not exist. To compensate, the general goal is to deconvolve or “unmix” the pixel spectral signature into its dominant components. Common techniques used to reduce the data dimension include principle component analysis (Cortijo and Blanca 1999), multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (Rashed et al. 2003; Powell et al. 2007), and adaptive mean shift analysis
The effect of spatial aperture variations on the thermal performance of discretely frac- tured geothermal reservoirs was investigated using finite element method solutions to the convective heat transfer in the fracture coupled with a boundary integral descrip- tion of conductive heat transfer in the rock. The dipolar flow was generated by a source of fluid volume at an injection well and a sink at a production well within a circular fracture. The statistics of the thermal performance of an ensemble of fracture realiza- tions was evaluated. Fractures with self-affine aperture fields where long range correla- tions dominant over short range correlations were generated. The results showed that spatial aperture variations most frequently lead to diminished thermal performance by creating flow channeling that reduces the heat transfer area. Enhanced thermal performance occurred in the less common cases when the aperture was small in the region between the wellbores, causing fluid flow to sweep out greater areas of the fracture and extract heat from a larger area. The standard deviation of the apertures had the largest influence on the thermal performance, while the spatial correlation of the aperture played a secondary role. Larger values of the standard deviation led to more adverse thermal performance. For the range of standard deviations investigated, the fraction of fractures exhibiting enhanced thermal performance compared to the base case of no aperture variations ranged from 34 to 49 %. The degradation of thermal performance due to aperture variations was largest when the well bore spacing was a larger fraction of the fracture diameter. Reservoirs consisting of two non-intersecting fractures connected to the same injection and production wells were also modeled. The uneven split of the flow between the reservoirs in this case caused a further deterioration of thermal performance compared with the single fracture reservoirs. However, flow control was able to overcome nearly all of the additional loss of thermal performance for the multifracture reservoir.
5. Land Allocation in the Greater Shanghai Region
Our empirical study examines the degree to which the allocation of landbetweenurban and rural uses has been determined by economic influences in the years following implementation of these governance and fiscal reforms. Ideally, such a study would utilize data on compensation for agricultural land requisitioned for conversion to urban use and on conveyance fees paid for land use rights leases for each parcel of land. While there are some published aggregate data on land transactions at the provincial level for some years¸ there are at present no systematic, reliable data on land transactions at more disaggregated levels over time. Even the most comprehensive published study we encountered, that of Ping (2006), which reported results of a survey of 8 provinces, 8 counties, and 3 cities, was forced to estimate land prices from more aggregated data using assumptions about leasing rates and utilization of land for public purposes. Given this lack of data, we investigate land allocation indirectly by estimating the values of urban and agricultural land implicitly.
Fig. 1. The range of intrafractional variations in the RL (a), AP (b), and SI (c) directions for each patient rearranged according to the three-dimensional tumour motion amplitude in descending order. Abbreviations : RL, right-left; AP, anterior-posterior; SI, superior-inferior
For the aggregate portion of the study, mean crop yields were constructed as ten-year (1983-1992) crop yield averages using NASS county-level yield data. 27 The site-specific variables contained in the NRI data were aggregated to the county level to correspond to the NASS data. 28 The NRI contains a weighting factor (xf act) that is equivalent to the number of acres that each NRI sample point represents. The xf acts are summed for each county to give the total number of acres represented by the NRI sample points. The attribute value (e.g., C factor) is multiplied by the xf act, and then summed over all NRI sites within the county. Finally, the value obtained by summing the weighted attribute values was divided by the sum of the xf acts for the county in which the sites reside to obtain a county average for the attribute in question. County averages of the soil erodibility measure EI (AGEI), C factor (AGCF ACT ), and average water holding capacity (AGAW C) were constructed in this manner. While the SOILS-5 data provided yields for irrigated and nonirrigated land, we constructed a variable (P ERN IRR) for the aggregate portion of the study to capture the percentage of nonirrigated cropland within the county. All data from the NRI used to construct the county-level aggregate measures were limited to those sites associated with the cultivated cropland designation.
In terms of car and public transport accessibility, greater travel time implies worse accessibility and vice versa. If accessi- bility improves, then everything else being held constant would suggest that the estimated parameters should be negative, as one additional minute of car/public transport travel time (implying less good accessibility) is expected to lead to lower property prices. Both estimated parameters are significant, and the estimate for the public transport parameter PT_ACC is negative, albeit with a small absolute value of 1 percent. At the mean, a one-minute saving in public transport travel time equates to an approximately 3 percent saving from the average time (see Table 1) and generates a house price premium of ap- proximately £1600 (1 percent of the mean price; see Table 1). For the car variable, CAR_ACC, the estimated parameter is significant but positive, suggesting that longer travel times to the city center have higher property prices. In general this ap- plies to houses located further away from the city center and is evidence of the general trend of suburbanization in the United Kingdom, which is so noticeable in the Tyne and Wear area. It should be noted that, while this global regression used car accessibility times based on a road network between congested and free flow, the modeling was not sensitive to whether this accessibility or one based on the full or free-flow network was used.
The increase in the heat storage capacity of urban surfaces creates so-called urban heat islands (UHI), in which built up areas are hotter than nearby rural areas (Oke, 1982; Taha, 1997; Rizwan et al., 2008). This local difference in temperatures creates a negative impact on people and environment because it hampers air quality, increases energy consumption, loses biological control, and affects people's health (Kikegawa et al., 2003; Grimmond, 2007; Meineke et al., 2014; Plocoste et al., 2014). Advances in thermal remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS), and statistical methods have enabled the research community to characterize and examine UHI versus landscape relationship. A great number of studies that deal with UHI analysis have been carried out, providing a significant feedback to policy makers and researchers (Quattrochi and Luvall, 1999; Yuan and Bauer, 2007; Rizwan et al., 2008; Junxiang et al., 2011; Kumar et al., 2012; Radhi et al., 2013; Myint et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2014; Adams and Smith, 2014; Coseo and Larsen, 2014; Song et al., 2014; Chun and Guldmann, 2014; Rotem-Mindali et al., 2015; Kourtidis et al., 2015). Besides air temperature, LST derived from remote sensing data is unique source of information in order to define surface urban heat islands and it has been widely used as indicator for UHI research (Weng and Schubring, 2004; Weng, 2009; Imhoff et al., 2010). With the introduction of thermal remote sensing, LST information is available from a series of satellite sensors (such as Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER) that cover a wide range of the earth surface. Compared to air temperatures collected from weather stations, thermal imagery provides full spatial coverage at various temporal scales (Myint et al., 2013). In addition, LST derived from remote sensing imagery might be better to show the hottest and coolest areas as compared to temperature collected from urban weather station, which is located in the tree park-like surroundings (Nichol and To, 2012). Surface temperature also has a direct interaction with LULC characteristics (Quattrochi and Luvall, 1999). Therefore, the analysis of the relationshipbetween LULC and LST is crucial in order to understand the effects of LULC on UHI.
subplate in human cortical development, and the dra- matic differences in the subplate between humans and rodents [70,71]. These data suggest, however, that the impact of prenatal injury varies depending on whether inflammation is present or not, and that early HI may induce a more severe, persistent injury to the developing white matter. Together, these results support the devel- opment of specific clinically feasible and safe biomarkers to guide the use of emerging neuroprotective agents for critically ill preterm infants in real-time. Preterm infants who suffer HI may need a different treatment paradigm than those exposed to bacterial inflammation, or a com- bined injury. Indeed, hypothermia, a neuroprotective therapy used in term infants with HI injury, was found not to be effective when P7 rat pups were pretreated with LPS prior to the HI insult . Additional studies are also needed to clarify the impact of cumulative post- natal HI or infectious insults on the developing brain. Clarification of injury mechanisms with clinically rele- vant models such as presented here will advance our treatment regimens and ultimately improve outcomes for ELGANs.
152 technology and culture. The European consulates and missionary-philanthropic organizations that had begun operating in Jerusalem around mid-century served as vehicles for the introduction of Western influence. The Germans, Russian, French, and English presence was reflected in their architectural compositions; e.g., the Anglican cathedral of St. George, the churches under the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission. Political life in Palestine under the British Mandate (1917-1948) was turbulent. The Arab population of Palestine, Muslim as well as Christian, more than doubled during the first half of the twentieth century, and Jerusalem's Arab population grew from 28,000 in 1922 to 65,000 in 1946. Rapid demographic development went hand in hand with accelerated economic progress. The British brought with them new standards of physical infrastructure and public services. Electricity was first introduced in private homes in the large cities in the mid-1920s. Development in the country slowed down with the outbreak of the First World War. The years following the First World War brought rapid growth. In 1917, when General Sir Edmund Allenby entered the Old City of Jerusalem, British rule over Palestine began. The British set up their administrative centre for the country in Jerusalem, transforming it from a relatively neglected Ottoman provincial town to a modern administrative, political, religious and cultural centre. Jerusalem expanded to the north, south and west. Many eminent architects and planners were brought to Jerusalem to draw master plans, develop guidelines, and design buildings. Since the civil administration of the British Mandate Authority was headquartered in Jerusalem, the city acquired a new position of political importance adding to its position of religious significance, and became the capital of the country. This in itself was a major source of urban growth.
to commercial use. Accessible land amenity, non-accessible land amenity, percent of land in accessible open space, and percent of land in inaccessible open space are recorded in a 1 kilometer square around each structure.
Cheshire and Sheppard (1995) construct a very flexible land rent function, which uses an exponential form to regress the land rent on distance from town centre and angle of deflection from East. They suggest this form because they think it could allow for multiple radial asymmetries in land rents to emerge via the estimated parameters. This land rent function is then incorporated into the hedonic model where the Box-Cox functional form is used. The rental price is regressed on structural or location-specific characteristics, the quantity of land included with structure, set of indices of characteristics that are dichotomous, set of indices of characteristics that are continuously variable and the land rent function. One distinct feature is that they include the effect of closely correlated variables within one variable to resolve the colinearity between characteristics. They include both the congestible amenities and structure characteristics since they suggest that, in general they will not be correlated due to the "neighborhood" nature. Their findings show that, the rent does not monotonically decline from the CBD, but it increases in certain directions.
The effective disposal of daily city infrastructure cases is an important issue for urban management. To more effectively utilize a large amount of histori- cal cases data collected and accumulated in the urban grid management sys- tem, and to analyze their spatial distribution pattern information for city managers, this study used the comparative kernel density analysis method in two types of cases (i.e. power facilities and traffic guardrail) in Xicheng Dis- trict, Beijing for the year 2016 and 2017. This research analyzes them at dif- ferent scales (300 m, 600 m, 1,200 m), and the experiment results show that the method of comparative kernel density analysis is able to provide an intui- tively spatial visualization distribution analysis of city infrastructure related cases. The quantitative information of spatial agglomeration degree is helpful for city managers making decision.