Top PDF Spatial Thinking in Planning Practice: An Introduction to GIS

Spatial Thinking in Planning Practice: An Introduction to GIS

Spatial Thinking in Planning Practice: An Introduction to GIS

To make sure the quality assurance and quality control of geospatial data is the expected the process of data col- lection needs to be monitor because is the greatest source of errors in digital geospatial data. During the process of geographic analysis there might be an accumulation of the effects of errors. This is known as the error prop- agation. Managing errors requires a pragmatic approach through, for example, sensitivity analysis, which is a modeling technique to assess the subjectivity and variability in the parameters of spatial problem-solving model. The purpose of the sensitivity analysis is to test the model for output over a range of legitimate uncertainties. An- other relevant aspect is the reporting data quality: information need to be effectively communicated in the form of ‘accuracy indices’ and maps to all potential users. Geospatial data standards can provide a yardstick -- created by consensus by a recognized organization -- against which quality can be evaluated, through the provision of rules for common and repeated use. Yueng offers four categories of standards: (i) application standards, (ii) data standards –the most important-, (iii) technology standards, and (iv) professional practice standards. In general geospatial data standards provide the means of communication between suppliers and users. These are made up of one or more of these four components: (a) standard data products, (b) data transfer standards, (c) data quality standards, and (d) metadata standards.  The development and acceptance of data standards was crucial not only for allowing sharing data but most important, it helped to develop ‘open GIS’.
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Re-Thinking Town and Country Planning Practice in Zambia

Re-Thinking Town and Country Planning Practice in Zambia

In the case of Zambia, it is worth noting that, three political environments have characterized the practice of town planning. The first was the pre-independence era, i.e., under the colonial rule. This period saw the introduction of the practice of town planning in the country under the British rule guided by the Commonwealth Town and Country Planning Act for both the Caribbean Commonwealth countries and the Anglophone Commonwealth countries in sub-Sahara. Home (1990, p.397), indicated that, town planning in the British Colonies before and after the first two world wars highlighted the developing of the transfer of British planning concepts and legislation to the colonies including today’s nation of Zambia. During that period, town planning was undertaken by three different groups of planners, i.e., surveyors or engineers with colonial service, consultant architects brought out from Britain for specific assignments; and occasional peripatetic propagandists. The observation was that, the three groups of planners were not professional planners with in-depth knowledge of planning principles and ideology. Their lack of in-depth professional knowledge in planning failed to comprehend the local and internal forces that control physical planning. As such, the transfer of British planning concepts and principles to the colonies was for different clienteles. Berrisford (2013) stressed that, “the planning law has a poor record in Africa”. Berrisford pointed out that, “The law designed to protect the public from the negative aspects of urban land development has all too often been used by the state to enhance the value of land owned by the wealthy and to penalize and intimidate the disadvantage”. This scenario is a common place phenomenon in the practice of town planning in Zambia. The practice is perceived and usually branded as “corruption at work
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GIS-Based Analytical Tools for Transport Planning: Spatial Regression Models for Transportation Demand Forecast

GIS-Based Analytical Tools for Transport Planning: Spatial Regression Models for Transportation Demand Forecast

Spatial relationships play an important role in transport. Even though, there are not so many studies focusing on the explicit introduction of spatial issues in transport planning modeling. Thus, as a contribution to the field, the objective of this study is to analyze the results obtained from different approaches of spatial regression models. Next, the outcomes of these spatial models are also compared with the results of a multiple linear regression model that is typically used in trips generation estimations. The key research question of this study was thus whether or not the inclusion of spatial variables improves transport demand models. Many researchers have already discussed the importance of considering spatial effects in urban and transportation analyses. Páez and Scott [1], for instance, have made a review of techniques and examples of applications illustrating how spatial statistics can be used in urban transportation and land use planning. The objective of that study was to discuss some of the major technical issues in spatial analysis (i.e., spatial association, heterogeneity and the modifiable areal unit problem) and the authors indicated a promising trend for the application of increasingly sophisticated spatial statistical methods in urban analyses. These topics are still timely, as recently discussed by Wang et al. [2].
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GIS and Regional Economic Development Planning

GIS and Regional Economic Development Planning

Another new technology approach being used in the practice of regional economic development plan is Spatial Decision Support System(SDSS). Many essential factors, which involved in the process of regional economic development planning, have evident characteristics of uncertainty, randomicity and non-linearity. It is an extremely complicated non-structured problem to analyze those factors in detail. To complete the task of regional economic development planning properly, it is necessary to adopt Decision Support System(DSS) in practice. Thus, Spatial Decision Support System(SDSS), which integrates GIS, mathematical models, database technology, multimedia into a fully interactive tool for economic development decision support at spatial aspect(W. J. Drummond 1993), is developed with deeper researches on regional economic development planning(P. Longley & G. P. Clarke 1995, M. Birkin, G. P. Clarke et al 1996 ). Regional economic development planning becomes more realistically with the development of SDSS.
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An Introduction to Creative Thinking in Architectural Design

An Introduction to Creative Thinking in Architectural Design

Square five presents an advanced step in taking abstraction into the third dimension. It accumulates and nearly finalizes the use of most of the design tools on all stages. Students now were asked to create spatial focal point on the balanced tonal base of square four. In this stage emphasis goes back to the linear strength of square one. At this stage nearly all students started to master the idea of lines and shapes influence, in the design language, logics, and variables. Few of the students found it difficult to manipulate vertical planes (2cm-6cm) into 3-D focal point. Still, how 3-D focal point can be pleasing remains a visual-human virtue, which only gained by practice. Some of the students, about 15% of them, repeated the faulty focal point of square two by placing multi-intersecting planes at the targeted quadrant. The same students who did that at square two did it at square five.
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The introduction of interactive modelling by 3Di in flood resilient urban spatial planning

The introduction of interactive modelling by 3Di in flood resilient urban spatial planning

In order to explore the possibilities of 3Di in the flood resilient urban spatial planning sector, the purposes of 3Di will be elaborated. A framework from literature which seemed suitable for this situation is discussed by Brugnach & Pahl-Wostl (2008).These model purposes are discussed in order to assess to what extent 3Di could meet the different purposes. Brugnach & Pahl-Wostl (2008) discussed four different modelling purposes in their paper; (1) prediction, (2) exploratory analysis, (3) communication and (4) learning. The common practice in building models is to predict the state of the system to be managed and use this information (based on scientific knowledge) to aid decision making (Brugnach & Pahl-Wostl, 2008). However, due to complex decision making environments and dealing with ‘messy problems’, this way of modelling to predict the state of the system fails in fully supporting a decision making process (Gunderson, Holling, & Light, 1995). Here, messy problems (Vennix, 1996) are defined by Brugnach & Pahl-Wostl (2008) as controversial situations with conflicting interests in the problem domain, where the different opinions and perspectives have to be integrated in a solution. This applies to the flood resilient urban spatial planning process in which many perspectives and opinions are present in finding a solution. Therefore, in such cases, models to support decision making should focus on the whole process of communication, negotiating and learning (Pahl-Wostl, 2007A). For each model purpose a short explanation and its relation to 3Di is given. These purposes will be used to specify the design of implementation of 3Di in the decision making process of flood resilient urban spatial planning in the next chapter.
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Introduction to the use of GIS in spatial epidemiology using ArcGIS9.x

Introduction to the use of GIS in spatial epidemiology using ArcGIS9.x

Welcome to the distance learning course the “Introduction to the use of GIS in spatial epidemiology using ArcGIS9.x”. This on-line course is presented at a post-graduate level and consists of two parts. In the theoretical part you will gain a conceptual understanding of the role GIS can play in epidemiological studies. The second part of this module consists on hands-on exercises using ArcGIS-software. You will acquire basic skills on how to use GIS in epidemiological studies. You will be expected to gain a thorough understanding of the material by actively researching the field of study. You are also encouraged to interact with your fellow students and thus stimulate creative thinking.
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A Study of Educators' Perceptions of Spatial Thinking

A Study of Educators' Perceptions of Spatial Thinking

of North Carolina (2003) and the North Carolina Geographic Information Coordinating Council (2003, 2006, and 2008). GIS involves the use of global positioning satellites (GPS) (Longley, Goodchild, Maquire, & Rhind, 2005). Moreover, the legislation that established the GICC specifically mandates that the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the elected leader of elementary and secondary education in North Carolina, participate as a member of the GICC. This plainly suggests that spatial thinking will be an important skill for those aspiring to top-level leadership roles within the state‘s elementary and secondary school systems. Yet the extent to which practicing educators currently are equipped for such roles is uncertain. As will be discussed in later sections of this work, leaders sometimes delegate this responsibility to members of their staffs.
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GIS modelling in resource planning and management

GIS modelling in resource planning and management

From the analysis carried out the results show the sensitivity level of the natural resources in Cameron Highlands (Figure 11).. Table I shows the area for each class of sensitivity...[r]

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INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGIC PLANNING

INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGIC PLANNING

The strategic planning process begins with an assessment of the current economic situation. First, examine factors outside of the company that can affect your company's performance. In most cases, it makes sense to focus on the national, local or regional, and industry economic forecasts. This part of the analysis should begin early, at least a quarter or so before you begin the formal planning process. Use the following common sources for information:

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Introduction to Business Planning

Introduction to Business Planning

6 KLA Education Services LLC • www.IvyLeagueNurse.com • Copyright © 2011 Additional types of plans have been categorized as start-up, internal, strategic, feasibility, operatio[r]

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Introduction to Estate Planning

Introduction to Estate Planning

At your death, you leave behind the people that you love and all your worldly goods. Without advance planning, you have no say about who gets what, and more of your property may go to others, like the federal government, instead of your loved ones. If you care about (1) how and to whom your property is distributed, and (2) ensuring that your property is preserved for your loved ones, you need to know more about estate planning.

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A Short Course on Spatial Econometrics and GIS

A Short Course on Spatial Econometrics and GIS

Abstract: This resource gives a brief overview of a website and playlist of YouTube videos using open source software (R, GeoDa, and QGIS) designed to help get scholars up and running with analyzing their own data using Spatial Econometrics. Sample data, handouts, code, and map files are provided for ease of replication. The course covers the basics of integrating data into a spatial data set, contiguity and spatial correlation, doing basic spatial regressions in GeoDa, and doing more sophisticated specification tests and regressions in R.
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Introduction: Reading and writing; talking and thinking

Introduction: Reading and writing; talking and thinking

In particular, we noted that whereas body language, including facial expression, typically makes a strong contribu- tion to the communication of meaning when we are speaking face-to-fac[r]

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Thinking Skills. Lesson Plan. Introduction

Thinking Skills. Lesson Plan. Introduction

Re-Motivation: Thinking skills are extremely important for all of us. We need to push ourselves in this area to be all we can. Remember that we are only using a portion of this wonderful computer called our mind. So begin to lean forward and stretch your efforts. It is like the picture of the brain with the light switch—it’s time to turn on our minds to reach our full potential.

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Spatial Mapping of Groundwater Quality using GIS

Spatial Mapping of Groundwater Quality using GIS

The water samples were collected from 19 wells with in the study area and tested for physico-chemical parameters and are compared with the Permissible limits. The analysis of ground water samples were performed according to the procedure of APHA (1998) [5]. The major parameters namely pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total hardness (TH), Sulphates, Calcium , Magnesium , carbonates, bicarbonates and chlorides of the samples were analysed. The spatial and the attribute database generated are integrated for the generation of spatial variation maps of major water quality parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids, Total hardness, Sulphates and Chlorine. Spatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach has been used in the present study to delineate the distribution of water pollutants. The spatial variation of the ground water quality parameters were studied using spatial analyst and Geo statistical analyst extensions modules of ArcGIS 10.2.
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GIS in urban planning and management: Malaysian experience

GIS in urban planning and management: Malaysian experience

In planning analyses, information is derived from printed maps, field surveys, aerial photographs and satellite images. GIS systems enable data from wide variety of sources and data formats to be integrated together in a common scheme of geographical referencing, thus providing up-to-date information (Grimshaw, 1988; Coulson and Bromley, 1990). GIS has long been accepted as the most appropriate solution to address spatially referenced data. The essence of GIS in the plan making process, quoting Calkins (1972), suggested that ‘better planning will be achieved through better information, and better information will necessarily flow from an information system’. However, GIS alone cannot serve all the needs of planning because the current generation of “general purpose” systems cannot easily accommodate the particular informational, computational, and display needs of planning. Clearly, planning requires (i) information that is effectively “a spatial” at a particular level of analysis; (ii) information over time; and (iii) measures of spatial interaction. None of this can be easily incorporated into standard GIS packages (Harris and Batty, 1993).
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The NSTP (Non - Spatial Thinking Process) Theory

The NSTP (Non - Spatial Thinking Process) Theory

1. A Non-Superhuman NSTP- Let’s take a simple example of gravity. Consider an observer x holding a ball at distance d from the ground. At time t=1 x has the feeling of dropping the ball. 9 At t=2 x has the feeling of seeing the ball at ¾d. At t=3 x has the feeling of seeing the ball at ½d. At t=4 x has the feeling of seeing the ball at ¼d. And lastly, at t=5 x has the feeling of seeing the ball at d=0. Now, referring to theorem 1 this temporal process of feelings is an NSTP (Non – Spatial Thinking Process).

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SPATIAL THINKING: WHERE PEDAGOGY MEETS NEUROSCIENCE

SPATIAL THINKING: WHERE PEDAGOGY MEETS NEUROSCIENCE

these debates are too recent and too complex to be resolved in this review. after all, it has been barely a dozen years since people thought that spatial thinking was a single kind of “intelligence.” We suspect that future research will uncover more intricate connections among various modes of thinking. We therefore will end this research review by noting that our suggested lessons for the harlem school included several activities that encouraged a search for spatial associations. in one, students were asked to make lists of “things that are usually found together in the same room, like toothbrushes and toothpaste, or books and comfortable chairs.” in another activity, often presented as part of their efforts to make a map of their classroom, we asked students to try to name things that go together in the same part of the room, like desks and chairs. observing spatial associations like this proved to be a difficult task, and therefore it is especially important to start the process in early grades, when students are beginning to acquire the basic tools of spatial analysis.
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The Use of GIS in Urban Planning in Irbid City

The Use of GIS in Urban Planning in Irbid City

I’ve been the ratification of the first master plan for the city of Irbid in 1970 of the last century under the ad- ministration and supervision of the Ministry off municipalities and was based holding amendments periodic attic directly making this chart paper planner Pollack concept for the large number attic of lines and notes dated on Council resolutions organization this makes the top and the ability of surveyors to violate it easy and possible to do so, but he and after it has been developing land use planner and postings on the GIS software has become easy to handle things in all the sites with the Director of Planning and Director of the organization, as well as mayor also, the process of extracting the desired planned target of logic is made easy and takes only minutes.
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