In the consultation, stakeholders were asked: Do you agree with the proposal to provide a point of contact for children, youngpeople and families through a universal approach to the Named Person role? Two hundred and twenty six respondents answered this question of which 72% agreed and 18% disagreed. However, there is an important caveat that many of those agreeing did so in principle, but reserved full judgement until more practical details had been worked up. While some of the named person duties might be described as ‘signposting’ or ‘referring’ and be similar to the way teachers, midwives and health visitors already work, it is not clear – from the bill drafting – the extent of the duty to ‘support.’ In the consultation, there was a common concern about the scale of the work expected and the capacity of staff to deliver.
Research has found that around 25% of children in England who offend have very low IQs of less than 70; 43% of children on community orders have emotional and mental health needs, and the prevalence amongst children in custody is much higher; 27% of children and youngpeople who offend are not in full time education, training or employment at the end of their period of youth justice supervision (Prison Reform Trust 2013). In terms of early intervention,such children and youngpeople need to be provided with specialist ‘forensic’ CAMHS services both within the community and, for a small minority, in-patient care. At present, in Scotland there is only one community Forensic CAMHS team in Glasgow and there are no in-patient beds. A report by the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCP, 2013) concluded that child and adolescent mental health services are currently in need of development. CAMHS can only function adequately as part of a comprehensive tiered service that includes high-quality universal, preventive provision. The range of services must include in-patient acute and intensive care beds, planned treatment beds and alternatives to hospital admission (such as intensive outreach/home treatment teams).
Questions about children and youngpeople are a significant area of ethical enquiry for the British Medical Association (BMA) with doctors facing ever more complex dilemmas. High profile cases around child protection, access to sexual health services, and the vaccination of children highlight the sensitivity and difficulties doctors face in this area. Doctors need to know when a young person is competent and what this means in terms of their ability to consent and refuse health care, and what limits are placed on those with parental responsibility. The purpose of this tool kit is not to provide definitive answers for every situation but to identify the key factors that need to be taken into account when such decisions are made and signpost other key documents. The tool kit consists of a series of Cards about specific areas relating to the examination and treatment of people in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland who are aged under 18 years, and in Scotland under 16 years. Separate Cards have been produced identifying factors to be considered when assessing competence and determining ‘best interests’, and sensitive areas including child protection and access to sexual health services. All Cards refer to useful guidance from bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC), BMA and health departments, which should be used in conjunction with the Cards. In addition, the medical defence bodies and many of the royal colleges produce specific advice for their members: Card 15 lists contact details for organisations from whom further advice can be obtained.
“COSLA is of the view that there are several areas covered by the Bill for which the financial assumptions made are not robust enough and therefore the financial implications for local authorities may not be accurately reflected.” (COSLA, 2013b) This briefing reviews the FM associated with the Bill following the broad policy areas set out above. The FM states that the Bill is founded on the key principles of early intervention and prevention”, going on to note that “there have been methodological challenges in estimating the costs of some provisions” and that “these challenges in large part relate to estimating how the preventative approach set out…will result in future avoided costs” (Scottish Parliament, 2013b). Figure 1: Children and YoungPeople (Scotland) Bill estimated costs by body, £
What are the risks of involving children and youngpeople and how can these be reduced? Have you done a risk assessment? Are workers police checked? Have you the right insurance? Do you have a clear child protection policy and do all those involved know of it? Is the venue safe? Has transport to and from the venue been arranged? Do any of the children and youngpeople need to be accompanied, because, for example, of age or disability? If using the web, does access need to be supervised or is the site secure?
Early interventions that focus on preventing adverse behaviours such as offending behaviour, substance misuse, smoking, obesity, and bullying are key to improving children and young people's health and wellbeing in the future. Evidence suggests that activities and interventions that positively promote health and wellbeing – such as diet, exercise, emotional health and forming friendships, are the most engaging and successful. Such interventions are delivered to varying degrees in schools and universal settings with all children, but often, looked-after children and youngpeople miss out on sessions or do not benefit from the consistent approach to these issues from a school, due to their frequent moves during care or the periods of school absence they experienced prior to coming into the care system.
The suggested programme of research would need to test out, using an adequately powered, multicentre, randomised controlled design, the likely benefits and costs of providing family intervention, combined with individual CBT, for children and youngpeople at high risk of developing psychosis and their parents or carers. The outcomes considered should include transition to psychosis, quality of life, symptomatic and functional improvements, treatment acceptability and self-harm. There should be follow-up at 3 years. The trial should also estimate the cost effectiveness of intervening.
A key safety factor of the Ystradgynlais Safe Routes to School scheme was the upgrade of an existing corrugated metal underpass beneath the busy A4067. Using Assembly funding a project was established to design and paint the underpass using an Artist in Residence who worked with youngpeople from two schools, Gurnos Primary and Maes y Dderwen High, and the Acorn project at Ystradgynlais Youth Centre. Their work has been recognised with a UK National Best Safety Improvement for Pedestrians Award from the sustainable transport charity Sustrans. A Road Safety Strategy was launched in January 2003 to improve safety generally. Part of the Strategy deals with children and a sub-group of the Wales Road Safety Forum has been established to look at children’s road safety issues. These include causes of child casualties, road safety needs of children in different age groups and how to encourage greater walking and cycling activity by children. Children and youngpeople are involved in assessing examples of good (and not so good) practice in the scheme to help improve road safety.
Most games consoles and computers allow parents to create settings that will not allow children and youngpeople to play games that are not suitable for their age. They all work in slightly different ways – but some are better than others and offer more options. For example, some allow parents to set time limits for children playing, or allow different settings for different children and also allow safety settings to be decided depending on the classification symbols. I found that those that combined these features and make it simple for parents to set up are easier to use than others.
While the data used in the Index is the best available across the EU countries, it is not completely up to date.There is more recent UK data for some of these indicators. Gaps in cross-EU data include any information on looked after children, crime, refugees and homelessness.The data is also mainly based on older children – aged 11-15. More comprehensive data on child well-being, in the UK and elsewhere, is clearly required. Professor Bradshaw argues that it is unacceptable to rely on World Health Organisation data to discover how children think and feel in the UK.The forthcoming The Children’s Society Inquiry (5) that is gathering the views of children, youngpeople and adults is much needed.
Amplify were asked how they find out about brands and trends. This generated interesting discussions with answers ranging from, “I randomly saw it in a shop window,” to “R-Patz had one in the Twilight film and I bugged my mum for ages!” Particularly when talking about fashion, a lot of the group members said when they saw someone else wearing a product, this made them feel like they should have it. “There is lots of pressure in my school to conform to coolness” said one 11 year old. The influence of celebrities is complex. Some of the group felt that if a celebrity was seen wearing something or using a particular product it gave it credibility, so they felt that celebrities are important in defining what people like. An example given was Nintendo’s series of TV and printed adverts of JLS playing the Wii. It was felt that because children and youngpeople aspire to be like certain celebrities, they will wear and buy anything they endorse. However, from the survey relatively few children and youngpeople (14%) say that they would buy something if they see a celebrity with it. In the discussions with Amplify some of the group also felt that they would rather be more like a celebrity in terms of personality rather than buy the things they see a celebrity wear or use.
I am pleased that noble Lords accepted the Government’s amendments on Report. That means that today’s debate is, I hope, starting from a strong position. The Bill already ensures that: young offenders, their parents and professionals working with them can request an assessment for an EHC plan and those assessments can now start in custody; EHC plans will provide up-to-date, current information on entry to custody, owing to the requirement for local authorities to maintain the EHC plans of those under 18 who are not in education, employment or training for any reason; both home local authorities and relevant NHS health service commissioners are under a duty to use their best endeavours to arrange the education and health provision set out in an EHC plan for children and youngpeople in custody; EHC plans must be kept by the home local authority while a young offender is detained and must be reviewed and maintained again immediately on release; and both youth offending teams and relevant custodial institutions are required to co-operate with the local authority.
3.15 Children, youngpeople and their parents will always access a huge range of public services and we will implement radical improvements in their delivery. We are committed to reforming the way we design and develop policy, ensuring the needs and perspectives of children and youngpeople are central to our thinking. We know, however, that in addition to the statutory services with whom children and youngpeople, as well as their families, will come into contact, they will often rely on the voluntary sector, and community and faith groups. Children and youngpeople need the chance and the facilities within which to organise their own activities, be it anything from a game of hide-and- seek in the local park to discussing ways of influencing local policies. It is the services, opportunities and activities that youngpeople want and use that we are determined to protect.
There are some conditions such as diabetes which are becoming increasingly common in childhood. Its incidence has doubled in the last 20 years. This disease imposes a severe toll on sufferers by reducing average life expectancy by 23 years in type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent). Type 1 diabetes is increasing in all age groups, but particularly in under-fives and youngpeople and the average age of diagnosis is between 10 and 14 years. Caring for children and youngpeople with diabetes is fundamentally different from providing services for adults. It is a complex process that must be firmly focused on the child and their family, supported by a wide range of healthcare professionals working as a team taking account of the medical aspects in the context of the child’s life and the need for normal day-to-day
Out of all the children’s responses (19 children’s experiences included in the study), nine children and youngpeople said that it is important for the judge to listen to their feelings about their parent’s arrest. In this way, the children could feel that their best interest is being taken into account and that they can give their opinion in situations that concern them (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989). A way to do that was by speaking themselves with the judge or having someone who could speak for them and explain the impact of imprisonment on their lives. Relevant decision-makers would beneficially consider the impact of imposing a custodial sentence, taking into account the wellbeing and safety of the children (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2003). Occasionally, in these situations the older sibling has to substitute for the absent parent during that time, trying to maintain the family unit (Wolleswinkel, 2002).
The role of the primary care nurse is vital in the early detection and management of children and youngpeople who are depressed. The primary care nurse could potentially be the first point of contact when a parent, education or social care professional is concerned about a young person’s mental health. Due to the high prevalence rates within the community of youngpeople with depressive symptoms, primary care nurses are likely to come across such youngpeople and will need to be equipped with the relevant skills in detection, assessment and management. However, due to the heterogeneity of presentations in depressed children and adolescence, healthcare professionals, particularly in primary care settings, may struggle to recognise depression (NICE) 14 ,
followed by continuation bid funding. The library service provides leadership and expertise on book collection, pack provision, activities and events. Libraries Young Peoples Services Coordinator (YPSC) writes required reports and funding bids and supervises project workers. New Charter Housing trust provide the accommodation for the project, administer the funding, employ the staff and provide day to day management via the manager at HPU. Quarterly evaluation reports are written for the Children’s Fund outlining indicators of success/improvements in the quality of the life of children/family members; evidence of involvement of children and families in developing the project; evidence of meeting project targets linked to the five outcomes from Every Child Matters. Evaluation forms are completed by children, parents and carers. Other evidence includes statistical data and case studies, which will be used to support the value of mainstreaming the project as part of children’s services for children and youngpeople in temporary accommodation.
Whizz-Kidz, a national wheelchair charity, is currently investigating provision and training with the aim of improving statutory and voluntary services (Nicholson and Bonsall 2002). Whizz-Kidz will be working with the Disabled Living Centres Council, Disablement Services Centres, NHS wheelchair services, mobility equipment dealers, manufacturers and therapists to set up six specialist mobility centres for children and youngpeople throughout England (Anon 2002). Its aim will be to offer impartial advice and information on paediatric mobility related issues for children and their families, and training workshops, information and advice for professionals and health workers. Fleming (2001) has reported on a proficiency training programme for children aged 5-18 years in receipt of a wheelchair and attending a mainstream school. The parents reported that their child had increased confidence and independence when using his or her chair.
This thesis finds that children will enjoy participating in physical activity when they are in control of: the activities in which they take part in, the exertion levels they work at and the clothes they wear whilst taking part (Fraser et al., 2012, Lewis, 2012, Lewis et al., 2014, Lewis, 2014). An emerging finding is that some children may fear not being able to control exertion levels whilst being active and the pain this may cause (Fraser et al., 2012, Lewis, 2014). They were much happier when they could decide when to stop and have a break and when they could push themselves, if they wanted to. Exertion levels and a fear of physical pain may be an important factor for obese children’s activity levels (Ekkekakis & Lind, 2006). An important finding in these studies is that all children, regardless of obesity levels, fear not being able to control exertion levels (and therefore fear pain of activity). As they got fitter they were able to accomplish more but the intensity had to be built up, not forced upon them. In Study 3, the children found the relaxed and less controlling atmosphere in after- school activities more encouraging than formal P.E. lessons and being able to control their own exertion levels was a key contributing factor. All of which supports the assertion that exercise needs to ‘feel good’ if children and youngpeople are to increase future volitional activity (Schneider & Schmaulbach, 2014).
ethnography she conducted over 12 years, exploring interactions between disabled and non-disabled children in Norwegian nurseries and schools. She describes her own semi-participant role, the use of respondent validation, involvement of child advisors and the ways in which methods were adapted and developed over the years to maintain age appropriateness. Ytterhus identifies a series of informal interaction rules created and negotiated by children for children in peer groups. Using two case studies, she demonstrates how these rules appear to militate against the inclusion of youngpeople with intellectual disabilities but can be mastered by those with mobility impairments.