The present research had the purpose to analyze how students perceived a physicalactivity (PA) course in highereducation that used the SportEducation (SE) model. The study addressed: i) Students overall enjoyment; ii) Students’ skill acquisition self- perception; iii) Students’ game rules knowledge self-perception; iv) Students’ instructional preference. Twenty-six students from an American university located in the Southern region attended this course. The Futsal (indoor-soccer) course offered two 75 minutes class per week. Two forms of data collection were used: a five-point Likert- type scale survey and a post-course interview. Students reported to have a very high enjoyment in all six major features of the SE model. In addition, statistical significance was reached when students reported their perceived skill acquisition and game rules knowledge acquisition. Students also reported to prefer SE when comparing to other physicalactivity courses that used a traditional pedagogy.
The data indicated that there are complexities in PETE-PS teachers translating the vision of sport teaching encountered during course work into the enacted curriculum in schools. Curtner-Smith et al. (2006), for example, provide a critical account of beginning teachers attempting to deliver SE while facing many of the issues raised in this research– acculturation, professional socialisation and organisational socialisation. They found that the teachers interviewed delivered SE as either a full version maintaining fidelity with the tenets of the model, a watered down version that failed to include elements that transform traditional sport teaching into SE, or a ‗cafeteria‘ approach incorporating parts of SE into a traditional sport teaching model. The beginning teachers who employed the full version of SE were described as entering PETE ―op en to new idea s‖ (p. 104). While the complexities confronting PETE-PS teachers translating the vision of sport teaching encountered during course work into the enacted curriculum in schools do not necessarily act as a direct block to progressive sport teaching they can be seen as diverting the vision for sport teaching from education in, through and about movement and constrain sport teaching for PETE-PS teachers. The analysis of the data highlighted the
In this study, the opinions of physicaleducation and sports teachers about physicalactivity report card applications were examined. The subscale and total scores of the teachers were compared according to the gender variable, and statistically significant differences were not found between them. No national studies have been conducted on teachers' physicalactivity report card applicaitons in the literature. However, Farias et al. (2016) have reported gender differences in the survey conducted to determine the level of PhysicalActivity of children and adolescents between 2005 and 2015 in Chile (3). In addition with this, in the study by the “University of Southern Denmark Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning”, reported that 70% of children aged 11-15 years and 13-18 years were affected by physicalactivity (at the specified level) and there were gender differences (18). Again, it has been reported that, female students were less likely than male counterparts to participate in vigorous physicalactivity at recommended levels (5). Results showed an increase in knowledge and in frequency of vigorous physicalactivity, which persisted to the 12-year follow-up for boys but not for girls (15). TAAG, a national multisite randomized intervention study, is currently under way at 6 sites across the country. It is testing a school and community multicomponent intervention designed to prevent the decline in physicalactivity in middle school girls (14). Other studies that addressed physicalactivity through multiple component interventions include the Australia School Project and Slice of Life which was part of a larger community study, had multiple intervention components and addressed multiple cardiovascular health behaviors and resulted smaller declines in physicalactivity for intervention students, with the most significant effect on girls (6,8,12). When the sub-dimension and total scores of the physicaleducation and sports teachers are compared from the scale according to the school type, statistically significant differences were found between them. While the difference between the "Forcing, Competence, Support" sub-dimensions and the total scores is significant, the difference between the other sub-dimension scores is insignificant. The high total scores of physicaleducation and sport teachers that working at the secondary schools may be due to the physicalactivity report card applications done as pilot applications in primary schools. No national or international research has been found to support research in the field.
the best examples: Julie S. Stoekly in a study entitled: “SportEducation and the Traditional Unit Approach: A Comparison of Student Activity Levels” introduced sporteducation as a curriculum model in physicaleducation that promotes student responsibility and positive social skills. Healthy People Organization recommended students to spend at least 50% of the studying time on moderate to vigorous physical activities. This study was designed to compare the level of student activity between the traditional unit approach and the sporteducation curriculum. The procedure dealt with the (SOFIT: System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) coding system and total number of steps obtained by students using pedometers used as measures of activity to compare models. An AB treatment design was utilized to rotate curriculum models across two classes. The findings indicated that class A spent 64.45% of lesson time on sporteducation in average, and group B spent in average 60.23% of lesson time on sporteducation. According to data collected from pedometers and SOFIT, class A had higheractivity levels in sporteducation than in the traditional unit approach, and class B had higheractivity levels in the traditional unit approach than in sporteducation. Consequently, in this study, the sporteducation model was an effective approach to meet the recommendations of Healthy People Organization, suggesting that students spend at least 50% of lesson time on moderate to vigorous physical activities. Although class B had lower activity levels in the sporteducation class, the class still averaged higher than 50% of lesson time on moderate to vigorous activities.
The regularities and specificities in the development of adolescents, as well as their overall behavior, suggest not only physical and cognitive activity, but also acquiring habits, skills and abilities which can help students to apply the latter in practice. Building this new type of behavior in the learning process in physicaleducation and sport should reflect the student's attitude, position and motivation to perform the activities. This requires the use of imitative methods, but also specifically the setting of conditions for rendering an independent and free choice to each student. Behavior is viewed as s personal form of expression, expression of one’s own position on the basis of personal assessment, as a purpose and meaning of what is being done. For this it is necessary to implement a consistent approach with the age characteristics of the students Bozhilov (2002).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first thesis dealing with cheating in university exams at the higher institutes of sport and physicaleducation in Tunisia. This research is aimed to 1) evaluate the importance of the pheno- menon; 2) define the profile of cheating students; and 3) contain the role of the society in the emergence and spread of this phenomenon. 799 students from the four Tunisian higher institutes of sports and physicaleducation vo- lunteered to respond to a quantitative questionnaire-based survey. The data collected were statistically analyzed using the SPSS-version 20 software. A univariate statistical study was followed by a bivariate or multivariate study. 86.1% of respondents admitted that they had cheated during their university education. Univariate and multivariate studies pointed to cheating antecedent as the common denominator amongst cheating students, since 99.98% of them had already cheated at school. Results analysis was performed from two standpoints: the individual and the social context, in which the student was brought up, based on well-established known theories. This twofold approach made it possible to highlight the interaction between the different actors. Student misbehavior is the inevitable result of the shift in social representa- tions of academic norms that have led to the trivialization of cheating, con- verting student status from mere observer into a follower. The genesis of this culture, where cheating has become part of the norm, is marked by the collu- sion plays between the actors involved in the training and evaluation processes i.e. students, professors and the institutions.
According to the scale research  about the parents who incredibly attend to the sport of their child that these parents mainly aim the ‘physical development’ ‘athletic skill’ and ‘competition’ . Kılcıgil  stated in his research with Turkish families about the family expectation that the first reason for being sent the child to the football club is the desire of the child, the second reason is to provide financial gain and the third one is not to be any traffic risk. According to the study , the ‘skill development’ and ‘competition’ are placed near the top of the participation motives of the children . It is found in the study of Colchico et al.,  that the girls who attend to physicalactivity after the school feel themselves worthwhile and healthy. Moreover, reported that there is an increment in the social skill of children who attend to the physicalactivity after the school [13, 15].
future of doctorate study in physicaleducation. Specifically investigation for specified time period in the future of physical were the (a) goals of doctoral study (b) areas of concentration (c) the knowledge of the course of the study. A study on critical examination of published sports motivation research 1975-86 was conducted by Warren in 1989 to determine the state of the art motivation and to identify strength and weaknesses in the empirical support for practices in support motivation and to prepare future directions. International Charter of PhysicalEducation and UNESCO 1978
Knoppers, 1988). Treanor, Graber, Housner, and Wiegand (1998) and Lirgg’s (1993) reported that both boy and girls secondary school students showed preferences for single-sex PE. Osborne, Bauer & Sutliff (2002) found that secondary school students preferred single-sex PE. Koca et al. (2005) also indicated that both girls and boys in coed educational high school preferred coed PE class. In Turkey, especially after 1997, Ministry of National Education have started to use “students” as target audience in all of the PhysicalEducationcourse instruction programs in primary schools, high schools and equivalents. It is stressed that such units have to be practiced together to all students without girl-boy separation (excluding wrestling and soccer branches in girls). Thus, the possibility of different expectations from girls and boys with different physical and emotional status were not considered in the preparation of the program. In spite of the growth in the studies on the effectiveness of PE, sport science literature that have investigated students’ attitudes toward PE and on PE class preferences according to age and gender are limited.
Abstract. A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physicalactivity (PA) may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physicalactivity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT) and PhysicalEducation (PE) students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men) (aged 21.61 ± 0.71). All participants filled in International PhysicalActivity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1) body composition evaluation, 2) abdominal muscles strength tests, 3) dynamometry, 4) hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5) bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption). Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water) in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominis strength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.
Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that promotes free flow of information by pocket switching using the standardized internet protocol suit. It is a network that consist of millions of private and public academic business and government network of local global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables and wireless connections technologies. The internet provides various information resources and services which can be used by physical educators for teaching and learning. They include electronic mail, online chat, electronic transactions, and bulletin board, file transfer and file sharing, online newspapers, arid journals, online gaming and inter linked hype text documents and other resources of the worldwide web. Physicaleducation teachers share experiences with other professionals via the internet which are integrated into teaching lessons. Students explore new knowledge as they surf the web for assignments, chat with fellow students and play games online. The internet can be used to maximize the effectiveness their learning process of physicaleducation. Students have the possibility to email their questions or comments concerning their questions concerning issues in health and audition fitness, physicaleducation programmes, courses to their physicaleducation teachers and academic staff. Internet is used access a machining list of professionals in the same area of study. A user sends an email message to like mailing list which is broadcast to other users for accessing current information. Examples are the sports philosophy and Questia lists.
In the years 2007-2010 the Supreme Chamber of Control  carried out inspections of student par- ticipation in physicaleducation classes in the case of 18 661 students. In the inspected schools it could be observed that along with the subsequent stages of edu- cation critical perception of participation in physicaleducation classes is on the increase. In the conducted survey, almost one fifth of final grade primary school students, one fourth of lower secondary school students and one third of secondary school students expressed opinions that these classes were not interesting. In the years 1985-1986 Strzyżewski and Górna  conducted research on students’ opinions about phys- ical education and sport classes in several towns of southern Poland. They examined 3696 male and female students of primary and secondary schools. Interests in mobile activity forms of persons practicing judo
Mutter and Pawlowski (2014) stated that increased participation of students in schools sport is affected by stakeholders such as peers, parents, teachers, coaches, and sport characters (8). Several studies on sports management have used stakeholder theory to understand the role of key sectors in sport. Most of these studies have focused on professional sport, while schools sport has remained understudied (4, 9). Friedman et al. (2004) examined professional sport and schools sport to discover how stakeholder theory could be applied to the issues surrounding the sport environment. They concluded that managers needed a proactive, consistent, and sustainable approach to managing stakeholder relationships (10). In the United States, school sports stakeholders include governments, coaches and physicaleducation teachers, school administrators, students, school graduates, as well as community and schools sport boosters (7). School sports stakeholders in South Africa also include school management (manager and school board), physicaleducation teachers, parents, local sports clubs, community, ministry of education, and the ministry of sports and youth (11). Mackintosh (2014) stated that schools’ sport stakeholders include the sport federations and clubs, highereducation institutions, health professionals, government (at all levels of the national, provincial, and regional), community, private sector, sport characters, peers, parents, teachers, coaches, and the family. All these stakeholders must participate in the development of schools sport and take on their responsibilities and provide sufficient opportunities for students to participate in schools sport and physicalactivity (12). Mandic et al. (2012) argued that the best way to develop schools sport is to provide more stakeholder
The analysis of the results of the data highlights several important points: First, it appears that each student has a personal representation of the physical and sporteducation discipline, which influences his participation in the PSE course, and more precisely the causes of this participation. (Learning, demon- stration of the motor image, realization of gymnastic elements, acrobatic, aes- thetic, pleasure, progress...). Each pupil, therefore, has a different motivation when he comes to PSE, and this is accentuated by the physicalactivity offered, rather than by the teacher concerned. For Blake & Mouton (1987), these styles are determined from a two-dimensional model that combines two attitudes of the teacher: attitude towards the discipline and physical and sporteducation and attitude vis-à-vis students. Each of these attitudes is expressed in varying de- grees, weak or strong, disinterest or interest. The combination of these two atti- tudes identifies four basic styles: the transmission style (entered on the discip- line), the incentive style entered on both the discipline and the students), the as- sociative style entered more about students), and the permissive style (very little entered on students or discipline).
Statistics from the Active Lives Children survey 2017-18 (see section 6.1), published in December 2018, showed that 77% of Year 7 pupils (first year of secondary schools) reported that they could swim 25m. However, only 42% of children from lower socio-economic backgrounds reported that they could do this, compared to 86% of children from more affluent families. The School Sport and Activity Action Plan (see section 5.3), published in July 2019, notes this discrepancy and states that the Government will work with schools and the sport sector to “identify areas where schools face additional barriers to provide high quality swimming and water safety lessons and provide further support to ensure all pupils learn how to swim and be safe in and around the water.” 9
In June 2018 the Government published chapter two of its childhood obesity action plan. Among other things, the plan announced that the Government would “review how the least active children are being engaged in physicalactivity in and around the school day.” The review, it added, will also “consider how the Primary and PE and Sport Premium is being used.” The action plan also set out a “national ambition” for every primary school to adopt an active mile initiative, such as the Daily Mile. Such initiatives can, the plan states, be a simple means of contributing to the recommendation that schools should deliver at least 30 minutes of the total recommended 60 daily minutes of physicalactivity for children. The Government will review how the PE and Sport Premium can be used to support the ambition. 90
According to Mood, Jackson, and Morrow (2007), children should be engaged in moderate physicalactivity for thirty minutes per day for five or more days per week and vigorous physicalactivity for twenty minutes per day for three or more days per week. The National Association for Sport and PhysicalEducation (NASPE) (2011) stated that elementary students should be participating in 150 minutes of physicalactivity a week and middle and high school students should be participating in physicalactivity for 225 minutes a week. According to The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 study, only 3.8% of elementary schools, 7.9% middle schools, and 2.1% high schools provided daily physicaleducation in the United States. There were several goals for the middle school and high school students involved with this PEP grant. These goals included student improvement in (a) time involved in moderate to rigorous physicalactivity, (b) nutrition habits, (c) body composition, (d) flexibility, (e) aerobic capacity, and (f) muscular strength and endurance. The other goal directly involved the physicaleducation teachers in this school district. The PEP grant provided the opportunity to pursue professional development opportunities which allowed them to better understand the changes that needed to be made in their classes regarding curriculum and class management. Furthermore, and more importantly, the professional development opportunities were intended to enhance their instruction.
4 celebrate a ‘best paper’ and acknowledge a best ‘reviewer contribution’ from the previous year’s journal submissions. The third award is given to the Scholar for their lecture, recognizing their distinguished contribution to the PESP research community. The Scholar Lecture provides an opportunity for participants at the Invisible College to listen and debate a variety of issues pertinent to our PESP research community. The lecture seeks to advance scholarly thinking and it is usual for it to be published in either PhysicalEducation and Sport Pedagogy or Sport, Education and Society journals. Previous Scholar Lectures have been delivered by Mary O’Sullivan; Jan Wright; Kathy Armour; Richard Tinning; Peter Hastie; Doune MacDonald and John Evans. Having briefly outlined the development and activities of the PESP SIG we will now introduce the 2012 Scholar Lecture.
Submitted in May, 2005 Adequate physical readiness is a signiﬁcant aspect of universal armed forces readiness and an integral part of military support. The aim of this research was to ascertain the eﬀect of a training program, based on individually adapted intensity levels, on motor abilities of the Slovene armed forces (SV) personnel. The sample of subjects in- cluded 34 members of SV (16 in the experimental group – ES, and 18 in the control group – KS), aged between 35 and 40. Results have been processed by the SPSS 8.0 for Windows program. Data processing was carried out in several phases. First, the basic statistical characteristics and the distribution of individual variables have been determined, the measures of central tendency and the measures of dispersion have been calculated and a method for the analysis of variance with 5% risk has been used. The results have shown that a characteristic enhancement of certain motor abilities of the sample studied can be improved by means of training process economisation and individually adapted training intensity levels. Statistically signiﬁcant diﬀerences between the experimental and control groups were found in measurements of body fat (KG), push-ups (SK), curl-ups (DT), a 3200 meter run (T3200M) and the morning heart beat frequency (FSUs). Although the research sample was small, these studies, at least in theory support the need for future research in these areas, as our evidence strongly suggests the eﬀectiveness of individually designed training protocols on the physical readiness of Slovenian armed personnel.