We assessed the composition and structure of woody vegetation along Save, Runde and Mwenezi rivers in GonarezhouNationalPark, Zimbabwe. Data were collected from 62 sample plots between April and May 2011 using a stratified random sampling design. Our results showed significant differences in plant height, shrub density and numbers of stems per plant across the three major perennial rivers. However, there were no significant differences in basal area, tree density, dead plant density, browsed plant density, fire damaged plant density and species diversity. Our findings suggest that disturbances, e.g., herbivory, are affecting the woody vegetation structure in all major rivers in Gonarezhou. We therefore, recommend for the continuous monitoring of riparian vegetation in Gonarezhou and other similar protected areas.
their core activity. More so, most of these lawyers do not have the the technical knowledge relating to drafting hence most of them only technical knowledge relating to drafting hence most of them only act as conveyance of documents to the national IP office.
The Government of Zimbabwe embarked on a vigorous introduction of computer education in schools. The whole programme is spearheaded by His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Zimbabwe, who has so far donated over 5000 computers to schools in all provinces. Inspired by the initiative of His Excellence, the President, the Ministry and the parent communities through their School Development Committees have also bought computers for schools. The Ministry has also used “Schooling-in a Van” mobile service as an outreach programme to introduce ICT to remote areas.
DOI: 10.4236/oje.2019.99023 333 Open Journal of Ecology had higher woody species diversity and black rhino’s browse suitability/electivity values compared to the south of Runde River study stratum in northern GNP, southeastern Zimbabwe (Table 1, Table 2). Consistent with other studies, we recorded woody species of the following genera, the African bush willow (Com- bretum), mallow-leaved cross-berry (Grewia), bush guarri (Euclea), small-fruited potato bush (Phyllanthus), apple-ring acacia (Faidherbia), and chaste tree (Vi- tex), which are important food sources/forage for black rhinos in southern Afri- ca  . The woody plant genera that rank high in the diet of black rhinos in Zimbabwe are diverse, namely, Acacia, Aloe, Bauhinia, Combretum, Commi- phora, Cordia, Croton, Diospyros, Diplorhynchus, Euphorbia, Grewia, Vitex and the fallen fruits of Kigelia africana  . It was a positive finding that most of these woody species were recorded in northern GNP during the present study, over and above other recorded habitat forage status suggesting north of the Runde River as the most appropriate sanctuary of the proposed IPZ for black rhino re-introduction.
We investigated the structure and composition of Spirostachys africana woodlands in GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. We divided the GNP into three strata, namely northern, central and southern GNP, based on physical feature such as major perennial rivers. The main objective was to determine whether the structure and composition of S. africana woodlands varied across the GNP. In addition, we evaluated whether herbivory and fires played important roles in influencing the structure and composition of S. africana woodland stands. A stratified random sampling design was used and data were collected from a total of 60 sample plots. The following variables were recorded in each study plot: woody plant height, species name, plant status (alive or dead), fire or browse evidence and number of stems per plant. A total of 2,588 woody plants comprising of 73 woody species were recorded from the sampled S. africana woodlands in the GNP. Our results showed that woody species diversity, woody plant heights, shrub density, density of dead plants, sapling density, density of fire damaged plants, and number of stems per plant were significantly different across the S. africana woodlands in GNP. In contrast, only densities of trees and browsed plants did not differ significantly across the GNP. Most plots in the southern GNP had higher tree and sapling densities and taller trees whereas those in the northern GNP had higher densities of fire damaged plants. In addition, plots from central GNP were characterised with higher shrub densities of S. africana woodlands. Overall, our results suggest that there are both structural and compositional differences of S. africana woodland stands across the GNP. Evidence of herbivory did not differ significantly across the GNP suggesting that plants were uniformly affected by herbivores. However, fire evidence seemed to vary across the GNP, with areas having frequent fires being more degraded and having to some extent more woody vegetation species diversity.
influence local distribution and patterns of plant species [ 30 ]. A key to this focus was our observation that baobab com- munity in Gonarezhou tends to occur more densely along environmental gradient of soil group as influenced by the underlying geological soil substrates of granophyres. Malver- nia derived soil group type is likely less ideal for baobab abundance and recruitment. Our study results suggested that underlying geology which dictates soil group type is a key determinant for the pattern of baobab abundance, structure, and recruitment. This confirmed as was noted that, within southeastern Zimbabwe low altitude plains, variations in rainfall, altitude, and temperature are negligible, and conse- quently vegetation communities can be considered according to soil group types which generally change with variations in geological types [ 31 ].
In each transect, the following variables on each marula plant were recorded: height, girth, and tree status (dead or alive). Marula plant height was measured by placing a six metre calibrated pole against the plant and for plants with heights greater than six metre, a visual estimation was conducted. Girth was measured using a flexible tape measure at breast height (1.3 m above the ground) whereas tree status, i.e., dead or alive was determined visually following Gandiwa and Kativu (2009). The stage class were categorised as: (i) trees, i.e., woody plants ≥3 m in height; (ii) shrubs, i.e., woody plants 1.5 m to <3 m in height, and (iii) saplings, i.e., woody plants <1.5 m in height (Muchayi et al., 2017). Saplings were counted in two (2) plots measuring 20 m × 30 m within each of the sampled belt transect.
Interestingly, the present study results also revealed that Save-Runde River confluence, an Important Bird Area occurring inside Gonarezhou (Gandiwa et al., 2013) had the highest population abundance of African fish eagles. The present study presents a snapshot of the current status of African fish eagle’s abundance and distribution and this could be used as a temporal reference point for future research and also management decisions on the species. As top predators, African fish eagles have large area requirements, therefore, identifying and protecting suitable African fish eagles habitat and monitoring their population and spatial distribution patterns will benefit a host of other species that depend on wetland habitats in Gonarezhou and other protected areas, thus enhancing biodiversity conservation efforts and avian management. Therefore, future research should aim at establishing the following: (i) abundance and distribution of African fish eagles in areas with permanent and seasonal water points; (ii) long-term population trends of birds of prey in Gonarezhou, and associated competition among the birds of prey (e.g., Krueger, 1997) in savanna ecosystems; (iii) seasonal variation in African fish eagles numbers along rivers; (iv) variation among African fish eagles numbers along rivers inside and areas bordering the protected area; and (v) fish populations and large trees for perching in the different rivers and habitats in order to determine the relationship with abundances of African fish eagle numbers.
We investigated the long-term effects of fi re frequency on Colophospermum mopane and Combretum
apiculatum woodland structure and composition in northern GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP),
Zimbabwe. Fire frequency was categorised as high (every 1–2 years), medium (every 3–4 years) and low (every 5–6 years). The following variables were measured or recorded: plant height, species name, canopy depth and diameter, basal circumference, number of stems per plant, plant status (dead or alive) and number of woody plants in a plot. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.55, P = 0.0007) between annual area burnt (total from January to December) and annual rainfall (average over two rain stations per rain year, July to June) between 1972 and 2005. A total of 64 woody species were recorded from C. mopane and C. apiculatum woodlands. Mean plant height increased from 4.5 to 8.2 meters in C. mopane woodland and from 4.5 to 5.1 meters in C. apiculatum woodland in areas subjected to high and low fi re frequencies. In C. mopane woodland, low fi re frequency was characterised by a signifi cantly low density of woody plants (P < 0.001), however, with a signifi cantly high mean basal area (P < 0.001). Fire frequency had no signifi cant effect on species diversity (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that C. mopane and C. apiculatum woodlands are in a state of structural transformation. Fire frequency effects, however, appear to be woodland specifi c. Fire management strategies in GNP should take into consideration annual rainfall and the different vegetation types.
Fig. 5. Images of elephant damaged Androstachys johnsonii trees (left) and elephants (right) in GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. Photos: P. Zisadza-Gandiwa
The present study shows that species diversity was higher in areas with high disturbance such as areas with high fire frequencies and elephant densities [3,28]. These results are in line with earlier studies in the Southern African savanna ecosystem [39-43]. High species composition in areas of high disturbance can be attributed to the fact that frequent fires destroy trees and create gaps that serve as niches for invasion by other species. This is supported by the theory of invasibility, which states that whenever there are unutilized resources in an ecosystem following disturbance, that ecosystem becomes susceptible to invasion . A reduction in species diversity in less frequently disturbed areas can be attributed to competition for resources and dominance by a single species. For example,
Elevation ranges from 160 m a.s.l. at the Save-Runde junction to a maximum of 578 m a.s.l. on the Chiwonja hills. Morphologically, the GNP forms part of the Limpopo- Save Lowlands of Zimbabwe. These extend across the southernmost part of the country between the Shashe and the Save Rivers, in the form of a relatively flat plain that rises gently to the north from the Limpopo River, and form part of the Pliocene erosion cycle (Lister 1987). Within the Park, there are minor localised exposures of the earlier Post-African surface on the highest parts of the Chiwonja Hills, and the more recent quaternary surface along the major wide sand-bed drainages of the lower reaches of the Mwenezi, Runde and Save Rivers. Geologically, the GNP forms part of a down-faulted basin that has subsequently been filled by various igneous intrusions and sedimentary deposits. The central and major part of the Park is covered by cretaceous sedimentary deposits, known locally as the Malvernia Beds, comprising a succession of gently dipping red and white sandstones, grits and conglomerates, variably cemented by calcite. Portions of the Park to both the north and south are underlain by deep basalt beds, intruded in places by more recent intermediate acid rocks. Small areas of more recent quaternary alluvial deposits are found in association with the major drainages.
there is a validity and consistency in the results. The results show that though the cattle density increased significantly after 2000 in northern GNP, densities of all eight large wild herbivore species remained the same between 1991 - 1998 and 2001 - 2009. Contrary to our hypothesis, none of the eight wild herbivores showed decline in densities following the human and livestock encroachments into the northern GNP in 2000. However, giraffe and zebra showed a slight non- significant decline. In contrast, other authors have reported a steady reduction in large wild herbivore abundances over the past 20 years in many PAs across the African continent (e.g. Craigie et al. 2010; Ogutu et al. 2011; Ottichilo et al. 2001). The reasons for the decline of herbivore populations in other PAs have been attributed largely to anthropogenic pressures including livestock grazing, poaching, disease outbreaks, habitat loss and destruction (Biru & Bekele 2012; Newmark 2008; Ogutu & Owen-Smith 2003; Scholte 2011).
and future generations of people. Administrative development of policies for NPS management of animals. Over time, nationalpark management policies for animals have reflected the statutory direction given by Congress, what was known about the biology of the animals be- ing managed, and what human inter- ests there were in having the animals be managed. In the early years, the management interest focused on a few species, primarily ungulates and fish, and the management effort fo- cused on getting rid of predators, protecting habitat from fire, and adding new species of fish. Prodded by the new science of ecology, NPS’s attitude toward predators changed, it developed a recognition that exotic species could be detrimental to maintaining natural conditions, it slowly evolved an antipathy toward planting of fish in park waters, it moved from equating fish and game or “wildlife” as animals to recogniz- ing that all “wild life” in the animal kingdom are animals, and it came to recognize that fire is naturally a part of animal habitat in some circum- stances.
The growing volume of collaborative biomedical studies involving national, multinational and transnational part- ners developing various interventions targeted against health conditions such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculo- sis, childhood illnesses, and causes of maternal morbidity and mortality contained in the Millennium Development Goals, and the potential for exploitation in such research, make it essential for every country to have a functional Research Ethics Committee (REC). The purpose of national REC is to contribute independently, compe- tently, and efficiently to safeguard the dignity, rights,
A small sample scenario test was done using a fictional holiday itinerary and 8 participants to determine if this type of data collection would receive better feedback and how long it would take to fill in the questionnaire. The 8 selected participants were all students from Stellenbosch University and each given a different itinerary which consisted of a trip to Hwange NationalPark for four nights and included 3 game drives. Each itinerary varied when it came to group size, household income, accommodation type (and expense), expenditure patterns and place of origin. Each student participant was given 5 minutes to go through their itinerary and then asked to complete the survey as if they were the fictional visitor to the park. The students were timed and feedback was given in the event they did not understand certain questions to determine how long the questionnaire would take and where confusion was occurring. After completion, the participants were shown a copy of the original questionnaire and asked which one they felt was easier to fill in. The average time taken to complete the survey was 8 minutes which should is a fairy long amount of time for a two page document. However, the result was unanimous with all the participants claiming they would prefer to fill in the picture of the maps over a standard table. More than half of the participants noted that better explanations above the maps as to how they should be filled in as some initially found the idea confusing.
research on its consequences and responses by tour- ism stakeholders is of critical significance (Hambira et al., 2013; Pandy, Rogerson, 2018). This is especial- ly so with respect to the segment of nature-based tourism which is a core tourism product for sev- eral countries in southern African and in particu- lar for Zimbabwe. This paper represents one of the first attempts to explore nature-based tourism oper- ators’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in Zimbabwe. Based on the results it is evident that the majority of the tourism operators of this study are well aware of the effects of climate change in the region and for their own operations. Nevertheless, there area also some critical or unconcerned views expressed towards climate change and its estimated impacts in future. For them the projected chang- es in 30, 50 or 80 years periods, for example, are probably too distant in future to consider in their business operations that often focus and depend on the next coming season or 2-3 years operational plans and management needs (Tervo-Kankare et al., 2018). Similar unconcerned views with a relatively short-term planning horizon have been observed in earlier studies conducted on perceptions and adap- tations to climate change in the Global South and North (see Hambira et al., 2013; Kaján et al., 2014; Pandy, Rogerson, 2019).
Chipinge NationalPark shares boundaries with Mozambique to the east, Chipinge communal area to the south, Rusitu valley to the west and Cashel Valley to the north. The park has a total area of approximately 171 km 2 in extent (Fig. 1). CNP is characterised by mountainous and highly undulating terrain with peaks of altitudes up to 2,400 m above sea level. The mountain range is composed of quartzite ridges. CNP is one of Zimbabwe's finest mountainous wilderness area and a very popular hiking destination. Close to the Chimanimani town are the scenic Bridal Veil Falls, and Chirinda forest, a Tropical Rainforest, harbouring several unique endemic species. The vegetation of Chimanimani Mountains is provided by Phipps & Goodier (1962).
An alternative view of the democratic function of national parks can be seen in the catchment protection and cultural heritage arguments. Here, the existence of a wider public interest is implied. Individuals must be prepared to give up some benefits (in this case unlimited use of national parks) for the greater benefit of the whole community. This voluntary regulation for the good of society is the other side of democracy - it is assumed that freedom can only be achieved through order. Although such regulation was accepted in everyday life, in the 1940s it was not clearly perceived in regard to national parks and the 'freedom of use' aspects were stressed much more in regard to national parks than the restrictive aspects. This was emphasised by the great value given to personal experience of national parks by all nationalpark supporters.
Surprisingly little is known about natural regeneration rates, but to a large degree this could be because seedlings are not readily recognised since they lack the obvious palmately digitate leaves and swollen trunks. Additionally the association of baobab with the farmed parklands or savannah (plate 30) is a deliberate association with the agricultural environment because of the tree uses, and regeneration may well depend on trees being deliberately planted near settlements. A study in Burkina Faso clearly points in this direction (Gijsbers et al., 1994). This probably marks a change from the past, when rural settlements could well have been made in areas where baobabs were naturally frequent, as postulated by Wickens. Artificial planting is also noted by Giffard (1974) in Senegal and by Sidibé et al. (1996) in Mali (plate 32).