The effect of compact yarn on downstream process such as knitting has been studied. Weftknittedfabrics such as single jersey, single lacoste, double lacoste, honeycomb, popcorn, rib and interlock fabrics have been producedfromregular and compactcottonspunyarns. These fabrics after dyeing and starfish relaxation treatment are investigated by Kawabata evaluation system for their low-stressmechanicalproperties. The results show that in a few cases the differences between regular fabric properties and the compact fabric properties are quite significant, while marginal in other cases. However, the surface roughness values show some interesting features.
This process can eventually lead to significant fiber deterioration, indicated by a high weight and strength loss. Cracks in fibril direction as well as extensive surface peeling occur as indicators of this effect which is additionally overlaid by the effect of pure mechanical abrasion during the treatment. Cellulases are strictly substrate-specific in their action. Any change in the structure or accessibility of the substrate can have a considerable influence on the course of the hydrolysis reaction. Since the enzymatic treatment is often performed prior or subsequent to dyeing and finishing, it is very important to study the interaction of enzymes with compounds used for this process. Radhakrishnaiah et al  have conducted studies in which the effect of enzymatic treatment, on the lowstressmechanical behavior of 100% cottonyarnsproduced, from ring, rotor and friction spinning systems has been reported. Tyagi GK et al [27, 28] have conducted studies on mechanical and surface properties of cotton ring and OE rotor yarns.
Researchers (Bach-y-Ray and Stephen 2003; Bensaid et al. 2006; Bishop 1996; Demir- yürek and Uysaltürk 2013; Du and Yu 2007; Jeguirim et al. 2010; Mooneghi et al. 2014) have investigated the effect of fibers, fiber blend ratios, fiber morphology, yarn parame- ters, finishing treatments and fabric constructions on the hand feel properties of knitted and woven fabrics. Cay et al. (2007) showed that the fabric density has a significant effect on the handle properties of woven fabrics while Aliouche and Viallier (2000) proved that yarn hairiness affects the tactile fabric properties such as surface roughness and fabric compression. Yan et al. (2000) investigated the effect of fabric bleaching on mechanicalproperties and concluded that bleached fabrics have a coarse handle and a lower fullness than unbleached fabrics. Manich et al. (2006) examined the effects of finishing processes on the woven fabrics compression properties. They found that finishing treatment on greige fabric leads to fuller and more compact fabric structure given the increase in fab- ric density. Effects of yarn count and the weave structure on handle properties have also been investigated (Özgüney et al. 2009) and the results showed that bending stiffness and compression of the fabricsproduced with higher Tex are superior than that of the fabricsproduced with lower Tex compact ring spunyarns. Fabric weave structure has a significant effect on the bending rigidity and compression of the fabrics owing to the dif- ferent yarn floats in the weave (Özgüney et al. 2009). In the same way, sensorial proper- ties of different knitted structures of blended fabrics and the influence of fabric physical parameters, fiber content, fabric construction and moisture content on surface proper- ties have been studied (Nawaz et al. 2011). It was seen that the single jersey structures are the excellent used next to skin and 100% wool and wool blended with bamboo gives better sensorial comfort as compare to 100% cotton, or 100% polyester.
was Pakistani cotton. Eight plain knitted (single- jersey) fabrics of 47 courses/inch and 35 wales/inch with a stitch length of 4.92 mm were produced using ring spun blended yarns of P/B 65/35, P/B 50/50, P/B 35/65, P/B 20/80, P/C 65/35, P/C 50/50, P/C 35/65, P/C 20/80, polyester/bamboo and polyester/cotton respectively. The GSM of the fabrics was found to be 235 (gm. /m2). Polyester and bamboo fibers of 1 denier and 1.2 denier and 38 mm staple length were used for the study, while cotton used had Micronaire value of 4.9 and staple length of 27 mm. Yarns of equal linear density 29.525 tex (Ne 20) nominal count were produced on a conventional ring spinning frame, RY-5 from Toyoda with a spindle speed of 16,400 rpm and a twist multiplier of 3.5. Blended yarns were then knitted on a single jersey weft knitting (Fukuhara Japan) machine with a 20 mm gauge, 2.5” diameter and 90 feeders.
Table 1 shows the upper and lower boundaries of design chromosome gene values. Regarding to chromosome gene values, the function of making design arranges patterns in several ways. The derived designs from this function are sent to designs fitness func- tion and then to designs show function. The fitness function saves the scores that the user finds out for patterns and delivers to the algorithm. At that point is besides an automatic scoring system for repeated patterns in this piece. Some designs are scored by the user and may transfer without change from previous population to present population as a result of high score or some designs might be similar in appearance to previous ones because of the asymmetric form of constructional patterns. Thus, in order to prevent user from repeated scores for such designs and to prevent scoring dif- ferently for same designs, system scores repeated designs based on their performance appraisal.
Thermal comfort properties of single jersey fabrics made from recycled polyester and cotton blended yarns have been studied. Single jerseys knittedfabrics are prepared with different recycled polyester blend ratios, linear density and loop lengths. Box and Behnken, a three level three variable factorial design technique has been used to study the interaction effects of the variables on the characteristics of fabrics. The influence of these variables on thermal comfort properties of fabrics is studied, their response surface equations are derived and design variables are optimized. Fabric becomes thinner, lighter and more porous with the increase in recycled polyester in blend ratio and loop length, whereas thicker, heavier and less porous fabric is resulted with the increase in linear density. Similarly, the increase of linear density results in thicker, heavier and less porous fabric with higher thermal conductivity, lesser air permeability and thermal resistance and high relative water-vapor permeability at medium linear densities. Loose structure results in thinner, lighter and more porous fabric with higher thermal resistance, air permeability and relative water-vapor permeability, and lesser thermal conductivity.
On the other hand, the intelligent systems such as artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuroinference system (ANFIS) models which have the ability to model in nonlinear domain have been applied by few researchers in the previous research for predicting the bursting strength of knittedfabrics. Jamshaid et al. applied ANFIS model to predict the bursting strength of plain knittedfabrics as a function of yarn tenacity, knitting stitch length, and fabric GSM . Ertu˘grul and Uc¸ar applied intelligent technique, namely, ANN and ANFIS models, for the prediction of bursting strength of the knittedfabrics using yarn strength, yarn elongation, and fabric GSM as input variables . Unal et al. presented ANN model for the prediction of bursting strength as a function of yarn strength, yarn count, yarn evenness, yarn twist, yarn elongation, and fabric wales and courses . Bahadir et al. used ANN model for the prediction of bursting strength of knittedfabrics . Zeydan studied ANN model for the prediction of woven fabric strength . However, ANN and ANFIS models need large amounts of noisy input-output data for model parameters optimization, which are challenging, labor intensive, and time consuming processes to collect from the textile knitting industries [1, 2, 9]. In addition, ANN does not tell the core logic based on which decisions can be taken .
The abrasion resistance of the fabrics was measured by Martindle Flat Abrasion Tester (Make: Emeca Precision Instruments, Model no: 3907) using a standard (IS: 715) paper abrader for a certain wear following AATCC–93–974 method. The abrasion resistance of the fabric samples was given by digital display of the number of cycles of accelerated abrasion corresponding to the appearance of the wear (first appearance of a hole on the fabric by wear and tear of the yarns). Average of ten different observations was taken for each fabric sample.
The root mean square deviation (RMSD) indicates the migration amplitude and in turn, dispersion of fibre helical path across the yarn body. The high dispersion of the helical path assists the fibre to be interconnected by many numbers of fibres across the yarn cross section and stitches the helical assemblage of the fibres into a single unit. It is clear from Table 2 that the rotor yarns show lower value of RMSD followed by ring- and compact-spun blended yarns. The lower value of RMSD of rotor-spunyarns is due to the constraint imposed by the differential twist insertion. This shows that the fibre in the rotor yarn structure tends to be positioned in the yarn core throughout its yarn length.The RMSD values of compact-spunyarns are higher than those of ring- and rotor-spun blended yarns. The higher value of compactspunyarns shows better dispersion of the fibre helixes along the yarn radius, indicating a better migration 25 .
It is clear from table (3) and figures (7) that the color strength K/S of dyed blended yarnincreases with increases in the yarn count and twist factor valuesand conversely R% (Reflection). The differences might be due to the more even yarn structure and less hairiness of the yarn. The yarn surface regularity should be independently considered for dyed yarns because of the fact that the surface characteristics have an effect on the reflectance values after dyeing. It can be observed that the color efficiency values of 30 Ne. are generally higher than 22 Ne. These results might be due to the maturity % of the cotton fiber and chorisia fiber which indicates that there is more precipitated cellulose (crystalline or amorphous) in chorisia thus producing more free hydroxyl groups which can react with the reactive dye to give a higher K/S. The increase in color properties can be explained generally because of the destruction of crystalline regions during swelling and changes in microstructure and morphology.
It has been a universal method to obtain better-property yarns by blending different kinds of fibers together. This study, was aimed to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of far-infrared tencel/acrylic (FIT/A) and far-infrared tencel/cotton (FIT/C) blended ring-spunyarns. Yarn samples with five different blend ratios (100/0, 65/35, 50/50, 35/65, 0/100) were spun as 19.7 tex on a ring spinning system. The elongation, breaking strength, yarn irregularity, and hairiness of the two sets of blended yarns were analyzed using the simple rule of mixtures (ROM) and generalized rule of mixtures (GROM). The results show that acrylic blended yarns show higher elongation values, similar breaking strength, lower yarn irregularity values, and higher hairiness values compared to cotton blended ones. In addition, the interactions between the two fibers in both the two sets of yarns have a positive effect on yarn elongation, breaking strength, and yarn irregularity; but a negative effect on the hairiness with a different degree.
The dynamic elastic behavior such as dynamic work recovery and stress at specific extension of the fabrics helps to analyze the instant garment response to body movements. It is an objective evaluation of the performance of the elastic fabrics for tight fit sportswear. The aim of the study was to compare the dynamic elastic behavior of cotton/ spandex fabrics with 100% cottonfabrics, since it is mandatory to know the level of performance of the cotton/spandex fabrics as compared with normal cottonfabrics with respect to energy gain or work recovery by the fabric which is necessary in evaluating the performance of the garment for specific sports application. It was found that the cotton/spandex fabrics have higher dynamic work recovery and lower stress value than those of cottonfabrics for both walewise and coursewise directions. The predictions of dynamic work recovery and stress values for different extension levels were made using a regression model.
In order to decrease the distorted deformation of knitted fabric, three main kinds of methods, viz (i) improving the yarn qualities, (ii) improving knitting technology and (iii) improving finishing techniques have been used, and some corresponding research results are reported 6 . Among them, first method is the most effective one. Meanwhile, the research on improving yarn qualities by changing twisting process of ring spinning was found to attract more and more attentions recently 7-10 , especially reducing the yarn residual torque 3,9,10 . For example, a modified ring spinning system with the false twisting devices was manufactured for the production of the modified yarns with smaller yarn residual torque 3,9 . Airflow has been another most important measures for improving ring spinning system 11-13 . In this paper, a kind of airflow twisting devices has been employed for improving the twist propagation process of ring spinning system, in which the twist can be produced by the high vortex airflow and acts on the yarn body. This affects the fibre tension distribution in the spinning triangle and changes the morphology and distribution of the fibres in the yarn body correspondingly.
As seen in Figure 3, the elongations of the denim fabricsproducedfrom 0.33 dtex PET microfilament core cotton covered weftyarns are lower than those of the other filament core yarns for each yarn count. The statistical analysis shows that the effects of filament fineness and yarn count on denim fabric elongation are statistically significant (p<0.0001) with adjusted R 2 values of 92 percent. This indicates a strong relationship between filament fineness, yarn count and elongation at break. The regression equation of the elongation is illustrated as Eq. (9) in Table VIII.
Since the characteristic of the knittedfabrics used in this study are very similar in terms of yarn linear density, course density and wale density, thickness and loop length, the differences observed during the characterization study were mainly attributed to the fabric areal mass, fibre morphology and imbibed materials and not to the fabric structure. All the polyester fabrics in this study have similar thermal conductivity with the exception of the Holofiber® yarn probably due to the higher areal mass of this fabric. The knittedfabrics made with Airclo® and Finecool® yarns display the highest values of thermal resistance and diffusivity and the lowest thermal absorptivity and heat flow because of higher amount of air in the fabric structure that slow the heat transfer process. Conversely, viscose Seacell® displays the lowest thermal resistance and diffusivity and the highest thermal absorptivity and heat flow mainly due to the presence of seaweed and silver in the fibre structure and to the higher density of its structure providing the coolest feeling at the beginning of skin contact. The air permeability of the fabrics seems to depend on the fibre morphology and on the areal mass facilitating the passage of air through the fabric. On one hand, fabrics made from looser and finer yarns such as Finecool® polyester show higher air permeability than dense polyesters such as the control, Coolmax® and Holofiber®. On the other hand, the higher water vapour permeability of Finecool® and Trevira® fabrics can be attributed to the lower values of areal mass and with the presence of silver nanoparticle, respectively. Coolmax®, Holofiber® and Airclo® fabrics structures with higher densities and peculiar cross-sectional shapes showed low indexes of water vapour transmission rate, however, not so low as for the conventional polyester. In terms of friction Finecool® fibre due to its rhomboid cross section has the highest coefficient of kinetic friction and the Holofiber® fabric the lowest one. In both the horizontal and vertical wicking ability the fabric Coolmax® is higher than that of the others, and the wicking height of the fabric Holofiber® is the lowest. Moreover, despite Finecool® was designed for optimized moisture management, It showed dramatic lower performance compared to Coolmax® in both vertical and horizontal wicking tests.
ABSTRACT Although there are many processes for the preparation of yarns and fabrics, it is necessary to determine the type of preparation to obtain the desired properties of these yarns and fabrics as these preparations affect the surface of the yarn and thus affect the surface of the fabric. In this study, preparations of the yarns were applied to change some of the properties and make use of them in the production of fabrics that reflect light using 100% combed cottonyarns and a yarn-singeing process with three speeds of singeing and a mercerizing process with three degrees of concentration of NaOH and then a singeing-mercerization process at the same singeing speeds and degrees of NaOH concentration in order to determine the effect of such preparations for yarn on the percent of light reflection of the fabricsproduced. When producing fabrics, the yarns used were those that have been prepared as weft no. 50/2, a fixed number for each preparation and of weaving structure satin 5.Then hairiness ratio was tested before and after the previous preparations and then the ratio of light reflection and k/s for samples of fabricsproduced before and after the wefts preparation was measured. The most important findings of the study showed that singeing has given a lower percentage of hairiness of yarns and yarns that contributed directly in increasing the reflection of light by the fabrics and vice versa with low k/s values. The mercerization process has slightly contributed to the low ratio of hairiness and increased the inner surface of the yarn as a result of being swollen thus increasing the surface of the fibers inside the fabrics, decreasing the ratio of light reflection and increasing k/s values. The singeing-mercerization process has led to a decrease in the ratio of hairiness resulting in an increase in the ratio of light reflection and a decrease in k/s from those only mercerized, so the singeing process should be carried out before mercerization.
In SNK multiple comparison test, whether the difference of the mean values for each levels of the parameters are statistically significant or not is determined. As given in Table 5, in terms of fabric type, although two subsets are defined, the mean values are included in both subsets for fleece fabric, therefore it can be said that there are not statistically significant differences between the needle penetration forces of fabrics. For softening treatment five different softening agents were used and among them, softener 4, macro sized silicone emulsion had the lowest needle penetration force value and caused most efficient softening effect. Since the molecule size is higher than the other types of softening agents, it forms slippy, smooth and soft characteristics. All the other softening agents are comprised in the same subset since the 95% confidence interval of the mean needle penetration values are overlapped. The untreated fabrics have quite high needle penetration force compared to the treated fabrics. Softening concentration has no statistically significant effect meaning that the lower concentration (15 g/l) was enough for getting the same performance. In terms of economic concern, it is also obviously advantageous to use lower concentration in the softening treatments.
Figure 1 shows the configuration of the rotor twister. Spandex (A) is expanded on a multi-sectional drawing frame (B), then threaded through the eye (C) and fed into the rotor twister (E); the rotary speed of winding roller (I) determines the feeding speed. The tangent belt (F) connects to the motor (G) and rotates the rotor twister bearing (D). The bamboo charcoal polyester textured yarn (blue) is spun around a plastic hollow cylinder, which is then set onto the rotor twister. When the rotor twister rotates, the bamboo charcoal polyester textured yarn wraps the spandex, forming the BC/S complex yarn (H). Then the winding roller (I) winds the BC/S complex yarn into a spool [17-20]. Figure 2 shows the composition of the BC/S complex yarns, which are knitted into BC/S complex knittedfabrics. Figure 3 illustrates the circular knitting machine with which the knittedfabrics are made.
Traditionally, textile products have been developed to provide mono-functional roles primarily driven by fashion and basic functionality (comfort and protection). In recent years, the development of a wide range of smart fibrous structures has resulted in a revolutionary revival of the concept of value- added textile design. From the early development of polymeric intelligent gels and shape memory silk yarn (Hongu T and Phillips G O, New Fibers, NY, Ellis Horwood, 1990) to the wide range of wearable information infrastructures available today (Smart Fibers, Fabrics and Clothing, The Text. Inst., CRC, 2001) progress in value-added textile structures has never ceased.
Motorcycling is a hobby for many people. They love the freedom feeling from the speed and most motorcyclists treat their motorcycle as their friend. Also many people will adopt scooters and light commuter motorcycles for their daily transportation. In 2015, there are 8.6 million motorcycles on the road in U.S. This has increased from 8 million in 2009 (51). With this large amount of motorcycles on the road, the number of accidents that relate to motorcycle crashes can't be ignored. The motorcycle deaths and injuries in U.S. from 2013 to 2015 are listed in Table 2. 1. In 2015, 40% of the motorcyclists killed in accidents didn't wear helmets. The main reasons for those fatal accidents to occur are alcohol use, speeding, lack of a valid license and the types of motorcycles as the riders of super sport motorcycles have 4 times higher death rates compared to other types of motorcycles. For the safety of motorcyclists, the proper protective gears can play an important role. It is suggested by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that equipped with a helmet that has a DOT symbol (which meet the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 218) and protective clothes which are used for covering arms and legs, boots and gloves can helps to reduce the injury and increase survivability (52).