We investigated the structure and composition of Spirostachysafricana woodlands in GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeastZimbabwe. We divided the GNP into three strata, namely northern, central and southern GNP, based on physical feature such as major perennial rivers. The main objective was to determine whether the structure and composition of S. africana woodlands varied across the GNP. In addition, we evaluated whether herbivory and fires played important roles in influencing the structure and composition of S. africanawoodlandstands. A stratified random sampling design was used and data were collected from a total of 60 sample plots. The following variables were recorded in each study plot: woody plant height, species name, plant status (alive or dead), fire or browse evidence and number of stems per plant. A total of 2,588 woody plants comprising of 73 woody species were recorded from the sampled S. africana woodlands in the GNP. Our results showed that woody species diversity, woody plant heights, shrub density, density of dead plants, sapling density, density of fire damaged plants, and number of stems per plant were significantly different across the S. africana woodlands in GNP. In contrast, only densities of trees and browsed plants did not differ significantly across the GNP. Most plots in the southern GNP had higher tree and sapling densities and taller trees whereas those in the northern GNP had higher densities of fire damaged plants. In addition, plots from central GNP were characterised with higher shrub densities of S. africana woodlands. Overall, our results suggest that there are both structural and compositional differences of S. africanawoodlandstands across the GNP. Evidence of herbivory did not differ significantly across the GNP suggesting that plants were uniformly affected by herbivores. However, fire evidence seemed to vary across the GNP, with areas having frequent fires being more degraded and having to some extent more woody vegetation species diversity.
A study on the structure and composition of Androstachys johnsonii Prain (Euphorbiaceae) woodland across three strata was conducted in GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeastZimbabwe. Specifically, the objectives of the study were: (i) to determine the spatial structure and composition of A. johnsonii woodland in GNP and (ii) to determine factors that influence the structure and composition of A. johnsonii woodland in GNP. This study was based on a stratified random design with three major soil groups, and 30 plots were sampled in May 2010. The three soil strata were comprised of soils derived from (i) rhyolite, (ii) malvernia and (iii) granophyre bedrocks. A total of 1258 woody plants were assessed and 41 woody species were recorded. There were significant differences in mean tree heights, tree densities, basal area and species diversity in A. johnsonii woodland across the three soil strata. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the mean number of dead plants per ha in the three study strata in the GNP. Our study findings suggest that A. johnsonii woodland in GNP is being degraded. GNP management should develop a monitoring program through establishing monitoring plots in A. johnsonii woodland, and further studies need to be carried out, particularly on recruitment of A. johnsonii in the GNP.
In protected areas such as GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeastZimbabwe, large herbivores and fires have a significant negative impact on vegetation structure and composition thereby threatening local extirpation of some plant species (O’Connor et al., 2007). Marula is one of the heavily utilized tree species facing pressure from elephants and humans in savanna ecosystems (Helm & Witkowski, 2013). Gadd (2002) asserts that the marula species has poor regeneration and recruitment ability which is mainly attributed to overutilization. With the increasing human and large herbivore populations in southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe, the survival of the marula species is a cause of concern mostly due to overutilization. Elsewhere, in South Africa, the marula species is regarded as a keystone species, hence, this contributes towards its conservation (Shackleton et al., 2007). To date, little is known about the population density and structure of the marula species in the south eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe. Therefore, the present study provides a baseline assessment of the marula species in GNP and adjacent areas. The objective of this study was to assess the population density and structure of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) in the northwestern GNP and adjacent areas.
that the presence of fire-resistant adult trees for many years buffers the system against frequent fires (Hanan et al. 2008). We recorded a high number of dead plants, mostly shrubs, in HFF sites, particularly in C. mopane woodland. Miller (2000) stated that plant mortality reflects the amount of meristematic tissues killed by heat. It is, however, suggested that high fire frequency is not responsible for the death of large trees as flame heights of a burning grass layer are usually low (Bond & Van Wilgen 1996). In savanna woody species, topkill is much more frequent than complete mortality after fire (Hoffmann & Solbrig 2003). Grass fire, instead, suppresses the recruitment of small individuals to the canopy layer (Bond & Van Wilgen 1996). It is possible that the high number of dead woody plants recorded in C. mopane woodland with increasing fire frequency may be a coincidence, as other factors may have interacted with fire, leading to an increase in woody plant deaths. However, it is also likely that the high number of dead plants, particularly small trees, recorded in C. mopane woodland may have resulted from the cumulative effects of fire over a long time. We attribute the large tree mortalities recorded in the RFF sites to droughts, old age and disease. Tafangenyasha (1998) reported a large drought- related tree dieback in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe associated with the 1991/92 drought. Other studies have associated woodland change in semi-arid savanna with fire and droughts (e.g. Fensham et al. 2003; Mosugelo et al. 2002). The present study suggests a link between fire frequency and basal area among woody plants in C. mopane woodland (see Figure 4). The decreasing basal area associated with increasing fire frequency is attributed to the high number of thin stems recorded in MFF and HFF sites that result from basal coppicing and high shrub densities. In contrast, high mean basal areas were observed in RFF sites. We attribute this to the existence of tall, huge and single-stemmed trees. Our observations are consistent with several other researchers’ findings (e.g. Enslin
Magnesium is an activator of many enzyme systems and maintains the electrical potential in nerves( Ferres et al., 1987). Calcium is important for blood clotting, muscle contraction and in cer tain metabolic proceses. (Adeyeye and Fagbohun, 2005). Both Calcium and Phosphorus are involved in bone metabolism, this has led to the concept of calcium: phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio. The Ca/P ratio of A. Africana is 0.67. Food is considered poor if the ratio is less than 0.5, and good if its above 1.0. Zinc concentration was found to be lower than that reported for Kerstingiella geocarpa seed and lima-beans. (Oshodi and Adeladun, 1993., Table 4: Essential non-essential neutral and bask
Broader significance of this mapping endeavour The principle underlying vegetation mapping is to translate the spectral data acquired by a remote sensor into the desired vegetation categories. In the past four decades, the means to do so have evolved fast owing chiefly to advancement in the field of remote sensing, particularly regarding the diversification of the spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolutions of sensors and of the ability to store, analyse and interpret the data they acquire (Chuvieco 2016; Jensen 2013). Nevertheless, remote sensing remains highly underused by conservationists, mainly because of the cost of and access to imagery and software (Turner et al. 2015). Aiming at making such new technologies more easily accessible to the end user, the international research community, backed by governments and transnational institutions, has pushed forward an agenda to make satellite imagery, derived products (Fonseca et al. 2014; Wulder et al. 2012) and software (Development Team QGIS 2015; GDAL 2018; GRASS 2012; Inglada & Christophe 2009) freely available to all in easy-to-use repositories. Given our requirement of a vegetation structure map to be used by several ongoing ecological and conservation studies within and around HNP, coupled with our limited budget for producing it, we opted to tackle the challenge of creating one using solely such freely available data and software. We hope that by providing a step-by-step description of our mapping (see the ‘Materials’ and ‘Procedure’ sections), our work may help researchers and conservationists produce future maps of HNP or similar maps of other protected savannas at a low cost. Conclusion
grade at both Gateway and Summit Elementary. Diana Roberts is our Homeschool Enrichment Academy Teacher for Grades 6-8 at Summit Elementary School. Both Sandy and Diana have experience as classroom teachers and have homeschooled their own children. They are responsible for helping parents and students get started, training on the software, communicating frequently with students and parents, problem solving any issues and monitoring the progress of the students. Communication between our Online Liaisons and parents of WPSD Online students would include e-mails, phone and personal contact. Each student is encouraged to have at least two face-to-face meetings throughout the year, but the online liaisons are available for more contact, if needed. Diana schedules on-campus hours for students needing additional support or structure and proctors all high school finals.
Recent researches in low mountain primeval forests in the Carpathians show that the tree spe- cies diversity has decreased as silver fir is being displaced by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (Jaworski, Karczmarski 1990, 1991; Jaworski et al. 1994; Jaworski, Skrzyszewski 1995). Korpeľ (1989) observed the decrease in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) share in stands where it used to occur naturally especially in the last 15–25 years. On the other hand, however, beech is going up in these stands, a process presently typical throughout all the Carpathians.
MATERIAL AND METHODS Study area
The study area includes two phytocenoses of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest (MOF), typical and exclusive formation of the Southern Brazil highlands, with representation of tropical and temperate floras, with dominance of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze (RODERJAN et al., 2002). The study was conducted in the Iguaçu NationalPark (ParNa Iguaçu), a federal conservation unit of integral protection (RYLANDS; BRANDON, 2005). ParNa Iguaçu covers 185,262.50 ha, according to the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (IBAMA, 1999), forming one of the main areas with native vegetation in the state of Paraná. With the exception of the Brazilian Serra do Mar, it represents, together with the São Joaquim NationalPark, SC, the last remaining of the original Atlantic Forest with core bigger than 50,000 ha, being the only fragment with areas 12 km far from the edge (RIBEIRO et al., 2009).
With the availability of aerial photographs at 1:25 000 scales or less over a range of years and rea- sonably good records of the fire history since the NationalPark was formed, there is considerable potential to test for an association between fire, vegetation structural change and tuart canopy health. Fensham et al. (2002) have demonstrated a robust method enabling the quantification of vegetation cover change with image scales up to 1:40 000. The availability of other data such as soil type, offers the further possibility to explore interactions between vegetation change, fire and other environmental factors. Data collection in this way would represent a superior approach to the standard “space for time” method in isolation. In conjunction with this, on-ground experimental work is being established to examine the response of tuart, co-occurring tree species and the under- storey to fire intensity as well as competition and post-fire grazing effects on seedling regeneration. A broader project investigating tuart tree decline in Yalgorup and elsewhere has commenced. It acknowledges that the causes of tree decline are rarely simple or single-factored. Preliminary work suggests there is no single cause of the decline/declines across the distribution of tuart (Longman & Keighery 2002, Edwards pers. comm.). Primary and secondary agents, complex interactions and time lags between cause and effect are all possible. Collaboration between research groups and the co-ordination of research across several areas: fire, insects, fungal pathogens, nutrition, hydrology and water relations, represents the best hope for gaining the knowledge necessary to undertake any remedial work or prevent any further decline.
This is one o f the Cambridge Tropical Biology Series and maintains the high standards which have become associated with the Cambridge University Press. Peter Endress, although based in Zurich, has a long and productive association with the tropics and maintains that he actually started this book during the monsoon in Java Endress is a developmental morphologist who has published extensively on floral structure and development in primitive groups of flowering plants. His approach to the topic in hand is decidedly that o f an evolutionary morphologist. This provides a refreshing zest to a topic which is not well documented ex perimentally and thus liable to an uncritical and even anecdotal exposi tion. Indeed he starts off by citing the instance of that most familiar of tropical ornamental trees, the Flamboyant, Delonix regia. For all its ob vious attractions little is known about its reproductive biology in the wild (although I think the fact that it is rare in its natural home in Madagascar might well have something to do with this). But the point is well made nevertheless. The biology of flowers can provide insights into trophic and evolutionary relationships within the community. This facilitates an understanding of community dynamics which could not be gleaned from even the most comprehensive checklist. Anyway, a botanical inventory o f the tropics is still far from complete, yet even as new species are being described, others are disappearing and all that is known to Science about them are their names. After all, the most informative aspect of a species is not what it looks like but how it functions. Endress is aware o f this, and while nothing in his book is startlingly new, it is a compelling synthesis which provides a firm grounding, both philosophically and in tellectually, from which to proceed.
Termite species diversity has been shown to change along numerous environmental gradients: increasing as mean annual rainfall increases in the savanna (Buxton 1981, Davies et al. 2015), while conspicuously decreasing with increased levels of anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests (Eggleton et al. 1996, 1997, Dosso et al. 2010). Termite diversity is always higher in intact forests compared to more disturbed anthropogenic land use areas, such as plantations (Attignon et al., 2005; Dosso et al., 2013). Sharp decreases in termite diversity have also been reported with increasing altitude (Gathorne-Hardy et al., 2001; Palin et al., 2011). As yet, there is a lack of consensus on the influence of fire (see Davies et al. 2010 for a review), with some studies finding no effect of long-term fire regimes (e.g. Davies et al. 2012), and others recording a decline in termite abundance immediately following fire (e.g. Dawes-Gromadzki 2007). Although geological variation has been shown to have an effect on vegetation heterogeneity (Venter et al. 2003), little is known about the landscape and point-scale relationships between termites and soil properties (Jones et al., 2010). Indeed, there is little information on how termite species composition varies in areas with different geologies (but see Wild 1975, Jones et al. 2010), resulting in a poor understanding of how termite diversity differs across landscapes. Where geology has been considered, the focus has been on the density and spatial distribution of mounds built by Macrotermes (Meyer et al. 1999, Davies et al. 2014b), excluding the majority of taxonomic and functional termite groups that do not build conspicuous mounds. To date, very little is known regarding how variation in geological substrate influences overall termite species diversity in savannas, especially at the landscape scale (but see Wild 1975).
During the last century, much of the prairie within the Northern Great Plains has been plowed for cropland, planted with non-natives to maximize livestock production, or otherwise developed, making it one of the most threatened ecosystems in the United States. The NationalPark Service (NPS) plays an important role in preserving and restoring some of the last pieces of intact prairies within its boundaries. The stewardship goal of the NPS is to “preserve ecological integrity and cultural and historical authenticity” (NPS 2012); however, resource managers struggle with the reality that there have been fundamental changes in the disturbance regimes, such as climate, fire, and large ungulate grazing, that have historically maintained prairies, and there is the continual pressure of exotic invasive species. Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to sound management of prairie landscapes because it can provide information on environmental quality and condition, benchmarks of ecological integrity, and early warning of declines in ecosystem health. Badlands NationalPark (BADL) was established in 1939 as a National Monument and in 1978 became a NationalPark with a mission to protect and preserve 242,756 acres of rugged badlands, mixed-grass prairie, and rich fossil deposits. The vegetation is a mosaic of sparsely vegetated
forests, where gall richness could be higher than predicted by Price et al. (1998).
Our results show than the moist and wet tropical forests of Coiba NationalPark revealed a rich diversity of gall-inducing arthropods, with species richness numbers higher than those reg- istered in continental Panama (see Price et al. 1998) and other parts of the Neotropical region (see Cuevas et al. 2004a, Costa De Oliveira and Maia 2005) (Table 4). Although we did not col- lect all species in Coiba Island, the total of fifty nine species, with a range of one to nineteen gall inducer species per site, in Coiba NationalPark is more that the twelve proposed for mesic vegetation in the literature (see Price et al. 1998). Coiba NationalPark diversity is similar DISCUSSION
Meru Betiri NationalPark (MBNP) is one of the nature conservation area that has the potential of flora, fauna, and ecosystems that could develop as a nature-based tourism attraction. The existence of certain indicator species was related to estimation of stress level and disturbance on ecosystem stability for making strategic decisions about the restoration in this area. One of the important indicator species at forest ecosystem were soil arthropods. Aim this research were analyzed composition and diversity of soil arthropods at Rajegwesi, MBNP areas. The methods in this research used pitfall trap, measurement of distribution structure and soil arthropods composition based on the Shannon - Wiener index, Morisita similarity index and Importance Value Index (IVI). The number of families and individuals of soil arthropods found in the coastal area of Rajegwesi consists of 10 order with 21 families (702 individual). The number of individuals of the order Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola and Araneida was more widely found. Soil arthropods diversity index on each land use indicated that soil arthropod diversity in these areas were moderate. Soil arthropod community of orchards and forest had a similarity of species composition, whereas soil arthropod community of savanna had a similarity of species composition with paddy fields.
An alternative view of the democratic function of national parks can be seen in the catchment protection and cultural heritage arguments. Here, the existence of a wider public interest is implied. Individuals must be prepared to give up some benefits (in this case unlimited use of national parks) for the greater benefit of the whole community. This voluntary regulation for the good of society is the other side of democracy - it is assumed that freedom can only be achieved through order. Although such regulation was accepted in everyday life, in the 1940s it was not clearly perceived in regard to national parks and the 'freedom of use' aspects were stressed much more in regard to national parks than the restrictive aspects. This was emphasised by the great value given to personal experience of national parks by all nationalpark supporters.
The study area was located in the surroundings of Toro, a village at the western margin of Lore Lindu NationalPark (longitude 01º22’52’’ - 01º31’4’’ S; latitude 120º1’37’’ - 120º3’5’’ E) about 100 km south of Palu, the Capital of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Research was carried out from April 2004 to December 2005. Detailed information on climate and soil conditions of this part of Central Sulawesi is not yet available (see Whitten et al. 1987). Falk et al. (2005), however, reported that mean annual rainfall in the study area varied between 1,500 mm and 3,000 mm, mean relative humidity 85.17%, and monthly mean temperature 23.40°C. The margin of the NationalPark is characterized in many parts by a mosaic of primary forest, primary less disturbed forest, primary more disturbed forest, secondary forests, and several land-use systems with cacao, coffee, maize and rice as the dominating crops (Gerold et al. 2004). The elevation of the selected sites is between 800 m and 1100 m, therefore belongs to the submontane forest zone (Whitten et al. 1987).