Structure, wood, and the form of furniture
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The r e lationship between the crown, the stem and bole wood is e x t r emely complex and not amenable to simple
description. For example, unless the state of h ea lt h and relative ef f i c i e n c y of the individual branch are known, it is difficult to assess the contribution of that b ranch to stem growth - the fact that the needles are still green does not mean the b r a n c h is contributing. At any height specified in the tree branches of the same cross-sectional area may carry the same weight of foliage, but contribute quite
Here at d-Bodhi we fashion most of our furniture from recycled wood, mainly teak.
Wood that once supported the sturdy structure of a house or seafaring boat falls into disrepair. We pull out the beauty hidden in the weathered timber and breathe new life into it.
We're known for creating distinctive furniture designs that allow the aged wood to speak. You'll see small nail holes, cracks or old joints. We leave the wood unfinished, which adds to the story behind each piece of furniture.
The aim of publishing this magazine is to engage researchers and scientists, from all parts of the world, to his knowledge, both theoretical as well as practical in writing concentrated more on one site in the form of publications, which will contribute to their greater recognition and the development of economy and society. Management process of new technology permeates all aspects of social life which is a huge area of coverage through this magazine.
6.3 Clusters Development
The Thai government identified competitiveness development as one of its crucial strategies to create economic expansion and prosperity, improve peopleûs livelihood and promote sustainable development in the country. Development of groups of enterprises in the form of cluster was therefore an important tool to increase competitiveness in both manufacturing and service sectors. It also directly contributes to the countryûs competitiveness in international market.
In conclusion, the life cycle assessment allows the selection of the most promising coating systems for woodfurniture from an environmental perspective. In the specific case, the advantages of systems 1, 2, 3 and 7 are related to their good performances with respect to all the three aspects mentioned above (energy consumption, VOC emission, coat application technique). These aspects should form the basis for the evaluation of coating technologies and can possibly support the design of new coating materials and plants.
Metsäpaviljonski or the Forest Pavilion, built in Lapua in 1938, was characterised by a sense of impermanency of the framework, fleetingness of the event, and primitive- ness in the use of wood. The first condition refers to dura- bility of the structure, the second one implies a transient condition of use, and the third one contains the essential material. Despite it being an ignored masterpiece of Nor- dic ephemeral architecture, the design cleverly combined Modern and traditional ideas of fabrication. The spatial outcome was both tent and hut. It synthesized a morpho- logical transformation, evolving from a geometric form into a fluctuating organism. The Forest Pavilion was an elementary space for display: a primitive frame wrapped by turbulent and fibrous textile patches.
Stock steamed and bent at a high moisture content is more likely to develop surface and end checks during the drying process than stock steamed and bent at lower moisture content. I n a furniture factory, oak and beech parts steamed and bent at a relatively high moisture content surface checked during drying. The drying room was maintained at a temperature of 170° F., with no control of relative humidity. I n the case of oak chair -back posts bent in a hot - plate press and dried between plates heated by steam at 20 pounds gage pressure, the percentage of pieces rejected because of checks increased rapidly with increase in the moisture content of the bending stock. Pieces dried in hot - plate presses are highly sus- ceptible to end checking, particularly when the ends have absorbed considerable moisture during steaming or boiling. End coatings re - duce end checking.
industry accounted for 6.5%.
Under the strategic guidance of China’s forestry industrial structure adjustment, the development of the forestry secondary industry won a large amount of forestry technology support and human resources investment; hence, the internal structure of the industry gradually had been improved (Wang 2011). Among the six manufacturing industry categories of the forestry secondary industry, the paper and pulp industry, which is a technology- and capital-intensive industry, has the fastest development rate, and the AAGR of its output value reached 45.8%. Until 2010, the output value of the paper and pulp industry accounted for 24.6% of that of the forestry secondary industry (Fig. 3), highlighting the important position of the technology-intensive industry after the industrial structure adjustment. China’s woodfurniture industry is a resource-and labor-intensive industry, and due to its mature technical support and cheap labor resource, it developed rapidly, with the AAGR of output value reaching 27% in the past 10 years. In 2010, the output value of the woodfurniture industry accounted for 13.8% of that of the forestry secondary industry, playing an important role in promoting forestry economic development. To upgrade the industrial structure, the Chinese government has to limit the development speed of the resource consumption-based industry.
Figure 1 shows schematically the main components of the experimental facility: weighting scale, boiler, gas analyzer and data acquisition system.
The boiler is of mono-bloc type, which means that it includes the burner, combustion chamber and heat exchanger integrated into a single structure. The boiler has 5 power levels and can adjust the ratio of air inlet and pellets feeding. This parameter can be controlled within the range from -50 to +50. In the operating conditions the boiler was programed at -35 which represents higher air/fuel ratio.
Transformations of post ’90 brought about several essential phenomena, such as: Naissance of new forms of ownership and administration of forests; increase of illegal felling; transformation of totally centralized enterprises to private businesses; liberalization of wood market; and, liberalization of imports and exports.
Passing to the market economy during the transitional period, important changes of both subjective and objective character occurred and these brought about changes in the production chain in this industry and in its structure (Tsegabu, 2006).
Large industries with adequate funding and cutting-edge tools have been developing waste by-products into particle boards. On smaller and middle-ranged industry, the processing of production waste products is still under developed, despite the economic potential. Waste by-products are created in large amounts and they are very cheap. This research is an effort to use sawdust as a waste by-product with simple technologies to make it practical for smaller industries. Therefore, this research is regarding how to recycle solid industrial wastes in the form of sawdust into new material as a basis for product development. Furthermore, the raw material as a result of the next research will be used as a base in designing sawdust-based products.
Wink unites technological innovation with creativity. The result, a clean but sophisticated form with dynamic curves that surround for a relaxed, comfortable sit. Proprietary technology is used to create Wink’s single piece, multi-layered, pre-treated woodform with double complex curves, conveying an incredible flowing shape.
TDS manufactures wood products including interior and exterior doors and frames, window and base moldings, and stained railings. HVLP spray guns were purchased to replace conventional spray guns on manual spray lines which were about 20% efficient. Along with the conversion to HVLP, TDS also installed automated flatline spray equipment which increased application efficiency and recycled overspray, switched from toluene-based coatings to less hazardous coatings, provides heat instead of solvents to thin coatings, uses dedicated pumps and lines for each type of coating, blocks gun nozzles and blows air back through the guns and delivery
Mixing: Mix 1 and 2 together in a glass bottle with a tight lid. Store until needed. Shake well before using. Work in well ventilated room. Pour hot water (3) into an empty tuna fish can. Pour the turpentine and linseed oil mixture (1 and 2) over the surface of the hot water. Do not stir. Dip cloth or 0000 steel wool into the oily mixture floating on the surface of hot water. Rub on small area of the wood surface. Avoid excess moisture on places that have been glued. Use toothbrush on carved areas and grooves. For areas that appear to have a buildup of dirt, dip 0000 steel wool into the cleaner and rub lightly with the grain of the wood. Then dip fresh cloth into clear, warm water, wring the cloth out and wipe the surface.
Founded in 1990, LuxCraft began as a small business in the corner of a barn, exclusively manufacturing outdoor woodfurniture. In the years that followed, as LuxCraft’s product line expanded to include outdoor structures and poly furniture, our facilities and dealer base grew accordingly. Flash forward to present day and you’ll find our product being made in a 56,000 square foot shop before being distributed to hundreds of dealers throughout the US and Canada.
o What factors would be important in your decision?
o Have you invested time/money into exploring ‘green’ options?
Findings from question 1
Participants had particular experience in end o f life responsibility for projects. End o f life is a new sustainability dimension which is being built into projects where contractors have to take responsibility for end o f life o f plastics, packaging etc. and m ust reconstitute these materials or recycle them back into their processes. This can incur huge waste disposal costs as materials often are not sufficient quality to be used again. Full training must be provided for maintenance purposes and a maintenance manual m ust be drawn up by the contractor. This is leading more product liability on behalf o f the Irish furniture manufacturers, as they are required to take out indemnity insurance, at a huge cost to the company. The end o f life maintenance manual contains all certifications on Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified woods, performance testing, fire rating and water based lacquers as these can be audited. Irish manufacturers are
10. VIZATEL – Vizatel is a family owned company operating in the field of interior design and production of solid woodfurniture since 1996. Its facilities are based in Sofia and the production division is on an area of 3.000 sqm, and it is supported with high technology machine parks. The company which is ISO 9001:2000 certified, is probably one of the most known Bulgarian furniture manufacturer, oriented toward modern lifestyle furniture and in 2005 will take part for the third time at the IMM Cologne fair. The company directly sells its products through its own showrooms. 11. AUGUSTA MEBEL – It is a joint stock company with entirely private capital and its principal shareholders is “The Industrial Holding Bulgaria AD”. The company was founded on the 5th May 1919 as a wood building company. It is located in Shumen. In 1921 started with the production of veneers and by the 1949, when become state owned, was occupied by the production of doors, window panes, furniture and other wood articles. Soon become also an exporter mainly to the Soviet Union and the near East. Today the company still remain in the same production segments and has recently entered new markets such as UK, Germany, USA where 75% of its production is exported. The company is ISO 9001 certified.
The situation presented above indicates that the positive outcome of international trade of the sector concerned mainly resulted from the high value of trade balance for manufacturers of furniture. This hypothesis is confirmed by the level of the export/import ratio (EIR). The share of exports of wood-and-furniture products in the sold production of that sector was relatively stable, and amounted to 53,3–58,4%. A particularly strong export propensity was recorded for manufacturers of furniture (in the years 2007–2011, the EIR was at a level of approx 80–90%). As regards manufacturers of paper, paperboard and articles of these materials, the EIR was clearly lower, and amounted to approx 53%. In the period concerned, it was the entities producing wood and cork manufactures that showed the most stable and, at the same time, the lowest export propensity (with the EIR at a level of approx 30%).