The advancement of digital technology has evoked a new teaching paradigm and the incorporation of such technology into models of teaching has been highly appreciated in order to achieve certain learning goals such as students’ criticalthinking. This study investigates and examines the difference in criticalthinking skills of students taught through the flipped classroom, pure online and direct instruction models. The method of the study is quasi-experiment implemented to students of English majors of Halu Oleo University. A total of 96 students participated as samples sitting in three different classes. Each class was attended by an equal number of 32 samples. Data were collected by giving samples a criticalthinking skills test after the model implementation. The data were analyzed by means of two-way analysis of variance. Results of the study show that there is a significant difference of students’ criticalthinking skills after the implementation of the threemodels of teaching and the students from the flipped classroom is observed to have higher criticalthinking skills.
Speaking is an important part in teaching and learning English process. It accomplishes the purpose of real communication such as conveying news, obtaining information or expressing opinion with the variation of methods the way they learn in order to gain students’ interest and fun in learning English (Hendriwanto, 2014). Meanwhile, Richard (2008) states that ‘the mastery of speaking skills in English is a priority for many second languages or foreign language learners. However, learning to speak accurately and fluently is one of the most challenges for language learners. In addition, speaking skill relates to interaction that shows the way learners gain the purpose of its learning process as the essential development in gaining students’ criticalthinking (Rajasa & Sari, 2019). In terms of non-English speaking countries, Indonesia remains English as one of the obstacles in teaching and learning activities in the classroom setting. Whereas, Luoma (2004) argues that speaking tasks can be seen as activities that involve speakers in using the language to achieve a particular goal in particular speaking situation. Thus, to master speaking skills, learners should be involved in speaking activities. In other words, the teacher needs to push the students to speak English as much as they have time. Then, the teacher needs to create opportunity for students to speak.
A random selection strategy was employed in terms of randomly inviting head-teachers and asking them whether they were willing to provide me with the opportunity to conduct my research on the premises of their schools, during school time. I subsequently scheduled appointments with the head-teachers that replied in order to discuss further details of my research and find out whether it was possible to come to an agreement on the design and implementation requirements of my study. It is worth noting that the random selection strategy turned into a non- probability sampling one: out of the eight primary schools I contacted, only three were shortlisted, based on the time they were willing to allot to my research and on the availability of particular classes to be used as units of analysis. Some schools were already taking part in other research projects or educational programmes, which, in combination with the demands of the curriculum, rendered them unavailable. Such limitations forced me to face the challenge of working with children from different classes and levels and to shorten the duration of the workshops (8 x 80-minute sessions), despite having permission to conduct a longer research by the Ministry of Education and Culture in Cyprus. This permission was granted prior to the fieldwork, so as to obtain approval for entry in the schools provided that the head-teachers and class teachers agreed. All the schools accepted my drama workshop proposal, but some objected to its duration. Therefore, I decided to work with the schools that were willing to provide me with the time I requested.
based on our experience from teaching ethics and professional ethics it is obviously, that thinking about ethics, clarifying the conceptual phrases ethical vs. moral decision-making, ethical dilemmas and solving them are very important skills for anyone in today’s school in increasingly globalized world, where the information and evaluation of this information on the base of ethical decision making and criticalthinking become a more and more important skill for the whole life of each individual. considering that some ethical decisions are irreversible, that life or death decisions are made, three ways of making decisions must be highlighted when teaching ethics. in this contribution it has been pointed out appealing to intuitions, appealing to authority and critical, reflective decision-making, which, opposed to the first two, at least beginners, enables us to (i) make only a few mistakes, (ii) possibility of justifying the decision and reflection and (iii) most importantly, the possibility to ethical exploration and to develop into an expert.
With the purpose of determining the effect of teaching philosophy on criticalthinking of students, based on quasi- experimental method with unequal-group comparison plan, from among the population, female students of third- year guidance school in Hamedan in the academic year 2010-2011, a sample size of 40 was selected by multistage cluster sampling method in the form of two classes. They were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Both groups were given pre-test using California CriticalThinking Skills Test (Form B). Then the experimental group, during three months for 18 hours in nine teaching sessions, received two hours of teaching philosophy in form of philosophical stories and using research community method. Then the two groups were given post-tests based on the mentioned test. After that, the data was analyzed after reviewing the necessary hypotheses by analysis of covariance. The results showed that teaching philosophy could improve criticalthinking of the students in the experimental group was compared with control group. Thus, the research hypothesis was confirmed, and it can be concluded that by teaching philosophy, one can enhance reasoning skills and as a result students' criticalthinking. Therefore, it is suggested that teaching philosophy be included in students' curriculum.
Findings for the qualitative data were expected, and certainly respond to the research question at hand. The mixed approach to teachingcriticalthinking, in which there is a combination of explicit instruction about criticalthinking as well as criticalthinking infused for the duration of the course, seems to have promise for higher education in speech-language pathology. The fact that qualitative and quantitative findings are somewhat dichotomous warrants further reflection and explanation. That is, 15 items in the Likert scale did not show significant differences in CT skills dispositions as a whole. However, in triangulating these data, it is quite notable that student comments about general CT skills mirror the positive change noted on the three items on the Likert scale which did demonstrate significant positive change. Furthermore, student comments about evidence-based practice in the profession demonstrate both practice and exposure to review of the evidence when planning intervention sessions. Finally, in a social climate seeking increased diversity and inclusion, the comments noted by students about criticalthinking and cultural considerations within and beyond the classroom experience show great promise for the profession.
Purposive sampling was used in this research targeting the pre-service teachers who were in their fourth year of study majoring in Mathematics in Faculty of Education. It was carried out in a higher education institution located in Johor Bahru. There were 35 pre-service teachers involved in the research. The pre-service teachers involved in the research are of different gender, races, socioeconomic backgrounds and education level (STPM, Matriculation and Diploma). Fourth year pre-service teachers were chosen as respondents because they had gone through most of the educational courses as mentioned previously throughout the three years of their study and they also had gone through their teaching practice in the last semester. This will help to investigate their competency in incorporating the criticalthinking in their future teaching process after studiying the courses offered by the Faculty of Education as they will graduate to become a teacher who will work in a school. On the other hand, second and third years pre-service teachers were excluded because they had only learnt some of the educational courses offered and yet to undergo the teaching practice in schools. However, due to the limitation of time, this research was unable to carry out in other institutions of higher learning where Bachelor of Education (Mathematics) is offered.
multiple examples from several disciplines, students can learn to improve how they think in ways that transfer across academic domains. Rubinstein’s highly successful course in problem solving (Rubinstein and Firstenberg, 1987), Lochhead and Whimby’s analytical reasoning procedures (1987), and Woods’s use of deliberate planning and monitoring (1987), all of which were described in Stice’s volume, provided models of successful instruction in criticalthinking that eventually swayed even the staunchest critics.
The WebQuest has become prominent in many educational areas and has received considerable attention from teachers and educators since Dodge (1998) developed it. Dodge defined two types of WebQuests: short-term and long-term. Short-term Web- Quest takes between one and three days to complete and gene- rally introduce new ideas to students. Long-term WebQuest take longer than three days to complete and generally build on students’ existing knowledge. According to Dodge, the instruc- tional goal of a short-term WebQuest is the acquisition and integration of knowledge. At the end of a short-term WebQuest, lasting one to three class periods, a learner should have gained a significant amount of new information and made sense of it. The instructional goal of a long-term WebQuest, however, is to extend and refine the knowledge. After completing a long-term WebQuest, a learner should have examined a body of knowle- dge, transformed it in some way, and showed an understanding of the material or knowledge gained by creating any kind of work (for instance, defining a stance and defending it, design- ning new WebQuests, and constructing new problems or tasks) that others can respond to, online or offline.
provide a framework for devising behavioral change interventions” (Underwood, 2012, p. 912). The theory included three components of human behavior: behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs (Underwood, 2012). Time, training, and insufficient resources may be reasons that lead to negative attitudes and perceptions of new strategy implementation (Gatt, 2009; Snyder & Snyder, 2008; Sun, Penuel, Frank, Gallagher, & Young, 2013). These barriers may have an impact on teacher motivation. Teachers may also encounter a lack of motivation or knowledge that may prevent them from meeting the needs of students. Self-determination, also known as motivation, is defined as “the extent to which an environment is autonomy supportive, controlling, or a motivating will influence the degree of the intrinsic motivation an individual feels toward a given activity” (Wagner & French, 2010, p. 153). These authors also used the Deci and Ryan self-determination theory to examine factors in the workplace that affect teacher motivation. Wagner and French found out that there is a correlation between the factors teachers encounter at the work place and their intrinsic motivation. Teachers who felt that they had supportive administrators, had professional development, and felt the environment was positive were more motivated than their counterparts (Wagner &
There would appear to be an expectation that when students reach tertiary level, they already have an understanding of what criticalthinking entails. But students need to be exposed to a range of teaching methods in order to nurture the criticalthinking process (Walker 2004). There are models and techniques for teaching social work students criticalthinking skills described in the literature. For example, an intensive criticalthinking unit introduced at the beginning of the final year of the social work undergraduate program was found to be effective at the University of Newcastle, Australia (Plath, English, Connors and Beveridge 1999). During the 32-hour (4 week) unit, students worked through a range of class exercises designed to enhance criticalthinking, argument and debating skills. The evaluation of the unit concluded that explicit and concentrated instruction on criticalthinking assisted students to improve their criticalthinking abilities and to identify the principles of criticalthinking. The authors stressed the importance of the timing of the criticalthinking intensive, suggesting that the improvement in measured reasoning ability ‘may have been built on the previous three years of ‘immersion’ in a curriculum which encouraged and valued critical reasoning without providing explicit instruction’ (Plath et al. 1999, p.216).
widely researched model based on constructivist principles is Community of Inquiry framework developed by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000). The Community of Inquiry framework is comprised of three overlapping elements: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. Reviews of research within the Community of Inquiry framework have drawn similar conclusions as Maurino’s (2007) study. For example, in Garrison and Arbaugh (2007) review of research done within the Community of Inquiry framework, they noted that, while learning does indeed occur in the context of online discussion, few studies show evidence that it moves to the higher levels of criticalthinking. Swan, Shea, Richardson, Ice, Garrison, Cleveland-Innes, & Arbaugh (2008) as well as Garrison (2007) suggested that this may have something to do with teaching presence. In the Community of Inquiry framework, teaching presence has three components: (1) instructional design and organization, (2) facilitating discourse, and (3) direct instruction. These categories align well with the 3 factors identified by Murphy (2004) as aforementioned. According to Murphy, engagement in asynchronous discussion forum is derived from these 3 factors. The three categories of teaching presence are closely aligned with those identified by Murphy. This indicates that teaching presence can stimulate engagement in asynchronous discussion forums. According to the constructivist theory, meaning (criticalthinking) is constructed through communication (engagement) and since teaching presence supports engagement, it can be concluded that teaching presence may support criticalthinking. Yet, the question, “what is the effect of teaching presence on learners’ level of criticalthinking”, remains largely unanswered due to the fact that to date there has been no empirical study to confirm this.
knowledge. Learning is expected to emerge through “discourse and opportunities to explain (teach) [personal] understandings to another person and the opportunity to understand (learn) [from other people’s points of view]” (Kilpatrick et al. 1997: ).
Discussing meta-cognition from Kilpatrick’s et al. (1997) perspective, this is a theory around thinking and experience. According to Kilpatrick et al. (1997: ) this includes “our ability to think about what we are doing and thinking while we are experiencing it”. Kilpatrick et al. (1997: ) discussed further that it is about being able to think “on experiences and to learn from them”. Meanwhile Schon cited in Liston (1996) refers to the aforementioned theory as ‘reflection-on-action’ that occurs when we think of our lesson before teaching and after teaching focusing thought on what happened during the teaching process. Another time frame is ‘reflection-in-action’ prevailing during the lesson as a teacher attempts to solve unexpected problems or to alter the way of explaining by rephrasing questions. Higgs (1995), Kilpatrick et al. (1997) and Schon as cited in Liston (1996) outline the idea of reflecting before the lesson, during the lesson and after the lesson. This shows the relevance of meta-cognition theory within the critical reflective teaching process as necessary. It enables teachers to think of the lesson process, identify problems to solve the ones that need immediate attention, being flexible and acting professionally throughout the lesson.
As the characteristic of teachers, husbands (1996:p196) suggest that differential academic status may effect evaluation in as much in “ the highly didactic situation of the lecture ( with it grater potential for exhibitionism and status demonstration ) student may expect more lecture rather than small group interaction . Further husbands also suggest that gender of the instructor affect how students evaluate different teaching methods. Students may expect women to rely more on small group method because in lecture “women are more likely to have voice level problem impeding the attainment of audibility (p 195). In term of characteristic of course, Husbands point out potential difference in of subject matter, with some subject better suited to group interaction method and other to lecture. Husbands also point to several student characteristic which could affect evaluation of teaching strategies , three of which are of particular interest are namely Gender difference, Level of commitment to the class and Level of student seniority.
The strategy is presented in three steps: 1) In the Look back stage the instructor requests the students to immerse themselves in examining their work product and to appraise its relevance 2) In the Select stage the instructor encourages the student to be mindful of what they should discard, keep or prioritize in that learning 3) In the Deepen stage the instructor encourages the student to develop that which they believe to be a priority (Brookfield & James, 2014). The strategy can be used with multiple issues and across many disciplines. For example in the nursing field it can been used to determine what actions should take place to achieve a specific outcome for the patient and what priorities for planning should be set to accomplish patient needs within a specific time frame (Yildirim & Ozkahraman, 2011).
Shell conducted a survey of 262 baccalaureate program nurse educators about their perceptions of barriers that hindered the implementation of criti- cal thinking strategies. 7 She concluded that faculty encounter several barriers when incorporating criti- cal thinking strategies into curriculum. The greatest barrier is students’ lack of motivation and resistance to active learning. Instructors also identified time constraints when trying to prepare and plan criticalthinking activities because they could not find ample time in the classroom to incorporate the task. The amount of content or factual information required in the courses was overwhelming to both the instructor and student, leaving little time to incorporate criticalthinking activities. Shell concluded that the nursing educators were only slightly confident in their knowl- edge of how to promote criticalthinking in nursing students, and they felt additional education in criticalthinkingteaching methods was needed. 7
In his overview of insights from cognitive science for improving the teaching of criticalthinking, Van Gelder  compares learning criticalthinking to ballet: it is a contrived activity. Humans are not naturally critical; we do not spontaneously question apparent patterns or stories. Furthermore, it is a higher-order skill, requiring the lower level skills it builds on to be mastered and combined in just the right way. As with any other higher-order skill, Van Gelder  concludes, “no fancy new technology or teaching technique is going to produce dramatic transformations without the necessary time and effort being applied” (p.42). The consequences of this insight to teachingcriticalthinking are summarised briefly here.
In recent years, scholars and teachers abroad and at home have paid much attention to the core competences of English discipline. The High School English Curriculum Standard (2017 edition) states that core competence consists of language ability, learning ability, cultural awareness and thinking quality. Criticalthinking is the key component of thinking quality, cultivating the students’ criticalthinking meets the requirement of education curriculum. As an important part of human thinking, criticalthinking plays an important role in the development of science and technology, economic growth, social development and human progress and has been identified as one of the standards for high school accreditation and a long-standing outcome of education. English reading enables students to acquire language knowledge and information, and it is also a good way to cultivate criticalthinking. Criticalthinking is needed as an important means to process information when reading. However, in most high school English reading classes, teachers only focus on a superficial understanding of the text and training of reading skills. There are quite a lot of problems in the teaching design. For example, students' original cognition has not been activated; teachers do not interpret the text deeply or accurately which makes it impossible for students to comprehend the text correctly; teaching steps’ lack of coherence; the design of the question after reading is separated from the text and cannot be connected with the students’ real life, which makes the teaching boring and tedious, students' criticalthinking cannot be effectively trained. The design of questions and activities can serve as a support for the cultivation of criticalthinking, allowing students to discover, analyze and solve problems. Taking the teaching design of reading text The Freshman Challenge, chosen from Unit1 Teenage Life, Compulsory one, PEP as an example, this paper explores how to cultivate students' criticalthinking in reading teaching design.
This monotonous view of CT as a culturally specific concept creates a further debate on whether it can be formally taught through a systemised approach or whether it should be developed independently (Cummings, 2015; Blair and Mader, 2013; Choy and Cheah, 2009). Rezaee et al., (2012) posit the idea of educators modelling and explicitly teaching students to thi k iti all . This ste s f o De Bo o s theo of late al thi ki g i hi h he esta lishes thi ki g as a skill hi h a e taught, p a tised a d e ha ed. Usi g this odel, the i te e tio ill seek to adopt a deli e ate app oa h of developing the mind logically from various angles (De Bono, 1970). Moreover, the research will consider how pedagogical inputs from educators can develop and enhance the nature of CT. Effectively, this will provide a reciprocal effect on CW as Elder and Paul (2006:38) assert that there exists an intimate connection between the ability to write well and the a ilit to thi k ell . Finally, exploring this concept through the means of a workshop may provide valuable information on strategies and directions HE institutions can adopt to improve student experience, attainment and employability skills.
TEACHING SKILLS IN AN INCLUSION CLASSROOM 9 think critically about the content in their lessons and about the world around them. But what does this mean? Criticalthinking is a skill that involves analyzing and evaluating data about a certain subject and creating a valid opinion or judgment about that data. Children are not born with an innate ability to do this difficult task, so it is up to the teachers to provide them with the skills, knowledge, and training. However, today in the schools, teachers tend to avoid this subject, especially in the lower grades, because of the challenge that accompanies teaching it. Teachers in high schools might assume that the students can already think critically so they do not spend the class time to teach it (Cotton, 1991). Most of the time, the children learn this skill in high school or even college. They use a misguided or misconstrued version of criticalthinking for most of their lives. Instead of forcing them to learn this skill in a matter of months in high school, teachers should focus on teachingcriticalthinking in the elementary grades. Yes, it would be a simplified version, but it will get the students into the practice of approaching a problem by thinking through all the factors, facets, and consequences before arriving a valid solution.