of paper (kept over the pressure pad) from proximal to distal end. The palm was gently pressed between intermetacarpal grooves at the root of fingers, and on the dorsal side corresponding to thenar and hypothenar regions. The palm was then lifted from the paper in reverse order, from the distal to proximal end. The fingers were also printed below the palmar print by rolled fingerprint method. The tip of the fingers were rolled from the radial to ulnar side to include all the patterns.
Demographic and underlying information: In this study, a total of 148 subjects were studied, of these, 69 patients were diabetic and 79 non- diabetic. The mean age of diabetic and non-diabeticpatients participating in the study was 59 and 57 years old, respectively. BMI in diabetic and non- diabetic was 28.98 and 28.36, respectively. Based on the parametric test of independent-samples t- test, both groups were matched in terms of BMI. The average age of menopause in diabetic and non-diabetic groups was 47.83 and 48.06, respectively, which indicates that both were matched on this variable. Family history of diabetes was studied in two groups. According to the results, 37.3% of diabetic and 35.9% of non-diabeticpatients had a family history of diabetes. Chi- square test results indicated consistency between the two groups on this variable. 17.4% of diabetics
It has been suggested that diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections, the risk of using more aggressive therapeutic agents and increased mortality and morbidity; however, current evidence supporting these events in the field of pneumonia is scarce. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical features and microbiological characteristics and outcome of bacterial pneumonia in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Santhiram medical college and general hospital, Nandyal, which included 60 patients of pneumonia with diabetes and 60 patients of pneumonia in non-diabetics. The clinical and radiological characteristics, the spectrum of causative agents, microbiological data and the outcome of diabeticpatients were analysed and compared with data obtained from non diabeticpatients. Results: Patients with diabetes were significantly associated with multilobar involvement (P = 0.039), prolonged duration of hospital stay (P = 0.018), more severe at presentation in form of increased PSI score (P = 0.038) and more ICU admissions. By contrast, there was no significant difference in age, sex, concomitant underlying illness, complications, mortality. In the sub group of patients with diabetes, mortality was associated with multilobar infiltrate, concomitant illness, high PSI score (P < 0.001) more complications (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with pneumonia, diabetes is associated with poor prognosis, increased duration of hospital stay and poor outcome compared to non-diabetics. This study suggests that this outcome is more attributable to underlying circumstances of patients than to uncommon microbiological finding.
In our study we found that TC, TG, and LDL-C levels were significantly higher among the nephropathy patients. A similar study among related South Indian population has also shown that TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C were significantly different between diabetic and diabetic nephropathy patients  . A study conducted even in a different ethnic population has observed results similar to the present study  . The pattern of dyslipidemia observed in our study was similar to a study reported from Saudi Arabia,  where the incidence of dyslipidemia was noted to be in the range of 25- 60% among diabeticpatients. There was also some similarity with results of Lipid Research Clinic Prevalent studies, where abnormalities in lipids and lipoprotein were approximately 25% and 50% for TG and total cholesterol, respectively  . Studies from Nigeria also reported similar findings, where hypercholesterolemia was present in 43.5% and hypertriglyceridemia in 34.8% of patients presented with Type 2 DM  . Another study showed that dyslipidemia combined with diabetic nephropathy is not limited to T2DM subjects, but is present among type 1 patients as well  .
Our study resulted that out of 100 individuals with stroke, ischemic or infarct stroke had more number of patients compared to hemorrhage stroke. The study conducted by Ali showed that there was a higher incidence of ischemic stroke in diabeticpatients than the non-diabeticpatients. Our study showed higher incidence of infarct and the incidence of large sized infarcts were more in diabeticpatients and small and medium sized infarcts were more in non-diabeticpatients. Our study findings were similar with many other study findings by Kissela et al, Air et al, Jorgensen et al which suggested that diabetes are more prone to have ischemic stroke and less to have
Methods: A hospital-based unmatched case control study was conducted from February 2018 to April 2018 at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. Data were collected from 204 individuals, 136 controls and 68 cases using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and patient chart. Data were entered into EPI-data 3.1 software and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Descriptive analysis including mean, median and proportions was carried out. In bivariate analysis, variables below 0.25 signi ﬁ cance level were selected for multivariable analysis. For multivariable analysis, a backward model was selected and 95% con ﬁ dence interval variables with P-values below 0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as signi ﬁ cant variables. Results: Of the total respondents, 68 were cases and 136 were controls, with an overall response rate of 98.55%. Of these respondents, 57.4% and 57.8% were males and type 1 diabeticpatients, respectively. This study found that ages of 38 – 47 (AOR= 5.60 (1.62 – 19.38)) and >47 (AOR=4.81 (1.32 – 17.5)), income of 1000 – 1499 (AOR=3.10 (1.05 – 9.08)), self-reported drug adherence (AOR=5.146 (1.651 – 16.04)), FBS of 70 – 130 mg/dL 0.095 (0.022 – 0.414) and ≥ 131 mg/dL (0.05 (0.011 – 0.223)) and type 1 diabetic mellitus (AOR=4.73 (1.765 – 12.72)) were signi ﬁ cantly asso- ciated with diabetes mellitus complications.
Microalbuminuria Prevalence Study in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Malaysia ORIGINAL ARTICLE Microalbuminuria Prevalence Study in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Malaysia N C T Kon[.]
Background: Diabetes mellitus is multifaceted disease and foot ulceration is one of its common complication. Diabetic foot ulcer is estimated to effect 15% to 25% of people with diabetes at some time in their lives and it precedes 25% to 90% of all amputations. Objective: to determine the knowledge and practices regarding foot care among diabetic with the aim of identifying and addressing barriers to prevent amputation and other complications. Material and methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at public diabetic clinic in Nishtar Hospital Multan. A sample of 150 patients were chosen using non probability convenient sampling in the duration of one month. A questionnaire which included demographic details, knowledge and practice of functional foot care was administered. Data was compiled in SPSS V20 software and later analyzed in Community Medicine department, Nishtar Medical University. Results: out of total of 150 diabeticpatients studied, 91 patients (60.66%) had good knowledge regarding prevention of diabetic foot while total of only 55 patients (36.66%) were found to have a good level of practice. Poor educational status and long duration of diabetes was significantly associated with poor knowledge and poor practice of functional foot care. 125 (83.33%) diabetics knew the importance of taking anti diabetic drugs to prevent complications. 91 patients (60%) knew the Importance of keeping feet dry to avoid foot complications. 34(22%) knew the warning signs regarding diabetic foot to consult the doctor. Regarding practices, 78(52%) patients inspected their feet and toes regularly. 101(93%) washed their feet regularly. 54 (36%) trimmed their nails in time properly. 68(45%) had a habit of walking bare foot. 64(42.66%) inspected the inside of the shoes they wore. 52(34.66%) wore shoes with socks. Conclusion: Result demonstrate satisfactory knowledge on diabetic foot care but practices of preventive techniques are highly unsatisfactory. The study has highlighted the gap in knowledge and practice of foot care in diabetes mellitus patient. The majority of the patients participating in the study did not have higher education and were of low socioeconomic status. Very few people knew the warning signs regarding diabetic foot to consult the doctor. Practices of proper timely trimming of nails, regular inspection of feet, wearing socks were found to be very poor. However regular feet washing and knowledge of the importance of taking anti diabetic drugs as preventive measure was satisfactory.
Introduction: As a form of regression analysis, spline regression can be an appropriate method to show the relationship between predictor and response variables in nonlinear models. Spline regression is not usually used in medical sciences. This study aims to compare pattern of changes in HbA1c level among diabeticpatients using two regression models together with a clustering technique. Methods: This study was done in 2013 and randomly included 834 patients who referred to Hamzeh clinic. 95 patients were involved to diabetic mellitus and entered to study. Data was collected based on demographic questionnaire and laboratory results. Data were clustered and then analyzed using simple linear regression and spline regression with and without clustering. Results: Although no significant statistical relationship was detected between HbA1C factor changes and age of diabeticpatients by using Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression, Regression spline showed statistical relationship between two factors. Conclusion: The results indicated that amount of HbA1C is indirect position with age of patients with HbA1C ≥ 14. Using a clustering technique as well as spline regression analysis to fit curves to data, changes in dependent variables can be explained better by independent variables, and a better estimate can be made compared with other linear models.
Our study was conducted to assess effectiveness of the therapy and rational use in the Diabeticpatients and we found that the prevalence of Type-2 DM was high than Type-1 DM with high percentage of men. The reason for the occurrence of DM was found to be irrespective of diet, smoking and alcohol habits of the subjects even though they are one of the risk factors but most of them had the family history of positive DM. HTN, IHD, Hypothyroidism, CKD & Diabetic foot were the most common co-morbidities. The treatment was based on the GRBS levels of inpatients which was monitored frequently by using OHAs and Insulin therapy or by the combination of both based on the glycemic swings.
one of the explanations of the interaction between response to fenofibrate treatment and SNP3 polymorphism. Another study reported that the SNP3 polymorphism was not associated with lipid variation in response to the fenofibrate intervention in contrast to 56 C>G polymorphism. 31 Type 2 diabeticpatients having the B1B1 genotype of CETP are more predisposed to CAD than B2 carriers. 13 They are characterized by decreased HDL-C concentrations. 13 When treated with fenofibrate, patients carrying B1B1 genotype, have significant decreased triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations and elevated HDL-C concentrations compared to baseline data. However those parameters did not differ after fenofibrate treatment in B2B2 genotype. This result showed that B1 B1 genotype carriers benefit most from fenofibrate therapy as it was shown for atorvastatin 31 and contrary to those shown for simvastatin. 32 In another study, the CC genotype of CETP gene promoter polymorphism at position -629 C/A offers a better benefit of statin therapy associated with lowered level of LDL-C and LP (a). 31 More studies and larger studied populations are needed to better conclude and understand the genetic effect on the drug response. After fenofibrate treatment, the CETP activity decreased in B1B1 but not significantly whereas it increased in B2B2 genotype. Although the difference between variation of lipid, lipoprotein and CETP activity before and after fenofibrate treatment in both genotypic groups are not significant, we can see the beneficial effect of fenofibrate in B1B1 compared to B2B2. In fact the number of individuals having B2B2 genotype is little because the frequency of this genotype in our Tunisian population is very low. 13 In the present analysis, fenofibrate was found to double plasma homocysteine levels in the fasted states. Furthermore, it have been reported in a study by R. Bissonnette et al. 34 that there was a significant
evidence to guide clinical practice for diabetics’ wounds. A Malaysian comparative study between honey and povidone iodine as dressing solution for Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers showed insignificant difference in ulcer healing in both study groups . However, they concluded by stating that honey dressing is a safe alter- native dressing for diabetic foot ulcers as it enhances wound healing, prevents superadded infection and it is readily available with affordable cost in most of develop- ing countries as stated by various studies in literature [16,23,25-27]. The absences of randomized control trial RCT does not necessarily mean that honey should not be used as there are many studies advocating it use particularly those done on Manuka honey by Peter Molan et al. of New Zealand . An RCT on the use of honey in treating diabetic foot ulceration is on-going by Jennifer Eddy of Wisconsin, USA . Given honey’s potential for improved outcomes, cost savings, and decreasing antibiotic use and resistance, we agree with others [22,25-27] to consider topical honey therapy for patients with refractory diabetic foot ulcers particularly in countries where patients wish to use honey topically in treating their foot problems.
The results of the present study showed a significant difference between the type of ACS and diabetes. These results are consistent with the results of some studies such as Zakeri et al. Zakeri et al. studied 33 diabeticpatients with acute or old myocardial infarction as well as 34 patients with negative oGTT with acute or old myocardial infarction in the control group. They found that plasma homocysteine levels in diabeticpatients with coronary heart disease are higher than non- diabetics. The observed difference between the mean fasting serum homocysteine in study group (16.2±4.8) and controls (10.6±4.8) was significant (P<0.05).
The study was done in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and the protocol was approved by University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) Institutional Health Ethical Research Committee (IHREC) with reference number UUTH/AD/S/96/VOL.XII/38. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects after detailed explanation of the study to them. The study was conducted in the medical outpatient department of UUTH between January 2013 and March 2014. Of two hundred participants recruited, 134 consecutive diabeticpatients, diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria  or those on oral antidiabetic drugs, as well as 59 non-diabetic age- and gender- matched controls completed the study.
Our study makes use of a cost of illness prevalence based approach and patient perspective to assess the OOP health expenditure incurred by diabeticpatients. In this study, OOP health expenditure included pay- ments made by diabeticpatients at the hospitals. This fee does not vary for controlled versus uncontrolled dia- betes and excludes OOP payments made for transporta- tion to the health facility. However, transport costs in South Africa have previously been reported to take up a large portion of direct healthcare costs [6, 8]. Therefore, in estimating costs per hospital visit we make use of two approaches. The first uses the direct medical health costs only (approach 1) whilst the second uses both the direct medical health costs plus the direct non-medical costs of transport (approach 2). Patients were asked how much they paid for transport to the hospital and this was multiplied by two in order to estimate the costs of a return trip. In cases where patients used private vehicles, transport costs were estimated using the reported dis- tance from patient residence to the hospital. A value for 1 km of R3.55 was used based on the price estimate pub- lished by the South African government .
Diabetes mellitus is one of the major challenging health problems in this 21st century, faced by both developed and developing countries. Diabetic retinopathy is a major primary complication of diabetes and significant cause of blindness. Prevention, early screening and effective follow up and management of diabetic retinopathy, can reduce the progression of devastating complications. Early recognition, timely screening, appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and effective treatment are beneficial in treatment of diabetic retinopathy. It is important for general public to understand the importance of visit to ophthalmologist and follow up for timely intervention. The community can be made aware by regular seminars, newspapers, articles, media publicity and medical screening. Keeping in mind these aspects, it is needed to conduct such a study regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of diabeticpatients, regarding diabetic retinopathy in Jammu.
department).It was approved by the institutional review board, and a written informed consent was obtained from all participants and met the requirements of local ethical committee ; Mansoura University. The study was done on 100 diabeticpatients and 50 control subjects and lasting for 12 months (from January 2017 to January 2018). Patients with established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus on basis of medical history, clinical examination and laboratory tests . The study included 100 diabeticpatients (90 male and 10 female) between the ages of 18 - 73 years old, while the control group was 50 subjects (40 male and 10 female) between the ages of 30 - 64 years old. The diabeticpatients group was divided into two main groups’ diabeticpatients without nephropathy group and diabeticpatients with nephropathy group based on ADA diagnostic criteria on diabetic nephropathy which is the persistent presence of elevated urinary albumin excretion (albuminuria),low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the absence of signs or symptoms of other primary causes of kidney damage . The following exclusions criteria were considered in selecting the diabeticpatients :
Diabetes mellitus is the chronic disorder emerging as a major world health problem which in- creases the rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to ascertain patterns of prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents to type 2 diabeticpatients attending a university hos- pital, and to assess patient compliance. A prospective, observational and non-comparative study was conducted in 200 established diabetes mellitus type 2 patients attending outpatient depart- ment at Majeedia Hospital, New Delhi, India. Prescriptions from registered patients were included in the study. Once the consultation by the physician was over, the prescriptions were reviewed and the patients were interviewed. The information was collected in an inhouse designed docu- mentation proforma. In a pool of 200 type 2 diabetics, more than half were female (n = 106, 53%). The mean age of the patients were found to be 50.4 ± 11.7 years and mean body mass index, 25.8 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 . A total of 432 oral hypoglycemic agents were prescribed to the patients. Highly signifi-
Newer studies are in favour of lens implantation in diabetic eyes, as correction of aphakia with spectacle causes further image distortion and constriction of peripheral visual fields . The need for this study is to establish the influence of glycaemic control on visual control to better advice patients before surgery. The aim of this study was evaluation and comparison of visual outcomes after cataract surgery in diabetic and non-diabeticpatients: patients with and without diabetic retinopathy; assessment of post-operative complications after cataract surgery in diabetics compared to non- diabetics; and analysis of increment in central foveal thickness using optical coherence tomography, after cataract surgery. Also, through this study, we wanted to determine whether uneventful SICS/phacoemulsification cataract surgery led to adverse visual outcomes in diabetics.
The main findings of the present study were that the prevalence of symptomatic, asymptomatic, and overall bacteriuria among diabeticpatients was 17.1%, 20.9%, and 19.5%, respectively. E. coli was the most common organism isolated. The reported prevalence of symptom- atic and asymptomatic bacteriuria in this study was higher than the 13.6% and 10.4% reported in Ethiopia, a neighboring country . Sudanese diabeticpatients have poor glycemic control, which may explain the high prevalence of UTI in this setting . Poor control of DM increases the risk of UTI by 24% . Generally, compared with non-diabeticpatients, diabeticpatients have a higher incidence of UTI and asymptomatic bac- teriuria [16,17]. However, we found that the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in our previous work was 12.1% and 14.7% respectively . It is worth mentioning that in Table 3 Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from diabeticpatients