Top PDF Study on the properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites material

Study on the properties of natural fibre 
		reinforced polymer matrix composites material

Study on the properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites material

Presently several ventures and industries need perishable or eco-accommodating materials to interchange with existing materials with no compromise on properties or performance execution variety. Fibre strengthened compound resin materials are economically or monetarily perishable and renewable sources. These properties generated widespread research and development in this area, and these new materials have received more and more attention in industrial applications. Properties of such material will further be changed by adding natural resins with synthetic resin, therefore an effort was created in an exploitation of these composite of artificial plant product with jute fibre as reinforcement. So an endeavor was created by utilizing the properties of jute fibre with the mixture blend of three artificial resins particularly general purpose resin, vinyl ester organic compound and isophthalic polyester and cardanol alkali treatment. The employment of such composites for low-temperature structures is usually hindered by inconsistency of fabric properties choice of composite materials for such applications is tough and inferable by their anisotropic thermal behavior and complicated surface characteristics whereas undergoing low-temperature drifts and therefore the eventfully massive variations in their properties. it's well-known that polymeric materials have low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5 W/m/K) and hence thermal expansion. Thermally sensitive to conductivity and expansion, polymer composites have many benefits compared to conventionally used metals, like low density, corrosion resistance, and low processing price. The parameters like cardanol concentration, type of synthetic resin and number of layers (and fibre orientation) are varied in this project and with the aid of Taguchi’s L9 array method, samples are prepared. The samples are tested for their coefficient of linear thermal expansion by Dilatometer. The variation of each parameter is studied and a regression equation is developed using ANOVA analysis for optimum thermal properties. The variation of every parameter is studied and an equation is developed for optimum thermal properties.
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A Comparative study on Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review

A Comparative study on Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review

Compared to untreated fiber, no significant change in tensile strength has been observed for treated jute fiber reinforcement. P. Hema Amity, et al [11] this work focuses on the extraction of fibers from pineapple leaf, sisal plant, and date palm leaf. Hand layup technique is being used to prepare the samples of composites. ASTM standards are being followed while fabricating the natural fiber reinforced composite. The properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength and hardness are to be studied. Amit Kumar Tanwer [12] In present study, mechanical properties for these natural fiber composites were evaluated. Here, these natural fibers are the fiber reinforcement and epoxy polymer resin as a matrix material. Composite were prepared with different longitudinal (Unidirectional) natural fiber reinforced with epoxy based polymer. Mechanical test i.e. tensile test were performed on UTM machine and the results are reported. The result showed tensile and compressive strength of different unidirectional natural fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites and presented the conclusion. I.S. Aji, et al [13] this review however will focus on Kenaf; a very important natural fiber with robust mechanical properties. Good number of journal papers have been reviewed here that touch on cultivation of kenaf and its consequent effect, chemical treatment of natural fibers, matrix combinations, processing techniques, and
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Experimental Study on Optimization of Thermal Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforcement Polymer Composites

Experimental Study on Optimization of Thermal Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforcement Polymer Composites

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104519 3 Open Access Library Journal meter method. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of the compo- site decreased with increase in fibre content and quite opposite trend was ob- served with respect to temperature. Raju et al. [6] aimed to elucidate the optimi- zation of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, linear thermal expan- sion and specific heat of ground nut shell particles reinforced polymer compo- site materials. Using ground nut shell particles as reinforcement for polymer matrix could successfully develop beneficial composites and can be used for thermal applications. Dedeepya et al. [7] measured mechanical properties of composite such as tensile strength, tensile modulus using universal testing ma- chine and thermal conductivity of natural fibre typha angustifolia reinforced composite using Guarded hot plate apparatus. It was observed that mechanical properties increased as fibre content increased and thermal conductivity de- creased as fibre content increased. AL-Shabander [8] presented the flexural properties and thermal conductivity of composites made from wood dust filler particles and epoxy resin. Experimental results showed that the flexural strength of the composites decreased with the increase of the filler particle content and the thermal conductivity of the composite decreased with increasing weight per- centage of wood dust. Qi et al. [9] investigated the thermal conductivity of composite panels hot-pressed with varying proportions of sweet sorghum and high density poly ethylene (HDPE). The results showed that the thermal con- ductivity increases in a linear manner with temperature and density in a non li- near manner with HDPE content. Taguchi and Konishi [10] advocated the use of orthogonal arrays and Taguchi [11] devised a new experiment design that ap- plied signal-to-noise ratio with orthogonal arrays to the robust design of prod- ucts and processes. In this procedure, the effect of a factor is measured by aver- age results and therefore, the experimental results can be reproducible. Phadke [12], Wu and Moore [13] and others [14] [15] have subsequently applied the Taguchi method to design the products and process parameters. This inexpen- sive and easy-to operate experimental strategy based on Taguchi’s parameter de- sign has been adopted to study effect of various parameters and their interac- tions in a number of engineering processes.
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Impact Properties Study of Fibre Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

Impact Properties Study of Fibre Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

Fiber-reinforced composites are widely used in aviation, aerospace and other fields due to their high specific strength, specific modulus and design ability. At present, electric vehicles develop rapidly, because of battery energy density constraints and other factors, more and more fiber composite materials are used in automotive lightweight projects. This paper is based on composite material battery PACK and focuses on the impact properties of carbon fiber reinforced composite polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced composite polymer (GFRP). The CFRP is a resin-based, carbon fiber reinforced composites, whose density is small, closing to magnesium and beryllium, being 0.20 ~ 0.57 times of several other metal materials [1]. The use of CFRP as a structural material can reduce the structural quality of 30% to 40%; CFRP’s light and high strength performance is most significant and its specific strength is 5 times higher than that of steel, 4 times higher than that of aluminum alloy. Its specific modulus is 1.3 ~ 12.3 times of other structural materials [1]. The GFRP is superior to organic fiber in high temperature resistance, non-burning, corrosion resistance,
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A review on the tensile properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites

A review on the tensile properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites

The different surface chemical modifications, such as chemical treatments, coupling agents and graft co-polymerization, of natural fibers aimed at improving the tensile properties of the composites were performed by a number of researchers. Alkali treatment, also called mercerization, is one of the most popular chemical treatments of natural fibres. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used in this method to remove the hydrogen bonding in the network structure of the fibres cellulose, thereby increasing fibres surface roughness [13]. This treatment also removes certain amount of lignin, wax and oils covering the external surface of the fibres cell wall, depolymerises the native cellulose structure and exposes the short length crystallites [14]. Acrylic acid treatment was also reported to be effective in modifying the natural fibres surface. A study on flax fibres-reinforced polyethylene biocomposites by Li et al. found that the efficiency of such a treatment was higher than alkali and silane treatment [14].
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Injection moulded radiata pine fibre reinforced polymer composites : properties and applications : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Product Development at Massey University

Injection moulded radiata pine fibre reinforced polymer composites : properties and applications : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Product Development at Massey University

To study the suitability of rotational moulding grade MDPE as a matrix material for injection moulded, radiata pine fibre reinforced polymer composites by determining its mechanical tens[r]

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Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Natural fibers are a kind of renewable resources, which have been renewed by nature and human ingenuity for thousands of years. They are also carbon neutral; they absorb the equal amount of carbon dioxide they produce. These fibers are completely renewable, environmental friendly, high specific strength, non-abrasive, low cost, and bio-degradability. Natural fibers were initially used in composite materials to predominately improve bulk and reduce cost rather than improving mechanical properties. In searching for new material, a study has been made to find new natural fiber from coconut tree composite material.
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Cellulosic nanocomposites: A review

Cellulosic nanocomposites: A review

indicators in nano-medicine. Various investigators have mentioned use of nano-cellulose elements as scaffolds on which tissue or bone can develop more readily (Bodin et al. 2007; Czaja et al. 2007; Entcheva et al. 2004; Millon and Wan 2006; Wan and Millon 2006; Wan et al. 2006a,b, 2007; Liang et al. 2007). Assuming that tissue or bond successfully grows on such scaffolds, the result clearly would fall under the definition of cellulosic nanocomposite. In addition, the biomedical community has begun to exploit the hydrophilic qualities of cellulose to develop hydrogels. Hydrogels have been found to be suitable materials to support medical and pharmaceutical applications such as drug delivery, tissue scaffolds, actuators/sensors, valves, etc. In many studies the cellulose- based composites are generated for hydrogelation (see Ivanov et al. 2007). In the cited study, PVA (poly(vinyl) alcohol) and MC (methyl cellulose) were combined to make an interpenetrating polymeric network through crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. This spongy material can also serve as a way to host a drug and later release it (see Michailova et al. 2005). In the cited study a mixed hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and carboxy- methyl cellulose hydrogel were used to measure the water penetration and drug release rates. It was found that the rheological properties and relaxation times of the swollen gels were useful indicators of drug release quantities and kinetics. Biomedical system prototypes made from biological cellulose and xylan has demonstrated future oppor- tunities for market expansion of such materials in a safe and biostable environment beyond human health applications (Linder et al. 2003).
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Characterization and Applications of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites   A Review

Characterization and Applications of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites A Review

and biodegradable sources. The scope of this article is to raise awareness regarding the current scientific and technological knowledge on these so-called green composite materials in order to support their larger application in a number of industry sectors. The general state-of-the-art in terms of green composites is proposed, together with some experimental evidence on the mechanical properties of various ecological materials. As a practical demonstration of this sustainable technology, the adoption of green composites as a valid replacement for fiberglass in sailing applications is also described. The Natural fibers have recently become attractive to researchers, engineers and scientists as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Due to their low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, high specific strength, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio- degradability characteristics, they are exploited as a replacement for the conventional fiber. The comparative study shows the difference between natural fibers and glass fibers as shown in table
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Mechanical Properties Of Coconut Fibre Reinforced Composites

Mechanical Properties Of Coconut Fibre Reinforced Composites

According to Bujang et al., (2007) of the mechanical test results such as strength, ductility, hardening, elastic modulus, and tensile strength are the most appropriate way to determine the physical properties of the material as a result of the test. This test covers the constant tension in specimens consisting of coconut fibre and measuring loads. The Universal Testing Machine is used with tensile speed of 10 mm / min and the distance between the clips is defined at 115 mm. Furthermore, the tensile strength will increase due to increased fibre weight breakdown (Wambua et al., 2003). More than one specimen is available in the study for each fibre percentage to get more accurate results. In addition, for hardness tests, fibres that add composite modulus will also increase the composite hardness, because function of fibre volume and modulus is relatively to the hardness (Kong et al., 2016). Violence has been defined as the contradiction of the material to the permanent penetration of other hard materials and is also defined as the resistance of the material to various forms of permanent change and penetration by other hard materials (Aydemir et al., 2011).
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A Review on Polymer/Fiber Properties of Reinforced Natural Composites

A Review on Polymer/Fiber Properties of Reinforced Natural Composites

4.6 Hand layup process: It is one of the moulding process were fibres reinforcement takes place with the help of hand. Single sided tool is used for this process. This process is flexible in nature, produces only one smooth surface, low cost to tool and somewhat inconsistent in part thickness [21-22]. The gel coat is first applied to the mould and it is cured sufficiently, roll stock fibre glass reinforcement is manually placed on the mould. The laminating resin is applied by pouring, brushing etc. End grain balsa, foam and honeycomb are low density core materials which are commonly used to stiffen the laminate. The advantages of the process are low equipment cost, less investment etc. The drawbacks of this process are production efficiency is low, resin must be less viscous, there is no uniform distribution of the resin.
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Mechanical Behaviour of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Mechanical Behaviour of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Composite is combination of two or more materials (mixed or bonded) on a macroscale. Composite is self-possessed of reinforcement (fibres, particles, flakes, and fillers) embedded in a matrix (polymers, ceramics, and metals). Composites plays a very important role in present days. These composites can be fabricate easily compare with others. The main advantage of the composites can be having the high stiffness and strength and also possess better mechanical properties. And also cost effective ness. FRP can be played by the main role of the composite preparation. In this FRP having high strength weight ratio and it can be used in the replacement of construction materials aluminium and steel weight reduction of about 60%. In this work the natural fibre Indian cherry (Cordia Dichotoma) is reinforced with epoxy resin matrix. The common name of the natural fibre is Indian cherry, blue berry, pink pearl and bird lime tree. And the preparing specimens are considered as (5, 10, 15, and 20 grams) of Cordia Dichotoma.
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Effective Approach to Overcome the Problem of Thermal Degradability in Natural Fiber-reinforced Composites is Flame Retardants: A Review

Effective Approach to Overcome the Problem of Thermal Degradability in Natural Fiber-reinforced Composites is Flame Retardants: A Review

compared to 200 kJ/mol for crystalline cotton. Increased orientation and degree of polymerization result high thermal stability. Orientation of fiber in matrix resin controls the amount of oxygen penetrating into fiber. Higher the orientation, lower the oxygen permeability into fiber [15]. Thermal degradation of composites is largely depends upon the properties of polymer, reinforcing fibers, synergistic or antagonistic effects between them, and construction of the composite [17, 18]. In some cases, flammability of the composite become larger than their components, it may be due to scaffolding effect in which molten decomposition products from the polymer are held in contact with heat source. Melt flow index of polymer is also affect the rate of thermal degradation of polymer [19].
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Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Banana Fibre / Bio Fibre Hybrid Polymer Composites on Review

Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Banana Fibre / Bio Fibre Hybrid Polymer Composites on Review

Abstract: Last few decades have seen fibre reinforced composite materials being used predominantly in various applications. This review paper discusses about the flexural properties of banana fibre with bio-fibres, which are reinforced hybrid polymer composites. Banana fiber is a lingo-cellulosic fiber, which is obtained from the pseudo-stem of banana plant. Banana fibre is the best fibre with relatively good mechanical properties. Banana fiber has good specific strength properties comparable to those of conventional material, like glass fiber. This material has a lower density than glass fibers. Flexural strength of reinforced composite materials is an important factor in the manufacturing of aircraft structures and woven or braided composites. These are used for a wide variety of cross-sectional forms such as stiffeners, truss members, rotor blade, automobile body parts, spares, etc. and they reduce the fabrication cost and weight. A composite material is made by combining two or more materials of banana fibre or bio-fibres with suitable binders or resin. Reinforcement with natural fibre in composites has recently gained attention due to low cost, low density, eco-friendliness, acceptable specific properties, ease of separation, enhanced energy recovery, Co 2 neutrality, biodegradability and recyclable nature.
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Fibre reinforced polymer composites sandwich structure: 
Recent developments and applications in civil infrastructure

Fibre reinforced polymer composites sandwich structure: Recent developments and applications in civil infrastructure

Fibre composite sandwich has become the new generation of material used in civil infrastructure in the last decade. A structural sandwich is a special form of a laminated composite fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to the lightweight but thick core [1]. Because of this special feature, the sectional area is increased and consequently an increase in its flexural rigidity. The strength of this type of construction results from the combination of properties from the skin, core and interface. In a sandwich structure, the strong and stiff skins carry most of the in-plane and bending loads while the core mainly bears the transverse shear and normal loads [2]. Fibre composites are now commonly used for the top and bottom skins due to its high mechanical performance and low density. On the other hand, the core provides a sandwich construction with high flexural stiffness and strength with a relatively lightweight structure [3]. The interaction of the inherent properties of these constituent materials makes composite sandwich construction an efficient structural system.
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Impact of Constraint Conditions and Cutouts on Natural Frequency of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composite

Impact of Constraint Conditions and Cutouts on Natural Frequency of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composite

Majority of the activities of a human being is associated with vibrations of one or other form. Application of vibrations can be found from a simple example like listening to music to challenging ones like design of complex machines and structures. Design of any system will not be rugged if it does not consider vibrations and its effects. The energy dissipated per cycle can be understood as damping. Presence of damping in a structure is represented by damping factor or damping ratio. Fibre reinforced plastic composites are a class of materials made from matrix and reinforcement. Matrix can be a resin system and reinforcement is usually fabric made of glass, carbon or aramid. The vibrating mechanical system causes resonance resulting in failure of machine components. By knowing the natural frequency and changing it from the range of operating machine member, resonance phenomenon could be avoided. This work focuses on finding the damping ratio and natural frequency of s glass fibre reinforced polymer composites through harmonic & modal analysis both by experimental method and FEM analysis for bare plate, plate with rectangular cutouts and plate with circular hole. The reduction in natural frequency and increase in damping corresponds to a change in stiffness and damping of the system. These changes are attributed to freeness of the system and introduction of cutouts in the laminate.
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The Effect of Hybridization on Mechanical Behavior of Natural / Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

The Effect of Hybridization on Mechanical Behavior of Natural / Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

Fibre-Reinforced composites materials consist of fibers of high strength and modulus embedded in or bonded to a matrix with distinct interfaces between them. In this form, both fibers and matrix retain their physical and chemical identities. Yet they produce a combination of properties that cannot be achieved with either of the constituents acting alone. In general, fibers are the principle load carrying members, while the surrounding matrix keeps them in the desired location, acts as a load transfer medium between them, and protects them from environmental damages due to elevated temperatures and humidity. For example: The most common form in which composites are used in structural application is called as laminates. It is obtained by stacking a number of thin layers of fibers and matrix, and consolidating them into the desired thickness. Fibers orientation in each layer as well as the stacking sequence of various layers can be controlled to generate a wide range of physical and mechanical properties for the composite laminates.
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Experimental Research on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Material Composites

Experimental Research on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Material Composites

These days, the common strands, for example, Abaca, Coir and Flax can possibly be utilized by means of a substitution for glass or other conventional fortification ingredients in aggregates [33-35]. Different focal points incorporate low thickness, high durability, tantamount explicit quality properties, decrease in apparatus wear, simplicity of partition, diminished vitality of manufacture [1-3]. Composites are materials that involve solid burden conveying physical drive in more fragile substantial. Walls gives quality and inflexibility, supporting basic burden [4-6]. The lattice, or cover (natural or in-natural) keeps up the position and direction of the fortification for example, firmness, sway opposition, adaptability, and modulus [7-9]. What's more, they are accessible in huge sums, and are inexhaustible and biodegradable [32,36]. Other attractive properties incorporate minimal effort, low thickness. Employments of these filaments fulfill both financial and natural interests. The outcomes demonstrated that the most elevated mechanical properties were seen when Flax and Abaca (half breed) strands were fused [10-12]. It is surely known currently that in cooperation the quality and firmness of fortitude amalgams rely upon fiber focus, fiber viewpoint proportions, fiber-network grip, just as powdered particles of fiber direction and scattering [37]. The present commitment reports
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Fabrication and Characterization of Woven Natural Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composites

Fabrication and Characterization of Woven Natural Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composites

consisting of Pati bet also known as murta (Clinogyne dichotoma) reinforcement, unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) matrix and talc filler were fabricated by simple cold press molding. Thermosetting unsaturated polyester resin with 7.5% styrene monomer was used as matrix which form gel in 2-3 hours by using 1.5% methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. Double layer woven fibre mats were used. Talc was used as at different weight percentages (5%, 10% an d 15%) to investigate its effects on different properties of composites. It was observed that flexural strength and modulus increased with an increase in talc content. Thermal stabilities of composites were also improved.
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Natural fibre composites with epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) resins: a review

Natural fibre composites with epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) resins: a review

Natural fibres can be subcategorised as being plant, animal, or mineral fibres [5]. Plant based natural fibres can be further classified as leaf, bast, fruit, seed [8], wood, cereal straw, and other grass fibres [9]. These plant based natural fibres demonstrate numerous advantages over synthetic fibres. They signify an inexpensive, easy to process, renewable fibre that exhibits high specific material properties with end of life cycle recyclability [8, 10, 11]. Other advantageous properties of plant based natural fibres are a reduced carbon footprint from the growing of the plants, and enhanced energy recovery at the end of their lifecycle [12]. However there are also disadvantages associated with these fibres. Saherb & Jog [13] reported that they may have the propensity to form aggregates during processing and also exhibit a low resistance to moisture absorption. This hydrophilic characteristic may lead to poor matrix-fibre compatibility and therefore compromise overall material performance. Chemical treatments, such as alkali treatment aim to overcome this problem by modifying the structure and the surface properties of the fibres, thereby allowing enhanced fibre-matrix compatibility. Table 1 provides the mechanical properties of some common nature fibres compared with E-Glass as a reference. It can be seen that natural fibres compare favourably to E-Glass in terms of specific properties.
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