1,2 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia firstname.lastname@example.org
Some evidences have emerged indicating that there are regionaldisparities in EastJavaProvince and industrialization seems to give its contribution in creating regionaldisparities. In 2014, Manufacturing industry dominated the contribution to the GDP which was 29%, on the other hand mostly the people who worked in the agricultural sector, and so the land which mostly agricultural. This study aims to identify factors influencing the disparities in EastJavaProvince. This statement is also strengthened by the Williamson index which showed that the regionaldisparities were quite high, with two districts indicated to contributing the most, Kediri and Surabaya City. By using factor analysis, this research will try to answer what factors influencing the disparities statistically, and cluster analysis is trying to figure out the disparities spatially. Then it is going to be proven that some districts agglomerated in a certain area and can implicate the disparities in EastJava.
Abstract. This study aims to measure technical efficiency and identify factors that affect technical inefficiency of Islamic rural banks (BPRS) in EastJavaProvince, Indonesia. We also want to test whether BPRS operating in districts are more efficient than those operating in cities. Data that we use are unbalanced panel data from 2011 until 2016 using stochastic frontier analysis. This study has successfully identified that the technical efficiency of BPRS operation is 90.12 percent. It means that there is still about 9.88 percent that can be optimized to improve their performance. Factors that cause technical inefficiency are Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) and Net Performing Financing (NPF). To improve technical efficiency of BPRS operations, the effort that must be made is to ensure each BPRS has sufficient capital stock to be channeled into loans. In addition, BPRS should also ensure the risks of bad loans are minimum.
The next component is the competitive advantage component (Cij). Based on Table 2, some regions experienced positive growth and some of them experienced a negative shift. A number that shows a positive value can be interpreted that the sub-sector has a competitive advantage. While negative numbers can be interpreted that the sub-sector does not have a competitive advantage. The area with the highest competitive advantage is Gresik Regency with an advantage of 6679,672. This condition is supported by the use of technology and the availability of infrastructure. Based on data from the Department of Fisheries and Maritime Affairs in Gresik Regency in 2017, the number of motorboats was 397 units, outboard motorboats were 4,065 units, motorboats were 28 units, fish auction places were located at several points, and there was the support of the largest aquaculture ponds in JavaEast. Esteban Marquillas perfected the classic Shift Share analysis by modifying competitive advantage and adding allocation effects (Aij) to determine the effects of allocation and specialization in a sector. The allocation effect shows whether a sub sector in an area can be specialized with the existing economic sector or vice versa. The greater the value of the allocation effect, the better the income and employment opportunities that are distributed. In Table 2, the effect value of fisheries sub-sector allocation in several districts / cities shows positive values. The impact of allocation effects can be divided into 4 categories. The first category is the Fisheries Sector has a competitive and specialized advantage. The second category has a competitive advantage but is not specialized. The third category has no competitive advantage but is specialized. The fourth category of sub- sectors has no competitive advantage and is not specialized. The analysis shows that almost all districts / cities have competitive advantages. Regions that do not have a competitive advantage in the fisheries sub-sector are Pacitan Regency and Probolinggo City. The lack of facilities and
In accordance with the results with the Fixed Effect Model (FEM) method that has been chosen as the method used in the study and has been explained previously, then in this discussion an explanation of the results of the findings of Local Revenue, Direct Expenditures, Indirect Expenditures, General Allocation Funds will be presented. Special Allocation Funds, Profit Sharing Funds and SiLPA for Economic Growth in Districts / Cities in EastJavaProvince 2010-2016. The results of the research analysis explain that Regional Original Income (PAD) has a significant and positive influence on Regional Economic Growth produced by the District / City Government in the EastJavaProvince. This means that the higher or greater the PAD generated by the Regency / City in EastJavaProvince will have a direct or positive influence on Regional Economic Growth. The results of this study are in line with the research conducted by Mawarni (2013); Zuwesty Eka (2015) dan Gunantara (2014) who obtained a direct test that PAD showed a positive influence on Economic Growth. Sidik (2000) dan Apriana (2010) explained that the success of increasing PAD should not only be measured by the amount received, but also measured by its role in regulating the regional economy, so that the regional government will take the initiative to explore the potential of the region.
The COVID-19 in Indonesia was first reported in March 2, 2020 with two cases, and the number has increased each day until April 23, 2020 and reached 7,775 positive cases of COVID-19. EastJavaProvince ranks the third in Indonesia with 662 cases. COVID-19 requires a health financing system aimed for COVID-19 patients and hospital services. The study aimed to describe the amount of COVID-19 and the use of funds for COVID-19 in EastJavaProvince. This study applied descriptive analytic method. Secondary data analysis used the COVID-19 fund data of 31 districts/cities in EastJavaProvince from the Regional Development Agency of EastJavaProvince in period of March 23 - April 23, 2020. The results showed that the total budget for COVID-19 in the province was worth IDR 2,102,600,000,000 divided for Curative IDR 727,654,880,535, Promotive Preventive IDR 97,134,092,873, Social Safety Net IDR 877,301,513,766 and Recovery IDR 400,50,512,826. The total fund for COVID-19 per capita in the province was IDR1,997,139 divided for Curative IDR 691,158, Promotive Preventive IDR 92,262, Social Safety Net IDR 833,299 and Recovery IDR 380,421. According to districts, the highest budgeting is Jember District, Surabaya City, and Gresik District. The highest per-capita funds, according to districts/cities, are Batu City, Jember District, and Trenggalek District.
1, goat livestock by 1.72 and sheep livestock by 1.2. each of the three livestock commodities each has a LQ value> 1, meaning that it has the potential to be developed. Tempurejo Subdistrict also has an LQ value> 1 for beef cattle commodities of 5.27 and sheep commodities with an LQ value of 1.2> 1. The Poultry Subsector in Jember Regency is superior to the Subdistrict of Wuluhan. Non-racial poultry commodities with a LQ value of 3.55, race poultry commodities with an LQ value of 1.09, and broiler commodities of 5.35> 1, which means that these three poultry commodities have potential to be developed. However, for non-racial poultry commodities (superior) by Tempurejo sub-district with an LQ value of 13.6> 1, meaning that it is very potent to be developed and for Puger Sub- district race poultry commodity is more superior than Tempurejo sub-district with a LQ value of 4.5> 1, meaning potential to be developed. This shows that from the agriculture sector, the livestock sector and the poultry sub- sector, in each sector there is a superior potential that has a pretty good role in the Jember Regency. Where according to Rahman (2016) an area that is able to meet its own needs in its area coverage and sectors can potentially be exported outside the region at least with adjacent districts can increase economic value growth in the district. As well as the base sector and have a cooperative advantage, then the sector needs to be pursued by both the government and the private sector to be developed again so it can boost the regional economy (Amalia, 2017).
It showed that the level of inequality between the districts/ city in Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) Province were also high, because there are under development area while there are already very advanced area. This study aims to analyze position the economic growth of each district/ city based on economic growth in Special Re- gion of Yogyakarta (DIY) Province and Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP) per capita and regionaldisparities between district and city in Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) Province over the past 2003-2013. Thus, this research studying Development Disparities inter Districts in Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) Province in 2003-2013. Sutarno and Kuncoro (2003), studying economic growth and disparities be- tween subdistrict in Banyumas regency in 1993- 2000. The data used was secondary data by ap- plying Williamson Index and Entropy Theil In- dex. The result showed, observations in the peri- od 1993-2000 occurring trend of increasing ine- quality, both are analyzed with Williamson index or with entropy Theil index. This imbalance caused by the concentration of economic activity in spatial. Kuznets hypothesis applies in Banyumas Regency.
However, in regard to decentralization of health system, Mills (1990:20) warned that there are two major issues that needs to be considered if a country decides to include health care under regional administration. First, the health sector yields high demand in the budget, while in most cases regional administration has limited tax resources. Therefore, developed countries have the tendency to transfer or release the burden of funding from regional administration. This is due to the fact that health care becomes very hard to handle by regional administration. But if funding is provided by the central government, there will be a dependency in part of the regional administration to the central government which ultimately would alleviate autonomy. It is worth to note here the study by Suharto (2011), Eko (2008), and Riyarto et al. (2009) which indicated that there are a number of countries and regions with low GDP and PDRB but capable of spending high social cost , also for health expenses. Secondly, decentralization (devolution) could complicate the efforts to formulate the hyrarchie of a reasonable health care and establish regional structure. But these can be surmounted by, for instance, primary health care as the responsibility of the community, secondary health care as the responsibility of the district/county, regional specialist services to be established through cooperation between districts at the regional level with specialist services provided by the central government.
JavaProvince are divided into four (4) classifications (see table 6). Klassen typology in the Bakorwil III working area during the study period from 2010-2016. Areas included in quadrant 1 (developed regions) are Pasuruan, Sidoarjo, Batu City and Surabaya City, including those in fast- growing and fast-growing districts / cities compared to the average economic growth and per capita income of the EastJavaprovince. This regency / city which is an advanced and fast-growing category is a large industrial place, the center of business, trade and tourism sectors. Moreover, the city of Surabaya is facilitated by the presence of the port of Tanjung Perak and Juanda airport so as to facilitate trade outside the region and abroad (Jiwandono (2016). The number of large and medium industrial companies in Surabaya is 953 units in 2015, and the number of large and medium industrial companies in Sidoarjo Regency is 978 units (BPS EastJava, 2017). Malang City, including advanced but depressed districts / cities (quadrant 2). This Regency / City is a relatively developed area but has relatively small growth, due to the stress of the main activities of the district / city concerned. This happened in the tourism sector to improve the quality of service and production of local products, besides that Malang was supported by the industrial sector and good
Restoration can raise the value of biological resources such as mangrove and it can prevent damage to the coast, maintaining biodiversity, fisheries production, and provide livelihood opportunities to local residents (Setiawan, 2006). Anwar and Gunawan (2006) showed that mangrove thickness of 200 m with a density of 30 trees/100 m2 with a trunk diameter of 15 cm can reduce about 50% of the energy of tsunami waves. Based on data in 2002 that as many as 219 districts/town (68%) had allegedly coastal areas and 70% of coastal areas were damaged. If the beach is damaged continuously, then there will be pressure on the carrying capacity of the coast which is likely to interfere and it reduces the function of the beach.
optimization Pure Regional Income should be supported by the local government to improve the quality of public services. The government can meakukan identification of sources of pure regional income by examining, define and specify where in fact the source of pure regional income by assessing and commercialize and manage the revenue source with a large so as to provide maximum results. The government's role in development is a catalyst and facilitator would need a variety of facilities and support facilities, including the implementation of the budget in the context of sustainable development, PRI each different region. Areas that have advances in the industry and has abundant natural resources tend to have a much better revenue greater than other areas, and vice versa. The results of this study are consistent with Masdjojo and Sukartono (2009) which stated that the pure regional income of the Government Expenditures.
Moreover, a study of education council in Jember Regency is indicated having various problems in implementing educational policy (Ali, 2008). The first problem addresses to lack of communications between bureaucratic structures. The policies are not in accordance with the policies of National Education Minister. Obviously, communication requires dialogue between participants in the world. It also refers to a process of "cooperation" to perceive mutual understandings between one and another in the organizational structures (Habermas in McCarthy 2008). The second problem relates to the unclear or intransparent usages of state budget and regional budget (APBN and APBD). Last problem relates to the overlapping bureaucracy and fragmentation structures.
One indicator of the achievement of a regional development is economic growth continues to increase towards significantly. This means that economic growth can continue to increase along with improvements exist in the driving sectors of the economy. The success of regional development are also assessed on the ability of the area to meet community needs and develop all the existing potential. This study is a continuation of the first research on the growth sectors of shift share in regencies and municipalities in EastJava, it can be seen the results of Shift Share PR (Potential Regional) of counties and cities that have the advantages that drive sector GDP growth in EastJava. PR <dQ means the sector in the district to encourage economic growth in EastJava. Of PR (Potesi Regional), then in this study will be Location Qoutien. For the GDP when LQ> 1 then the sector is a sector basis and when LQ <1 sectors are the sectors non bases.
In public theory, each government’s expenditure could create economic growth. Government expenditure could be classified into,consumption and investment matter. When the government expenditure is for consumption, they will spend APBD (Regional Government Budget) for employee expense. In the other hand if government expense is for investment, they will spend APBD for capital expenditure. However, although both capital expenditure and employee expense could create economic growth, the pattern of economic growth is different. Firstly, growth which is created from investment will only be able to be performed by regions which have massive income. The reason is that for spending the budget on investment, government should halt its consumption to increase future ability (revenue/wealth) so it can be inferred that for creating economic growth through investment is a creation of long term growth. Secondly, an economic growth created from employee expense is by paying employee’s salary. By doing so, employees could perform consumption and while employee expense increase their consumption will increase. The economic growth created from employee expense may not create value added in the future because the goods consumed are not only produced domesticallybut also imported. Thus, the increase of consumption will not improve nation’s productivity. To explain the effect of each variable which is used as measurement of financial performance to economic growth and the level of poverty, especially through government expense from capital expenditure will be explained as follows:
Two important things which is interesting to study about the background of the food and beverage industry in EastJava are : (1) the contribution of the food and beverage industry in EastJava and (2) EastJava Industry in the constellation of national industrial policy. Based on the empirical phenomena as described above, the objectives of this study is identify patterns of interconnectedness on the food and beverage industry in EastJavaProvince. The used analytical tools in this study is Moran Index. The result of Moran's Index analysis with the input of labor force in the food and beverage industry sector in 38 regencies / cities in EastJavaProvince has positive value, indicating that there is inter-regional relation during observation period 2010 (0,256) and 2012 (0,15). Referring to the results of Moran Scatterplot, in 2010 and 2012 it was found that the areas included in Quadrant I - HH (Kediri, Lumajang, Probolinggo, Mojokerto, Lamongan, Bangkalan, Madiun, and Batu) indicate that those area has a high labor force on the food and beverage industry sector.
Abstract: Drug management in the hospital includes the selection, procurement, distribution and use stages. Preliminary observation shows that a number of problems in the Class C of Regional Hospital in EastJavaProvince such as late payment of invoices, expired drug, dead drug stock, stock out and the long waiting time for patients to receive the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the picture of the eff iciency and effectiveness of drug management in the Class C of Regional Hospital in EastJavaProvince. This research is quantitative descriptive by collecting data retrospectively (tracing documents year of 2018) related to drug management. Concurrent data were obtained at the time of study. All stages of drug management are measured by the efficiency and effectiveness of using World Trade Organization (WHO) indicators, Pudjaningsih, The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia and Delphi Method. The results of research in Class C of Regional Hospitals in Banyuwangi and Ngawi Regencies for the suitability of drug items with National Formulary were 67.86% and 70.79%, the percentage of funds were 59.44% and 99.64%, allocation of funds for procurement of drugs were 14.45% and 39,10%, the frequency of procurement of each drug items were 4.77 times and 10.08 times, the percentage of invoices error were 0,52%, and 0,86%, late of payments were 107 days and 28 days; warehouse structuring system according to standard; High Allert and LASA (Look Alike and Sound Alike) drugs storage reached 100%; TOR (Term of Reference) were 2.66 times and 9.94 times per year; level of availability of drugs were 12-18 months; the average time for prescription services were (40 minutes for finished drugs, 63 minutes for concoctions) and (35.6 minutes for finished drugs, 65 minutes for concoctions); the percentage of generic drugs were 68.2% and 56.2%; the percentage of antibiotics prescribed were 11.65% and 8.9%; the percentage of injection drugs prescribed were 0.18% and 0.22%; the percentage of drugs prescribed based on 100% formulary.The conclusion of this study is the management of drugs in the Class C of Regional Hospitals in Banyuwangi and Ngawi Regencies at the selection and procurement stages have not been efficient except the allocation of drugs procurement in the Class C of Regional Hospital in Ngawi; the distribution stage was efficient except, the average time of drug vacancy and TOR (Turn Over Ratio) specifically in Class C of Regional Hospital in Banyuwangi Regency; the stage of use has not been effective at the average of time speed of prescription service; total number of drug items per prescription sheet; and the percentage of prescriptions with generic drugs.
Not until 2001 the government of Indonesia introduced local autonomy to the level of regional governance. This national policy aims to increase the alignment and relevance of government programmes with regional needs and encourage significant participation of community on regional development. Local autonomy is considered as an enabler for regional government to improve regional welfare, which at the end believes to be factor that improves national welfare. Local autonomy has been interpreted as encouraging local governance to allocate more significant percentage of budget for capital expenditures, which is believed to be the key to boost economic growth and employment. These two factors have been acknowledged as the variables that influence welfare. This explanatory research aims to evaluate the implementation of local autonomy and indicate whether the implementation served its purpose as indicated by previous studies. It applied structural path analysis to evaluate relations between aforementioned variables. The sample for this study was taken from 38 regencies and cities in EastJava over the period from 2006 until 2011. The result shows that although local autonomy has significant and positive influence on capital expenditure, but at the end it fails to positively influence economic growth. Furthermore, it also shows that the increase of employment does not positively influence the public welfare.
Most of the ancient principalities in Central Java and Yogyakarta were located away from the sea and oriented in the river valley for rice-based production. However, under Dutch colonial rule, the urban pattern changed in favor of coastal areas with economic interests. The port cities in Central Java gained importance for international trade. They witnessed and experienced urban growth along with tension and competition between port cities and the principalities in inland (Surakarta) and in south-central court (Yogyakarta). Urban growth brought new functions for cities such as markets for the outlet and inlet of agricultural products from inland. The northeast coastal region in Central Java served as a major econom- ic center and social change leader back then. The shifting function of inland regions from centers to merely hinterlands led to changes in socio-economic differences. Urban growth is no longer oriented toward the south-central court but toward the outside world via the north coast. On the other hand, Dutch colonial rule formed a clearly distinctive north – south pattern with the establishment of the northeast coastal province (pasisir) and inland regions (kejawen). The proximity had far-reaching effects in region- al development. Subsequently, the mobility infrastructure was built to reduce the distance. The Great Mail Road connecting Jakarta-Surabaya changed the orientation completely regarding orthagonality and the cosmos of Java’s urban development. The railway system connecting the north port cities to the agricul- tural south was the complementary infrastructure of regional development for transporting goods and people.
Yet, some argue that tax competi- tion is ‘bad’ because tax arrangements lead to the erosion of government revenues and may therefore put the sustainability of pub- lic spending at stake. This paper focuses on another, neglected issue, namely, that the dynamics of tax competition between sub-national governments is such that a lo- cal authority will not improve its relative po- sition within the country and none will gain any long-lasting competitive advantages from such a policy, when considered from a closed-economy stance. In fact, when community a decides to cut corporate tax rates in order to gain a relative advantage on neighboring authorities, the latter will re- taliate through decreasing their own taxa- tion, so that any differential will be leveled out rapidly. In addition, the dynamics of tax competition between Indonesia sub national governments is such that all local authorities (district and municipal) could lose a part of their revenues from lower- ing taxation. This form of competition may eventually impinge on the implementation of the required, or planned, fiscal policies at the sub national level, where govern- ments may indulge in granting ad hoc tax advantages to particular firms and/or their managers. This is so much so when a balanced budget requirement is taken into account. This paper try to investigate the relationship tax among regions which their own neighborhood.
In terms of business strategies, the models show that all indicators of business strategies have a positive effect on all the clus- tered MSE firms. Porter (1990, 2000), in his diamond model, considered a firm’s strategy as a factor that motivates the clustered firms to enhance product quality and search for new innovations. Bender et al. (2002) insisted that while firms in the clusters cooperate with each other, the firm’s strateg y and rivalry matter because this rivalry, in the form of intense domestic competition, spurs innova- tion in which the optimal levels of competi- tion and cooperation vary by industry and region. Furthermore, Gelderen at al. (2000) stated that as a result of the entrepreneur’s dominance in decision making in small firms, the personal strategy that the entrepreneur uses will influence his firm’s performance. This study clearly proved that the presence of business strategies matter for those MSEs that operate in small industrial clusters widely dispersed in EastJava as the strategies posi- tively associate with the firms’ performance.