Top PDF Study of significance of thrombocytosis in lower respiratory tract infections in children

Study of significance of thrombocytosis in lower respiratory tract infections in children

Study of significance of thrombocytosis in lower respiratory tract infections in children

Infections of the respiratory tract are perhaps the most common human ailment. Its incidence in developing countries ranges between 20 and 30 percent. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mortality among under five children in most developing countries, accounting for almost 18 percent of under five deaths. Platelets have long been recognized for their importance in maintaining hemostasis and for their contribution to wound healing. However, platelets have historically been underappreciated for their contributions to antimicrobial host defense.
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Rhinovirus is an important pathogen in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in Mexican children

Rhinovirus is an important pathogen in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in Mexican children

This study describes the frequency of detection of rhino- virus species in children with upper and lower respira- tory tract infections in Mexico and their genetic diversity, determined by sequencing the 5′ UTR region of the viral genome. We report that the 5′UTR sequence can be useful for an initial approach to determine the rhinovirus genotypes. We also describe the clinical char- acteristics of illness associated with specific RV species. We found that both RV-A and RV-C species were very frequently found in both hospitalized and outpatient children and no statistically significant differences were found in the severity of disease associated with RV-A and RV-C infections in neither of the two children pop- ulations. This study underlines the high RV prevalence and genetic diversity of circulating strains in Mexico and the potential severity of disease associated with both RV-A and RV-C infections. This is of particular rele- vance, since the information about respiratory viruses in Mexico is very limited, and studies characterizing viruses circulating in the community level are even scarcer.
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Risk factors responsible for lower respiratory tract infections in children aged under five: a hospital based study

Risk factors responsible for lower respiratory tract infections in children aged under five: a hospital based study

floor, along with cracks and crevices, harbour infection and predispose to lower respiratory tract infection, as compared to cement, which can be cleaned well. Presence of the separate kitchen isolates the fumes from the cooking stove and gas, such that children are less exposed to such noxious fumes that can be damaging to their respiratory tract. Furthermore, the fuel used at home, especially non-LPG ones, by contributing to indoor pollution, also predisposed children to LRTI, in this study, in accordance with studies done by Ladomenou F et al, and Smith KR et al. 14,15
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Clinical predictors of hypoxemia in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections

Clinical predictors of hypoxemia in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections

this probably belongs to the reason that tachypnea was present in both study groups. Furthermore, respiratory rate is likely to be affected by the presence of fe- ver that may explain the finding. While oth- ers found that tachypnea is a good predic- tor of sever hypoxia 6, 8 . Chest retractions is a useful predictor of hypoxemia in children with respiratory infections 11, 13 , as it is re- garded a major criteria for admission and oxygen supplementation therapy in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection 5 . Chest retractions showed a significant as- sociation with hypoxemia as intercostal and supraclavicular recessions, which scored p.values 0.0001, 0.006, respectively. None of the symptoms or signs evaluated was both sufficiently sensitive and specific (Table2).Use of combinations e.g. Tachypnea or intercostal recessions (P 0.0443, sensitivity 81%, specificity 33%),
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Human adenovirus among hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2017–2018

Human adenovirus among hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2017–2018

children mono-infected with HAdV was slightly higher than those co-infected with HAdV and other respiratory viruses, no significant difference was seen between the two groups. The severity of HAdV infection varies ac- cording to age, socioeconomic status, environmental sta- tus and, above all, the immunological characteristics of the patient. Therefore, the etiological significance of co- infections with HAdV and other respiratory viruses and its association with disease severity require further study. It was reported HAdV can cause more severe illness in immunocompromised patients, so it would be very valu- able to know about pre-existing conditions in HAdV- positive children. Except for 4 cases of asthma, there were no other comorbidities in our study. Taken to- gether, our results provide a foundation for further clari- fication of the role played by HAdVs in RTIs and for
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Viral Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children and adults in Shandong Province, China

Viral Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children and adults in Shandong Province, China

Shandong locates in eastern China and lies near to Southern Korean and Japanese with 97 million popula- tions, which has a large transient population from differ- ent provinces and counties. The mixing of transient population may increase the transmission of respiratory viruses. Feng et al. [10] reported the viral etiology of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infection patients in 22 provinces of China, including Shandong province, but the findings didn’t include the data in this study. At the same time, HRV as the major infection pathogen was detected in the hospitalized ARIs, but Feng’s result didn’t describe HRV prevalence. Thus, our aim was to investigate the frequency and type of twelve common re- spiratory viral infections in hospitalized ARIs among chil- dren and adults in Shandong Province from 2011 to 2013.
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Clinical study of lower respiratory tract infections in children attending a tertiary care hospital

Clinical study of lower respiratory tract infections in children attending a tertiary care hospital

Sputum culture revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common isolate among gram positive organisms and Klebsiella pneumoniae in gram negative organisms. Other pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Hemophilus influenza, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Streptococcus pneumoniae was sensitive to penicillin, whereas gram negative isolates exhibited multi drug resistance. Most of the gram-negative isolates were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, cefixime, piperacillin+tazobactum and Imipenems in our study.

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Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

talizations were de fi ned as any hospi- talization with an LRTI ICD-9 code as a primary or secondary discharge diag- nosis during the study period. Both pri- mary and secondary codes were included to capture young children ad- mitted with dehydration or other syn- dromes; we assumed LRTI was the underlying cause. Severe LRTI hospitali- zation was de fi ned as an LRTI hospitali- zation requiring admission to the ICU or mechanical ventilation at any time dur- ing the LRTI hospitalization. Nonsevere LRTI was de fi ned as hospitalizations without ICU admission or requiring me- chanical ventilation. Use of mechanical ventilation was determined by either Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) or ICD-9 procedure codes (Supplemental Table 8). Repeat hospitalizations within 14 days of the original LRTI hospitaliza- tion were excluded from the analysis. Enrollees could have multiple LRTI hos- pitalizations throughout the year. Age is provided in the commercial da- tabase. However, the Medicaid data- base includes only year of birth. For the Medicaid database, age upon entering the calendar year was calculated for all Medicaid enrollees as year of hospital admission, minus year of birth, minus 1, except those who were born in the year of enrollment were zero years during the year of enrollment.
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Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

talizations were de fi ned as any hospi- talization with an LRTI ICD-9 code as a primary or secondary discharge diag- nosis during the study period. Both pri- mary and secondary codes were included to capture young children ad- mitted with dehydration or other syn- dromes; we assumed LRTI was the underlying cause. Severe LRTI hospitali- zation was de fi ned as an LRTI hospitali- zation requiring admission to the ICU or mechanical ventilation at any time dur- ing the LRTI hospitalization. Nonsevere LRTI was de fi ned as hospitalizations without ICU admission or requiring me- chanical ventilation. Use of mechanical ventilation was determined by either Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) or ICD-9 procedure codes (Supplemental Table 8). Repeat hospitalizations within 14 days of the original LRTI hospitaliza- tion were excluded from the analysis. Enrollees could have multiple LRTI hos- pitalizations throughout the year. Age is provided in the commercial da- tabase. However, the Medicaid data- base includes only year of birth. For the Medicaid database, age upon entering the calendar year was calculated for all Medicaid enrollees as year of hospital admission, minus year of birth, minus 1, except those who were born in the year of enrollment were zero years during the year of enrollment.
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Effect of lower respiratory tract infections on peak expiratory flow rate in children admitted to Rajarajeshwari medical college hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Effect of lower respiratory tract infections on peak expiratory flow rate in children admitted to Rajarajeshwari medical college hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

pneumonia. In this study, most of the children suffering from pneumonia were between the age group of 6-8 years though pneumonia is more common among under five age group children. Children with bronchiectasis were mostly adolescents (n=7). In this study, change in PEFR of the children was correlated with the mean age, height and weight. There are various studies which show the change in peak expiratory flow rate in relation to anthropometry. One study done by Manjunath CB and Kotinatot CS et al. on school children between age group of 5 to 16 years concluded that PEFR values increased in linear relation to age, sex and height. Height correlated better with PEFR than weight and sex. 8 In their study, the
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Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Cali, Colombia: A Two-Year Ambulatory Study

Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Cali, Colombia: A Two-Year Ambulatory Study

Family Income Distribution of Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and Pe-. diatric Population Using Health Centers in Cali, Colom-[r]

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Reducing the Morbidity of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Still No Answer

Reducing the Morbidity of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Still No Answer

children were randomized to receive RSVIG and 51 to receive albumin placebo. The subjects were well matched for several demographic characteristics, in- cluding types of underlying diseases. Unfortunately, subjects were not stratified for degree of illness at the time of admission to the study and, by chance, more severely ill subjects were randomized to receive RSVIG. However, even after adjusting for degree of illness at the time of randomization, no significant differences in duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, or supplemen- tal oxygen use between the RSVIG and placebo re- cipients were noted. There were also no significant differences in the frequency of adverse events be- tween the treated and placebo groups. The authors conclude that RSVIG is safe but not efficacious in the treatment of children at high risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV. 7
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Risk Factors for Hospitalization With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Rural Alaska

Risk Factors for Hospitalization With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Rural Alaska

The parent study was conducted from October 2005 to September 2007. All children , 3 years of age hospitalized with an LRTI were eligible for enroll- ment as cases. Study nurses adminis- tered a questionnaire to consenting parents; topics included infant feeding, household crowding, household aller- gens, family history of allergy and asthma, water, and sanitation. In addi- tion, the cases underwent a nasopha- ryngeal swab (NPS) to use for RT-PCR detection of a panel of viruses. During the second year of the overall project (October 2006 through Sep- tember 2007), study nurses recruited nonhospitalized control children dur- ing trips to YKD villages. Over the course of the year, nurses made trips to 29 villages throughout the region. When in the villages, nurses offered enrollment as controls to all children , 3 years of age who had not been hospitalized with a respiratory diagnosis since October 2006 and who did not have an onset of respiratory symptoms within the last 3 days. Informed consent was obtained, and parents were administered the interview questionnaire. An NPS was collected from the control child for RT-PCR. The medical records of all participants were reviewed for recent respiratory illness encounters, in- fl uenza vaccination, and high-risk med- ical status. A child was considered medically high-risk if he/she had a history of prematurity ( , 35 weeks ’ gestation), congenital heart disease, or chronic lung disease.
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Epidemiology of severe pediatric adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections in Manitoba, Canada, 1991 2005

Epidemiology of severe pediatric adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections in Manitoba, Canada, 1991 2005

The data were analyzed using SPSS-PC software pack- age, version 18.0 (IBM Corporation, NY, USA). Preva- lence rate was calculated with 95% CI. Mann Whitney test was used to compare the median values of quanti- tative responses across groups and chi square was used for categorical variables. Simple logistic regression ana- lysis was used to compare the use of mechanical venti- lation across serotypes. Centered moving averages of the monthly serotype records were used to study sea- sonality of the incidence of serotypes. The F-test of linear trend in the simple linear regression was used to test the presence of a linear trend in the monthly records. A multiplicative time series model was assumed to identify the annual and monthly variations of the series of monthly incidences of all serotypes. For all these tests, statistical significance was defined for p < 0.05. The individual control chart (I chart) was used to detect whether the process of yearly incidences was stable.
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Effectiveness of breathing exercises as play way method on respiratory parameters among children with lower respiratory tract infections in selected hospitals, Coimbatore

Effectiveness of breathing exercises as play way method on respiratory parameters among children with lower respiratory tract infections in selected hospitals, Coimbatore

Vandana Chauhan et.al., (20012) a quasi-experimental study was conducted to assess the predisposing factors of LRTI, effectiveness of teaching programme on the recovery of children and on the practice of their caregivers. This study was conducted in a child nursing home at district Haridwar, Uttarakhand. Total 51 children and their caregivers who met the selection criteria were selected by convenient sampling technique. Pre test was taken by using structured questionnaire, practice checklist and rating scale followed by LRTI preventive education programme. After five days post test was taken. The mean post test practice score (9.8±1.27) was higher than the mean pre test practice score (5.8±1.43) and ‘t’ value was 15.3. The mean post test assessment score (22.01±1.03) was higher than the mean pre test assessment score (16.03± 1.43) and ‘t’ value was 24.9. The difference between pre test practice score and post test practice score was 4 and between pre test assessment score and post test assessment score was 5.98. It means practice and assessment score improved after implementation of education programme. The finding of the study reveals that the education had a vital role in improving the practice of caregivers and recovery of the children
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Low birth weight contributed to increased serum IL-6 levels in infantile respiratory syncytial virus infection

Low birth weight contributed to increased serum IL-6 levels in infantile respiratory syncytial virus infection

In this prospective observational study, hospitalized chil- dren with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) from the Respiratory Department of the Children’s Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between January 2013 and December 2014 were recruited. LRTI, includ- ing bronchiolitis and pneumonia, has been defined as equivalent to clinical pneumonia, which is characterized by acute onset cough or difficulty breathing with fast breathing for age [8]. Inclusion criteria were hospital ad- mission, LRTI, age <1 year and positive respiratory im- munofluorescence detection for RSV [9]. Patients with severe illness and non-severe illness were distinguished by the need for intensive care. Wheezing is defined as a continuous high-pitched sound with musical quality emitting from the chest during expiration [10]. Wheez- ing symptoms were assessed by at least two clinicians from our study team or the treating physicians (during the weekend). Records on admission age, birth weight, gender, diagnosis, viral pathogen detection, bacterial cul- ture results, laboratory test, length of stay and other relevant medical conditions were collected. Those pa- tients with chronic lung diseases, congenital heart dis- ease, cerebral palsy or tumor were excluded.
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Viral respiratory tract infections in young children with cystic fibrosis: a prospective full year seasonal study

Viral respiratory tract infections in young children with cystic fibrosis: a prospective full year seasonal study

RTI identification, nasal swab sampling and viral analysis It is routine practice in France for chest physiotherapists to visit patients at home to ensure regular chest physio- therapy and respiratory surveillance. As already reported [23] we thought that proper nasal sampling and filling out diaries by parents may be difficult to perform repeat- edly over a long period of time; chest physiotherapists were therefore involved in the study to take nasal sam- ples and recognize RTIs. Parents and chest physiothera- pists were instructed to recognize RTI using a modified clinical score already used in a previous study conducted by van Ewijk and al in young children with CF [9]. There, the score was systematically performed twice weekly by parents, while in our study it was used on request by parents and physiotherapists to detect or con- firm a possible RTI episodes revealed by the occurrence of symptoms. Briefly, Upper and Lower respiratory tract infection (URTI and LRTI) symptoms as well as general signs such as fever were recorded and a score calculated. In case of doubt, parents could ask the research nurse (by phone) or their chest physiotherapist (during the home visit) to confirm their findings. When the score was over 2, a nasal sample was collected at home by the chest physiotherapist within a maximum 3 days after the beginning of the symptoms, or at the center when the episode was coinciding with a visit.
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Study of clinical profile of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children aged 2 months to 5 years

Study of clinical profile of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children aged 2 months to 5 years

Malnutrition causes children to have defective cell- mediated immunity secondary to thymolymphatic depletion leading to Gram-negative bacterial infections and sepsis. There may also be qualitatively deficient immunoglobulins and impairment of leukocytic enzymes involved in the bactericidal activity. As the secretory IgA is generally reduced, the recovery from infections is delayed and infections tend to be severe in malnourished subjects. The period of infection is prolonged. Because of increased duration of replication and shedding of pathogens, the systemic spread is also more likely. 12
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Monoclonal Antibody Treatment of RSV Bronchiolitis in Young Infants: A Randomized Trial

Monoclonal Antibody Treatment of RSV Bronchiolitis in Young Infants: A Randomized Trial

secretions. 13 A randomized trial using motivizumab 27 in hospitalized infants with RSV infection did not show reduced viral load or severity of illness. Motavizumab, which is derived from palivizumab, had considerably more potent RSV neutralizing activity in tissue culture. Our findings do not support the routine use of RSV monoclonal antibody to treat acute RSV bronchiolitis in young infants, particularly considering the high cost of treatment. We think these results are robust because we strictly applied enrollment criteria in a population at high risk for severe disease in a randomized double-blind trial. Our study outcomes allowed ample time for the treatment to reveal
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Role of zinc supplementation in acute respiratory tract infections in children aged 2 to 60 months

Role of zinc supplementation in acute respiratory tract infections in children aged 2 to 60 months

Zinc supplementation also decreased the severity of acute respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis. The present study included all cases which had respiratory symptoms. This may have led to inclusion of bacterial pneumonia, viral bronchiolitis, chronic infections like tuberculosis and also non-infectious respiratory conditions like asthma and respiratory complications of sickle cell disease. 28 The varied clinical

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