Palmkernelshell(PKS) is an agricultural waste which is environmental friendly. This research was focused on the assessment of characteristic strength of palmkernelshellconcrete, with the view to be used as lightweightaggregate. This research is carried out to help in reducing construction cost in areas where lightweightconcrete canbe considered. Various tests were carried out in order to ascertain its use as lightweightaggregate. The aim was achieved by casting the beam and cubes with total replacement of granite with PKS and also casting an equivalent control to give a basis for comparison and a water cement ratio of 0.65 at a mix ratio of 1:2:4. A total of 24 beams and cubes each were cast respectively . They were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28days. Crushing of 3 each for the PalmKernelShellConcrete (PKSC) and Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) for each curing day upto the age of 28 days was carried out. The results of crushing values are as follows for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days; 14.47N/mm 2 , 18.49N/mm 2 , 20.33N/mm 2 , 23.00N/mm 2 and 7.40N/mm 2 , 9.20N/mm 2 ; 11.30N/mm 2 , 13.10 N/mm 2 , for NWC and PKSC respectively. The value for the flexural strength is as follow; 1.87, 0.91, 1.36, 1.81 and 0.34, 0.34, 0.40, 0.34 for NWC and PKSC respectively. The results showed that the compressive and flexural strength improved with age of curing, though the compressive and flexural strength of PKSC is low as compared to that of the NWC. It was concluded that the compressive and flexural strength of NWC is higher than that of PKSC. Therefore PKSC canbe used as lightweightconcrete which should be designed with the corresponding design for NWC. It can therefore be concluded that palmkernelshell is a lightweightaggregate and can be used to produce lightweightconcrete.
The water absorption and sorptivity of concrete indicate the presence of pores and connectivity of the pores in the concrete, respectively. These permeation properties are essential towards the durability of concrete; reinforced concrete structure made with concrete with high water penetrability could have reduced service life as the concrete are more susceptible towards the ingress of external deleterious agents. As shown in Table 2, it is interesting to note that the OPSC had lower initial water absorption and sorptivity values compared to the corresponding NWC. The higher water-to-binder ratio of the NWC could be the main cause for this phenomenon, according to Liu et al. . Moreover, in this investigation, the water-to-binder ratio of the NWC was almost doubled of that for the OPSC mix, and this could explain the significantly higher sorptivity value of the NWC. Another possible reason of the higher permeability characteristics of the NWC is the existence of micro-cracks in the interfacial transition zone around the stiffer coarseaggregate . Besides that, the use of GGBS in the OPSC mix could have reduced the sorption of the concrete due to the pore refinement effect of the finer GGBS particles.
Abstract: This manuscript presents a report on the physical properties of palmkernelshell used as a coarseaggregate and their effect on the strength properties of palmkernelshellconcrete. Laboratory research was carried out to observe the effects of replacing crushed granite by palmkernelshell on the compressive strength and density of palmkernelshellconcrete. Mix design of 1:2:4 and a water-cement ratio of 0.6 were used to produce concrete specimen cubes of size 150 mm 3 . A total of 60 cubes were made and wholly submerged in water to cure for 28 days at intervals of seven days i.e. seven, 14, 21 and 28 days after which their densities and compressive strengths were determined. Granite was replaced by palmkernelshell in the mix at 25% interval resulting in three replicates of specimen cubes at each curing age. Compressive strength and density decreased continuously as palmkernelshell was added to the mix for all the Curing ages tested. The 28 day compressive strength of the palmkernelshellconcrete ranged from 12.71 to 16.63 N mm -2 , whereas the density ranged from 1562 to 2042 kg m -3 . Physical properties tests conducted include sieve analysis, bulk density, moisture content and specific gravity to describe aggregates. The specific gravities of sharp sand, crushed granite and palmkernelshell were found to be 2.5, 2.76 and 1.301 while their bulk densities are 1650, 1545, and 634 kg m -3 respectively. Water absorption capability tests on crushed granite and palmkernelshell were observed to be 6% in both 1 h and 24 h, 11% in 1 h and 21.5% in 24 h respectively. All the aggregates utilized in this research work demonstrated their suitability in concreteproduction given by the observations as physical properties result presented.
With the continual use of natural resources aggregate in the production of concrete which consume a lot of it, the resources will be depleted someday. The prices of the conventional aggregate begin to increase due to the limited resources and the process involved in crushing the aggregate. This will create an economy chain that will cause the prices of housing increases, and not only the housing, other products’ prices will also increase due to the indirect effects. In ensuring the availability of resources in future, steps must be taken to conserve the non- renewable resources and energy.
Abstract: The high and rising cost of construction in developing countries, especially Nigeria has been a major concern to government and private developers. This study investigated the partial replacement of Saw Dust (SD) and PalmKernelShell (PKS) for fine and coarseaggregate respectively in concreteproduction. The materials were dried for some days, crushed, sieved and batched by volume. Using a design mix of 1:2:4, with a water cement ratio of 0.6, the prepared specimens were poured in cube moulds of 150x150x150mm, cured by immersion in water for different time durations (7, 14,21and 28 days). The results showed that workability (slump) reduces as the percentage of SD and PKS increases. It further revealed that the compressive strength reduced with increase in SD and PKS. However, compressive strength from 0-15% of SD and PKS addition meets the criterion for light weight concrete. The models developed from the study correlated well with experimental values as high coefficient of determination value were obtained. The models can thus, be satisfactorily used to predict the compressive strength of Saw-Dust-PalmKernelShellconcrete. From analysis of this study, Sawdust and PalmKernelShell can be used to replace fine and coarseaggregate in light weight pavement construction accommodating less traffic.
This experimental research is focused on the effect of concrete made by in- corporating lime treated PalmKernelShell (PKS) & Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) as partial replacements of coarse aggregates and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) respectively. An experimental analysis for concrete grade 30 with a mix design ratio of 1:1.97:3.71 of cement:fine aggregates:coarse aggre- gates with a constant water to cement ratio of 0.5, was used. Physical tests such as workability on fresh concrete and water absorption on hardened con- crete of each batch were carried out. Mechanical tests like compressive strength and split tensile strength were carried out on hardened concrete cubes (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) and cylinders (100 mm × 200 mm) at 7 and 28 days. The experimental results obtained in this study indicate the pos- sibility of using up 15% of lime treated PKS and 10% of SCBA for production of structural concrete.
Concrete is the most commonly used structural material in the construction industry, its importance and the usage in the modern society cannot be ignored. Concrete is a product of mixing cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water the right proportion. The water acts as the lubricating agents and it initiates chemical process that leads to hydration. The mixture when placed in modes or forms and allowed to cure hardens into a rock-like mass known as concrete (Sule, 2013). Advances in concrete technology have brought about the use of waste materials either from agricultural or industrial origin. The usage of agricultural wastes such as coconut shell as aggregate in concrete may lead to reduction in the depletion of ozone layer, because the energy hither to required in manufacturing process of concrete ingredients would have been conserved. It was reported by Mehta (2001) that “cement production, coarseaggregate mining, processing and transportation operations accounts for about 7%
Olanipekun (2006) carried out the comparative cost analysis and strength characteristics of concrete produced using crushed, granular coconut and palmkernelshell as substitutes for conventional coarseaggregate. The main objective is to encourage the use of waste products as construction materials in low-cost housing. Crushed granular coconut and palmkernel was used as substitute for conventional coarseaggregate in the following ratios: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% for preparing of mix ratios 1:1:2 and 1:2:4. Total 320 cubes were casted, tested and their physical and mechanical properties were determined. The result showed that the compressive strength of the concrete decrease as the percentage of the coconut shell increases in the two mix ratios, Coconut shell exhibited a higher compressive strength than palmkernelshell in the test. Moreover, there is a cost reduction of 30% and 42% for concrete produced from coconut shell and palmkernelshell respectively [6,7].
content with water-cement ratio of 0.5 had a 28-day compressive strength of 10.95 N/mm2. Ibrahim (2001) studied the use of crushed olive seed shell as full replacement for coarseaggregate in concrete and observed that at full replacement there was a 9% increase in the 28-day compressive strength of the concrete with crushed olive seed in comparison to the concrete with uncrushed olive seed. Other similar efforts in the direction of waste management strategies include structural performance of concrete using Oil PalmShell (OPS) as lightweightaggregate (Nimityongskul and Daladar, 1995), Topcu and Canbaz (2007), investigated the use of Crushed Tiles as Aggregate in concreteproduction while Sekar, Ganesan and Nampoothiri (2011) carried out similar work to that of Topcus and Canbaz on the Strength Characteristics on Utilization Of Waste Materials As CoarseAggregate In Concrete using broken tiles and broken glass pieces as coarseaggregate which showed that the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced similar strength in compression as conventional concrete while the compressive strength of concrete cubes made with ceramic insulator and glass concrete were found to be 16% and 26.34 % lesser respectively than that of conventional concrete . In the light of the aforementioned research efforts towards the utilization of industrial and agricultural wastes in concreteproduction for more cost effective housing delivery; energy and natural resource conservation, this research seeks to examine the optimization of crushed canariun schweifurthi (atili) seed as a partial replacement for coarseaggregate in concrete.
There has been so much demand on construction material in many countries around the world. Concurrently with the rapid expansion of construction activities housing and other building at the same time the rise cost of production with very serious shortage on construction material that will play a critical role in long term fixture. The discovery of the alternative of conventional building material that is cheaper and accessible became highly critical issue.
Concrete has a widespread application in the construction industry. The increased demand for concrete as a construction material, has yielded the investigation into unconventional building materials such as steel milled from scrap metals [1–3], bamboo reinforcement in concrete [4–6], phyllite aggregate waste in concrete , palmkernelshellaggregate in concrete [8, 9]. Conventionally, rocks of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary origins such as granite, basalt, flint, limestone etc. [10, 11] have been used to produce coarse aggregates for concreteproduction over the years. Nonetheless, there has been increased use of coarse aggregates, which serve as economic filler in concrete, for construction purposes. This practice is leading to over-exploitation of natural rock resources in the environment and a depletion of sources of coarse aggregates.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The increasing and high cost of building/construction of agricultural, industrial, residential and commercial structures in developing countries have raised concern to public and private developers thus resulting in alternative ways of subsidizing cost as well as maintaining the integrity of developed structures. Secondly, the problem of handling, managing and disposing of palmkernelshell (PKS) and other agro-waste materials from palm oil mills have equally triggered concerns which are predisposed on environmental sustainability. This research therefore tends towards producing a sustainable environment and an alternative in the construction industry by exploring the potential of the use of PKS as aggregate replacement in light weight concrete (LWC). The feasibility of PKS as aggregate replacement in LWC was achieved through compressive strength analysis, slump/concrete workability test, water absorption capacity test and density analysis respectively conducted on two mix ratios of 1:1:2 and 1:1.5:3 at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% PKS replacement which were used to cast concrete cubes of dimension 150×150×150mm that were cured at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. It was observed that the PKS showed density of within 2000kg/m 3 with high water absorption capacity which are within acceptable limits for all the PKS
ABSTRACT: Palm-shell is a waste produced by the palm oil industry. Palm-shells can be used as a substitute for natural coarseaggregate since palm-shells meet the requirements of aggregate gradation criteria which are rough surface, square shape, and hard. In addition, the density of palm-shell is±600 kg/m 3 so that it can produce lightweightconcrete. The drawback of using palm-shell is the oil contained on its surface. An experimental study was employed by carrying out three methods of treatment towards palm-shells. Fly-ash content substitution on cement was also studied to obtain optimum levels of fly-ash which produced maximum compressive strength. Fly-ash substitution varies from 0%, 15%, 20%, and 25%.The results show that the concrete average density is 1749 kg/m 3 , so it can be classified as lightweightconcrete. The use of 1.2% super plasticizer reduces water usage which can adjust water-cement ratio from 0.61 to 0.23. Increasing fly-ash content from 0% to 20% increases the concrete’s compressive strength. The treatment on shellaggregate affects the concrete’s compressive strength in which without the treatment the highest compressive strength is 15.58 MPa; the first treatment produces 19.26 MPa, and the second treatment produces 27.97 MPa.
As we know the demand for material such as cement, fine and coarseaggregate is high. The construction industry is become bigger and bigger each day, but nowadays the price of material are not cheap like the old days. The price is increase drastically by 30% for the past few years. This condition is affecting the price of the construction process and the price of the building that will be sells. This also promotes fraud among the contractor which they may use the low quality material or changing the material specification in order to get more profits. So this study was carried out to find the alternative material for cement to overcome highly cost material especially coarseaggregate. This project aims were to reducing the usage of natural coarseaggregate in concrete mixture and to achieve most likely equivalent strength of normal concrete mixture.
Concrete contains cement, water, fine aggregate, coarseaggregate (Recycled and Natural). With the control concrete, i.e.0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of the natural aggregate is replaced with the recycled aggregates. Three cube samples were cast on the mould of size 150x150x150 mm for each 1:1.5:3concrete mix with partial replacement of coarseaggregate with w/c ratio as 0.50 were also cast. After about 24 h the specimens were de-moulded and water curing was continued till the respective specimens were tested after 7, and 28 days for compressive strength and workability tests.
Since mid-90's the recycling, reuse and reduction of construction and demolition waste have received increasing attention. Use of recycled aggregate in concrete can be useful for environmental protection. Recycled aggregates are the materials for the future. The application of recycled aggregate has been started in a large number of construction projects of many European, American, Russian and Asian countries. This paper reports the basic properties of recycled fine aggregate and recycled coarseaggregate & also compares these properties with natural aggregates that have been concluded from various other research work. Similarly, the properties of recycled aggregateconcrete are also determined. Basic concrete properties like compressive strength, flexural strength, workability etc. are explained here for different combinations of recycled aggregate with natural aggregate. In general, present status of recycled aggregate in India along with its future need and its successful utilization are discussed here.
Table 1.0 illustrated the mix proportions for each series of concrete. The target strength of concrete at 28 days is 25 MPa, its water-cement ratio is 0.5 and its slump value is designed for 60mm-180mm. Superplasticizer also has been used to maintain the workability of concrete. For each concrete mix, three cubes were prepared and average reading was taken as data. Concrete also been cured in water until testing age.
ABSTRACT. This paper reports the study of water permeability of self-compacting lightweightaggregateconcrete. In this study, palm clinker (POC) is used to replace normal weight aggregates to produce lightweightconcrete. There are two types of mix design in this project. The POC mix as the control mix and POC mix with 10 % Micronised Silica (TIA 60) as the cement replacement material and superplasticizers (Rheobuild 1100) to produce the self- compacting lightweightconcrete. The test cubes are 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm size and wet-cured. Slump test and compacting factor test are carried out to measure the workability of the concrete. Durability of the concrete is determined by the water permeability test based on ISO/DIS 7031, while the compressive strength of the hardened concrete is measured based on BS 1881: Part 2. Water permeability test and compressive strength test are conducted on the cubes of these two types of concrete mix at the age of 3 , 7 and 28 days. This self-compacting lightweightconcrete is exhibiting unique properties as low water / cement ratio below 0.5 exhibits high workability up to 150 mm of slump. The self-compacting concrete requires minimal vibration to achieve high strength. The average coefficient of water permeability is in the order of 10 -11 m/s, which can be classified as an average quality concrete. The
made in Delhi Metro projects in association with L&T. Nuclear power Corporation, Gammon India, Hindustan Construction Company have been made large scale laboratory trials and on the ground Moch up trials. Laboratory studies conducted at SERC Chennai, Indian Institute of Technology at Madras, Roorkee and other places have given enough inputs and confidence to adopt SCC in India. Of all the places, Delhi Metro project have used SCC in large scale for dome construction, tunnel lining, column casting etc. About 10,000m 3 of SCC has been used in as many as forty locations during the year 2004. This is by far the biggest use of SCC in India. . The general objective of this paper is to check the possibility of preparing self- compacting concrete and to find out the potential benefits and drawbacks by using coconut shell as a partial replacement for natural coarseaggregate
3 environment, [3, 4]. Reported that the management for plastic waste today is a focus on landfill (about 51%) and incineration (27%), and remain the 22% is direct to recycling processes . Moreover, the building industry main target is to reduce the weight or dead load. The report also focusses on the advantage of lightweightconcrete such as time, cost, thermal insulation, reuse of plastic waste and reduce the main material for the production of concrete by substituting natural aggregate with lightweightaggregate. Today, the major challenge society is facing are the reduction of waste produced around the world. In the year 1950, the production of plastic worldwide was 1.7 Mt. The value increases 270 times in the year 2012 by approximately around 288 Mt . Moreover,  also reported that the use of plastic has increased rapidly in the year 2014 (313 Million tonnes, Mt) to the year 2015 (322 Mt) with the rise of 3% in two years. The report also states that according to Plastic Association, the consumption of plastic in Europe in the year 2014 was 59 Mt, with almost half of this amount are 25.8 Mt that waste is disposed of.