damage on cell components. The complexes with non- transition metal such as indium (III) are still insufficiently studied. We have used the DPBF photo-oxidation method to investigate the singlet oxygen formation (Figure 2) and to register it as singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ).For proving that In-Pc loaded in tumor cell that are subjected to irradiation is generating intracellular singlet oxygen, we have quantified this species in the in vitro cellular model (Table 1). Hence, when SH-SY5Y cells were loaded with In-Pc at 10 µg/mL and then irradiated, singlet oxygen was generated almost at the same level (0.533) with singlet oxygen generated in non-cellular model (0.603). When cells were treated with 5 mM sodium azide, a specific radical scavenger, we have obtained a reduction to 23% of the singlet oxygen generation (0.125), proving that, inside the cells the main generated oxygen species is singlet oxygen. As shown in previously published literature  singlet oxygen predominates for most photosensitizers. We have also shown that singlet oxygen is the primary
These Sn-rich In specimens were annealed above the eutectic temperature of 393 K for 24 h to approach the phase equilibrium, and quenched in salt-saturated ice water at 263 K and liquid nitrogen. The deviation of annealing temperatures was controlled within 1 K. After they were annealed, the specimens were mechanically ground and then polished using an electro–polishing instrument (Model Tenupol-5, Struers Corporation). The polishing solution contained 70% HClO 4 and ethyl alcohol, and the polishing
As the concentration of indium is 0.2%, the absorbance spectra noticed a blue shift which could be attributed to unstable disorder in the crystal nature of the material [10,11,12]. When the concentration is around 0.3%, a yield in the opposite behavior leading to a red shift as a large probability of the allowed direct transition of carrier mobility between the balance band and the conduction band thereby given a material a better conducting ability.
(α) increases with increasing photon energy for investigated thin films. We can evidently see that absorption coefficient having values ( which leads to increase the probability of occurrence direct transition. It can be seen that the plot is linear in the region of strong absorption near the fundamental absorption edge. Thus, the absorption takes place through direct transition.
Ferromagnets ( F ) can sustain supercurrents through the formation of equal spin-triplet Cooper pairs and the mechanism of odd-frequency pairing. Since such pairs are not broken by the exchange energy of the ferromagnet, superconducting triplet correlations are long ranged and spin polarized, with promises for superconducting spin- tronics devices [1 – 3]. In superconductor/ferromagnet ( S=F ) hybrids, the spin-polarized triplet correlations can be generated by converting Cooper pairs from the singlet to the triplet state via spin mixing and spin rotation at the S - F interface, which requires the presence of magnetic inho- mogeneity [4 – 8]. Recently, it was shown that long-range supercurrents could be engineered in S=F=S Josephson junctions by inserting an extra ferromagnetic layer between the superconductor and the central F layer [9 – 12]. Still, quantitative understanding of the conversion process is mostly lacking since the spin activity of the interface is not a measurable parameter. Absolute values of the super- current are not easily predictable, which was illustrated clearly in recent work of Klose et al. , where super- currents in a Co-based Josephson junction could be increased more than an order of magnitude by manipulating the magnetization directions of F 1 and F 2 . For acquiring
Superconductivity has been recently shown to survive even in extremely confined nanostructures such as metal monolayers . Preserving a superconducting state in ultrathin films can be achieved by nanofabrication techniques and withstand multiple cooling cycles. However, control over the superconducting properties of metallic ultrathin films are of utmost importance in realization of quantum devices, such as Josephson junctions, nano Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), mixers and single photon detectors [2,3]. Hence, a systematic investigation on their properties and their optimization at reduced dimensionality can leads to an ideal platform to control electronic confinement and novel multi-condensate superconductivity near a Lifshitz transition where it has been proposed that a Fano resonances between a first condensate in the BEC and a second condensate in the BCS/BEC crossover regime can give high temperature superconductivity [4–9].
culated behavior. We conclude that the current distribution is homogeneous and that the depairing current is measured, even though the strip widths are larger than the supercon- ducting penetration depth and coherence length. Also, the proximity-effect model correctly describes the shape of the order parameter, at least in the superconducting layer. These findings can be of use in experiments on the effect of inject- ing polarized quasiparticles.
sample magnetoresistance. Additionally, the suppression of superconductivity of nanoislands is also accomplished by an increase of normal carries, which become non-localized inside the island and contribute to total conductivity. A region of negative magnetoresistance has also been observed on the structures with irregular superconducting islands on graphene . The increase of current through the sample leads to vanishing of a negative magnetoresistance region (Fig.5). At currents higher than of 500 nA the magnetoresistance of the graphite bridge with
Certain materials when cooled sufficiently undergo a second order phase transition which takes them from the normal state, in which they behave like conventional metals, to a state in which electric currents can be supported without resistance and in which unusual mag- netic phenomena are exhibited. This state, termed the superconducting state, is one of the few examples where quantum mechanics manifests itself over a macroscopic scale. Indeed it is possible to attribute many of the peculiar properties of superconductors directly to the quantum mechanical nature of the phenomenon. In this context we note (I) the Josephson effect whereby two pieces of superconducting material separated by a non-superconductor interact via quantum mechanical tunelling, and (II) the quantisation of magnetic flux ex- emplified by a circulating current structure, termed a vortex, which is associated with one quantum of magnetic flux.
RMo 6 (S/Se) 6 (R ⫽ rare earth 兲 . 1 These materials attracted a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention. By the 1980s a large body of theoretical understanding of the coex- istence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order had emerged, but experiments were mainly performed on polycrystalline materials, in which the averaging of proper- ties over the individual crystallites prevented addressing any issues of anisotropy. The recently discovered 2,3 family of quaternary borocarbides RNi 2 B 2 C gives several exciting ex- amples of coexistence of antiferromagnetism and supercon- ductivity with the ratio of the superconducting ordering tem- perature to the Ne´el temperature T c /T N varying from 7.3 to 0.6 共 Ref. 4 兲 with both T c and T N easily accessible in experi-
It can be seen from Equation (7) and Equation (9) that the superconducting gaps do not depend on voltage and temperature explicitely. Both gaps are fixed around the chemical potential of the superconductor at µ 2 = 0 . This means that, if the voltage on the normal side is driven above or below the minigap, no minigap will be ob- served.
The FDTD simulations are carried out with appropriate cell size to keep real height equals to virtual height in terms of no of cells from ground as given in Table 1. The presence of proximityeffect observed when the value of electrical field and magnetic field around the condcuting plane is assymetrical also it is greater at surface than center part. This effect is varyfied from simulated voltage differences as in Table 2 and currents a in Table 3.
Due to diverse and increasing use of indium in industry and medicine, it is important from an analytical point of view to develop simple, selective and economical methods for its trace determination in various complex matrices. Indium contents can be determined photometrically using suitable chromogenic reagents such as Rhodamine B, Eriochrome cyanine R, pyrocatechol violet, 1- (2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol and 4-(2-pyridylazo)- resorcinol. Indium in environmental and water samples has been determined by AAS, XRF, NAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS, but these techniques are expensive and not suitable for routine analysis .
growth is possible due to the close proximity of the oxide precursor. These patterned monolayers have the same high quality as the larger scale films as shown previously in Fig. 1(a). Although the resolution of the process is limited, as shown in Fig. 4(b), by a slight spread in growth, the method can produce multiple patterns without having to expose the monolayers to additional processing steps. This meth- odology could potentially be used to fabricate channels and other device components without the need for post growth processing steps.
in fitting modified Gaussian distribution curves in Fig. 3). The lower trough width causes a larger hogging and sagging curvature of the ground; meaning that the curvature is greatest in loose sands. The curvature of the greenfield settlement profile will impact on the bending strains within buried infrastructure, such as pipelines (Marshall et al. 2010). Based on these results, there is scope for further studies regarding the effect of sand density on the ground-structure interaction problem due to underground excavations.
The frequency versus temperature plot of sample-A is shown in Fig. 6 and that of sample B and B ′ in Fig. 7. As seen from the Fig. 6, the T c onset is at 92 K for a pure sample with a frequency change of about 2 kHz showing a strong superconductingtransition. Addition of fluorine had increased the onset T c to a value 98 K with a frequency change of 0.5 kHz. (Fig.
borocarbide superconductors and their corresponding lattice parameters as extracted from literature -. Statistical analysis was performed on the dataset and the outcomes of the analysis are shown in table 1. The mean of the dataset as well as the maximum and minimum are useful information through which the overall content of the dataset can be inferred. The standard deviations also show the level of discrepancies in the dataset. The standard deviations obtained from the dataset used for the present simulation show high level of consistence in the dataset. Similarly, the values of correlation coefficients presented in the table show that the lattice parameter descriptor along c-axis of the body-centered tetragonal is weakly correlated with superconductingtransition temperature while lattice parameter descriptor along a-axis is linearly correlated with the target. Both coefficients of correlation show ineffectiveness of linear model in establishing a relationship between the descriptors.
Here, the effect of fin shape on various device parameters like oxide thickness, drain doping concentration, effective mobility, junction depth and temperature is also explored and showed that, all these parameters affects the leakage currents like GIDL and subthreshold more in the case of triangular FinFET. MATLAB 8.3 has been used for the verification of the results. However, future research is needed to further reduce the leakage current in bulk FinFETs.
We thank J. C. A. Prentice for computational support, N. Davies and A. Narayanan for preliminary sample preparation and R. Valenti, A. Chubukov and A. Shekhter for useful discussions. This work was mainly supported by EPSRC (EP/L001772/1, EP/ I004475/1, EP/I017836/1). A.A.H. acknowledges the ﬁ nancial support of the Oxford Quantum Materials Platform Grant (EP/M020517/1). A portion of this work was performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, which is supported by National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-1157490 and the State of Florida. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY17-48958. Part of this work was supported by HFML-RU/FOM and LNCMI-CNRS, members of the European Magnetic Field Laboratory (EMFL) and by EPSRC (UK) via its membership to the EMFL (grant no. EP/N01085X/1). Part of this work was supported by Programme Investissements d’ Avenir under the programme ANR-11-IDEX-0002-02, reference ANR-10-LABX-0037- NEXT. The authors would like to acknowledge the use of the University of Oxford Advanced Research Computing (ARC) facility in carrying out part of this work. A.I.C. thanks the hospitality of KITP supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY- 1125915. A.I.C. acknowledges an EPSRC Career Acceleration Fellowship (EP/I004475/1).