Top PDF Supervised Agricultural Experience Instruction in Agricultural Teacher Education Programs: A National Descriptive Study

Supervised Agricultural Experience Instruction in Agricultural Teacher Education Programs: A National Descriptive Study

Supervised Agricultural Experience Instruction in Agricultural Teacher Education Programs: A National Descriptive Study

Faculty in agricultural teacher education programs are responsible for preparing future teachers to lead effective school-based agricultural education programs. However, agriculture teachers are having difficulty implementing supervised agricultural experience (SAE), even though they value it conceptually as a program component. In an effort to improve SAE instruction in teacher education, the American Association for Agricultural Education has adopted a guiding philosophy and competencies for teacher preparation in SAE. Using these documents, the purpose of this national descriptive study was to identify where and to what extent SAE instruction was included within agricultural teacher education curriculum and describe the level of SAE instruction occurring in agricultural teacher education programs in the United States. Findings of this study indicate that there was a broad range in the level of instruction occurring for each of these competencies among teacher education programs. These results provide a snapshot of one- moment-in-time and serve as a starting point for a conversation about how supervised agricultural experience should be taught in agricultural teacher education. It is recommended that supervised agricultural experience competencies be taught using inquiry-based or problem-solving methods guided by the experiential learning process.
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Perceptions and Perceived Barriers of North Carolina Agriculture Teachers on Including Students with Special Needs in the total Agricultural Education Program.

Perceptions and Perceived Barriers of North Carolina Agriculture Teachers on Including Students with Special Needs in the total Agricultural Education Program.

The purpose of this study is to determine the attitudes and perceived barriers that teachers encounter while working with students with special needs in the total Agricultural Education program (defined as Classroom / Laboratory, Supervised Agricultural Experience, and the National FFA Organization). This survey addresses three specific areas of Agricultural Education that are vital to all of our students. If you choose to participate in this study then please consider providing responses to all of the sections. Participation in this survey is entirely voluntary. Your input could provide insight into specific teacher needs that can be addressed by the development of new in-service training opportunities. It will also aid in the development of courses and curricula to match the present and future needs of teachers in the field. All responses to this survey will remain confidential. This survey should take approximately 5- 10 minutes complete.
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Factors influencing an agricultural education student's perception of the FFA organization

Factors influencing an agricultural education student's perception of the FFA organization

One major educational reform initiative is the implementation of block scheduling in high schools. In a study involving 142 agricultural education programs in North Carolina, Becton (1996) found that teachers believed that block scheduling has a deleterious effect on FFA member recruitment and retention. However, block scheduling was perceived to have little impact on classroom instruction or supervised agricultural experience. Communication between teachers and students not currently enrolled in agriculture classes was identified as a major problem. Wortma n (1997) found that students who did not serve in official leadership positions in the local FFA chapter had no significant positive or negative perception regarding block scheduling and its impact on FFA activities. Students who did serve as FFA officers reported that block scheduling negatively influenced student participation in FFA activities.
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A QUALITATIVE APPROACH TO STUDY THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING: PROFESSIONAL LEARNING EXPERIENCE OF TEACHER-EDUCATORS AND STUDENT-TEACHERS IN INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS

A QUALITATIVE APPROACH TO STUDY THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING: PROFESSIONAL LEARNING EXPERIENCE OF TEACHER-EDUCATORS AND STUDENT-TEACHERS IN INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS

Teacher-educators’ and student-teachers’ reflection provided on that the current curriculum does not support inquiry-based methods to be used. One of the key take-away messages is that teacher-educators’ intentions was to rely less heavily on text but more heavily on student-centred learning. The majority of teacher-educators were of the opinion that current science courses are very textual and lengthy. Indeed, science is presented as a knowledge- based subject to them as articulated as: The science curriculum is text-based and too lengthy. Curriculum does not support inquiry-based pedagogy (T19). Thus, teacher-educators’ responses indicated that inquiry-based pedagogy was a better approach in bringing about student-teachers’ understanding of science concepts than memorize concepts as this form of instruction helps student-teachers build on what they already know and thus sustains their knowledge. Thus, the key reasons given by the teacher-educators for using inquiry-based pedagogy were that it would help them get away from dependency on the text and student- teachers understand the key ideas of science deeply using inquiry. Likewise, the majority of student-teachers reported that they were used to memorise text rather than involved in inquiry-based curricula reported as: Student-teachers appreciate that teachers-prepared notes help them to pass exams. Therefore, using inquiry, student-teachers do not benefit (G1-S3). Thus, most educators feel that is an easier job to do lectures rather than using inquiry-based lesson. The science curriculum in ITE consists of a heavy use of factual information and lengthy content (Plevyak, 2007; Ross et al., 2010; Ali, 2008).
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Exploring Non-Native EFL Teachers’ Knowledge Base: Practices and Perceptions

Exploring Non-Native EFL Teachers’ Knowledge Base: Practices and Perceptions

In the field of second language in particular, Richards, (1998) proposed six areas of required knowledge: theories of teaching, teaching skills, communication skills and language proficiency, subject matter knowledge, pedagogical reasoning and decision making, and contextual knowledge. Later, Gatbonton (1999) investigated experienced ESL teachers’ pedagogical knowledge. Via the stimulated recall technique, all teachers in her study declared that, during their teaching, they mainly dealt with language management, thoughts about students, the smooth transition of classroom activities, and assessment. Replicating Gatbonton’s research, Mullock (2006) studied the pedagogical knowledge base of four teachers and found seven domains of knowledge underlying teaching actions. These included handling language items, factoring in student contributions, determining the contents of teaching, facilitating the instructional flow, building rapport, monitoring student progress, and institutional factors. Mullock’s findings were more detailed than Salvatori & MacFarlan’s (2009) which classified necessary knowledge for teachers into only language proficiency, cultural competency, and pedagogical skills.
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Year: 2015 Volume: 3 Number: 4

Year: 2015 Volume: 3 Number: 4

Scaffolding has been a useful metaphor for thinking about classroom instruction and indeed in teachers’ development programs since its introduction by Lev Vygotsky (1978). This paper was designed to investigate the perceptions of four mathematics preservice teachers on the role of scaffolding in supporting and assisting them achieves quality classroom teaching. The analysis started with the sources of scaffolding, in which the researchers identified three major sources which includes the Adult-teacher (researcher), the four preservice teachers and the focus group students. From the findings it was observed that though the adult-teachers at the initial stage of the research took the greater role of providing scaffolding to the preservice teachers but as the research progresses the burg of the scaffolding was taken over by the preservice teachers. This supports the findings of Hartman (2002) and Raymond (2000) who were of the view that the goal of the adult-teacher when using scaffolding is to make the teacher-learner become independent and self-reliant in his/her teaching competence. According to Vygotsky (year) the scaffolds provided by the adult-teacher can then be removed because the teacher-learner has developed some more sophisticated cognitive abilities in his/her teaching practices (Raymond, 2000).Similarly, the findings of the study suggest that the students also provided scaffolding during the research and the information collected from the students constituted an important lesson that the teachers learnt in their effort to achieving quality classroom practice. Vygotsky viewed scaffolding as the role of the facilitator in supporting development and providing the necessary and effective support structures that will help teachers’ development to move to the next stage or level (Raymond, 2000) as demonstrated in the findings of this research. The study suggested that as the teachers’ knowledge, abilities and understanding increased; there was also an increase in their ability to achieve quality classroom teaching (Rogoff, 1995; Siemon & Virgona, 2003).
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Experiences of Hispanic Students Enrolled in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

Experiences of Hispanic Students Enrolled in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

Hispanic students currently make up 22% of the national FFA membership (Future Farmers of America, FFA 2011). In [state] alone 52% of the membership is Hispanic ([State] Department of Education, 2013a). With these impressive numbers, one would expect to see a lot of Hispanics participating in competitions and events, but this is not the case. The problem is that Hispanic members are not seen participating above the chapter level. There is one exceptional exception to this story, which is [School A] FFA Chapter.

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Reinvigorating Cambodian agriculture: Transforming from extensive to intensive agriculture

Reinvigorating Cambodian agriculture: Transforming from extensive to intensive agriculture

holds immense potential where its productive gains could boost sustainable outputs {employment and income { to alleviate poverty. In this sense, all the government's development policies address the agricultural sector as an engine for economic growth, food security, and poverty reduction. In the recent years, there has been a growing concern about framer distress, productivity in the agriculture sector amidst rising concerns over food security and sustainability in agriculture. Besides the crucial importance and significant contribution of agriculture in overall GDP of agriculture, the situation of farmer especially the small and marginal ones is still vulnerable. Both natural and manmade factors are responsible for such acts. The natural factors include loss of income due to natural calamities of flood, drought, crop failure due to prevalence of pests and diseases etc. which are not in control of mankind; whereas manmade factors can be controlled to an extent and include factors like burden of debt, low return for production due to inefficient marketing and unavailability of resources, higher cost of production due to use of outdated technologies in the production process.
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High School Agriculture Teachers' Career Satisfaction and Reasons They Stay in Teaching Profession

High School Agriculture Teachers' Career Satisfaction and Reasons They Stay in Teaching Profession

Work factors such as working conditions, salary, fringe benefits, occupational commitment, and work-life balance influence educators’ career satisfaction to stay in teaching. Brownell et al. (1994, 1995) stated that workplace conditions influence teachers’ decision to stay. Poor working condition is determined as one of the problems faced by agriculture teachers (Boone, 2007, 2009). Furthermore, salary is one of the critical motivations for teachers to teach (Crutchfield, 2013). In a survey conducted by Blackburn and Robinson (2008), 50% of experienced teachers identified salary as the main reason to keep teaching. Ingersoll and Smith (2003) found the main reason for teachers to stay or leave teaching is due to working conditions. Overwhelming workloads and excessive paperwork will affect the teachers to neglect education (Brill & Mc Cartney, 2008; Kersaint et al., 2007). Even further, the work-life balance will influence teachers’ decisions to remain in the classroom. Crutchfield (2013) studied agricultural educators and found that work engagement was positively associated with their professional life phases. Educators who have balance career and personal lives will have occupational commitment.
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Access & Excellence in Teacher Education Exce...

Access & Excellence in Teacher Education Exce...

Perhaps the deepest wounds schools inflict on students are wounds of underestimation. We underestimate students when they fall short of expectations because they don't understand the school game and we determine that they lack motivation when we allow them to shrink silently into the background of the action in the classroom. We underestimate them, too when we assume they're doing well in school because they earn high grades and we praise them for reaching a performance level that required no risk or struggle. Classrooms that teach up function from the premise that student potential is like an iceberg most of it is obscured from view and that high trust, high expectations and a high support environment will reveal in time what's hidden. Martin L. King Jr. (1965) reminded us that human beings are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. That truth has never been more evident than it is today. Schools have the still-untapped possibility of helping all kinds of learners become what they ought to be by developing the skill and will to proliferate classrooms in which equal access to excellence is a reality for all learners. Although schools, teachers and administration are rigorously working for the improvement of the students progress in all aspects and perspectives. Yet there is a need for easy access and quality in the field of teacher education too.
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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDER EXPLOITATION AND PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURE IN OF THE LOWER AND UPPER UELE DISTRICTS

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDER EXPLOITATION AND PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURE IN OF THE LOWER AND UPPER UELE DISTRICTS

Agriculture of the upper and lower Uele district, Democratic Republic of the Congo is still under exploitation, present study has been carried out to exploit the factors responsible for the under exploitation of Uele district agriculture. This study also aimed to find out possible solution to overcome these factors and promote the agriculture of study area. Results of the study revealed the various factors like social, political, administrative, economic, environmental and technical field are responsible for the under exploitation of the Lower and Upper-Uele districts agriculture. To overcome these problems like other countries agricultural sector should have its own solid budget. With this conscientization and planification of the adapted agricultural policies and politics are required on the priority basis. Furthermore, popularization and distribution of genetically developed seeds or rustic parents, empowerment of the agriculture based research, relaunching of agriculture, formation and distribution of market values of agriculture product and agrarian reform literacy are the possible solution for the promotion of Lower and Upper Uele districts agriculture. Proper dissemination of well acceptable agricultural policies between farmers and general population is must. For sustainable agricultural development, a strong complementarity between public and private investors is necessary.
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An examination of wage determination in China’s rural industrial sector

An examination of wage determination in China’s rural industrial sector

After the introduction of the household responsibility system in 1978, the income distribution system in the agricultural sector changed dramatically. The production team, which had been the basic accounting unit, lost most of its administrative and economic functions. Both production and income distribution were now operated within families. Under these circumstances, it was impossible and meaningless for those who worked in the enterprises to have their income distributed within their home production team (now called the group of villagers). Therefore, the income distribution system of the commune and brigade enterprises was transformed from the old work point system to a within-firm wage system in the 1978-83 period. During this transformation period, various wage systems appeared, for example, within-firm work points system; fixed cash wage, which took wage levels in state-owned enterprises as the point of reference (but the wage paid was normally slightly lower); and half fixed cash wage which was paid monthly plus half within-firm work points, paid at the end of the year.
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IDLA Professional Development Scope and Sequence

IDLA Professional Development Scope and Sequence

2. The online teacher uses student-centered instructional strategies to engage students in learning. (e.g., Peer- based learning, peer coaching, authentic learning experiences, inquiry-based activities, structured but flexible learning environment, collaborative learning, discussion groups, self-directed learning, case studies, small group work, collaborative learning, and guided design).

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Agricultural growth leads to the national growth

Agricultural growth leads to the national growth

Malnutrition: India has about 61 million children under the age of 5 who are chronically malnourished, compared to 150 million children worldwide. Majority of malnourished children of India live in rural areas. Girls tend to be more malnourished than boys. Malnourishment, claims this report, is not a matter of income, rather it is education as in other parts of the world. A third of children from the wealthiest fifth of India's population are malnourished. This is because of poor feeding practices – foremost among them a failure exclusively to breastfeed in the first six months – play as big a role in India's malnutrition rates as food shortages. India's government has launched several major programs with mandated social spending programs to address child malnourishment problem. However, Indian government has largely failed. A public distribution system that targets subsidised food to the poor and a vast midday-meal scheme, to which 120 million children subscribe —are hampered by inefficiency and corruption. Another government-paid program named Integrated Childhood Development Service (ICDS) has been operating since 1975 and it too has been ineffective and a wasteful program. A 2011 UNICEF report claims recent encouraging signs. Between 1990 to 2010, India has achieved a 45 percent reduction in under age 5 mortality rates, and now ranks 46 in 188 countries on this metric. India has a higher prevalence of child malnutrition, as manifested in stunting and underweight, than any other large country and was home to about one-third of all malnourished children in the world in the early 2000s. There are, however, substantial inter-state differences in child malnutrition and also in the (generally meagre) progress made since the early 1990s. The persistence of widespread malnutrition may seem surprising considering the recent overall shining performance of the Indian economy. Between 1993 and 2006 net state domestic product per capita nearly doubled in the wake of 4.5% average annual growth. The main objective of this paper is to identify the reasons why rapid economic growth has failed to reduce malnutrition more substantially. The methods used are OLS, instrument-variable, fixed-effect and first-difference regression analyses on the basis of panel data at the level of states in India. The results suggest that the persistence of malnutrition is mainly explained by modest poverty reduction despite high overall economic growth due to minuscule factor productivity and income growth in the agricultural sector, still employing 54% of the Indian labour force. Widespread rural female illiteracy and restricted autonomy for women are other significant explanations.
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Key Communicators Meeting November 28, Department of Accountability & School Improvement

Key Communicators Meeting November 28, Department of Accountability & School Improvement

The Klein Independent School District offers career and technical education programs in agricultural science, business education, career orientation, family and consumer sciences, healt[r]

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The use of microbial inoculants in clean farming systems, present situation and future prospective

The use of microbial inoculants in clean farming systems, present situation and future prospective

In most developing countries, flourishing agricultural production is more deliberate than sustainability, natural resources management or even environmental quality. Development and sustainability, however, should not be incompatible, as they represent the way through which agricultural growth is secure [1]. Lack of agricultural development would lead to environmental worsening problems, particularly in low potential areas, where accretion and increased production are crucial to help restore the fragile natural resources base. Sustainability would never be achieved farewell as agricultural practices continue beyond the carrying capacity of the farming ecosystem through the exaggerated abuse of agricultural chemicals. The rapid growth of agricultural productivity in chemical farming systems is shrinking off. Moreover, environmental torrent from agricultural activities jeopardizes agricultural growth in several countries. Problems associated with the wealthy agricultural production in the developed world and underproduction in developing countries necessitates a widely accepted assessment of the present status of agriculture. It is time to install new farming systems committed to following environmental and sustainable approaches, and producing healthy food free from agrochemical residues. Ecologically oriented farming routines are being developed within the frame of the recent achievements in environmental biotechnology, the most important of which is the clean farming system which is increasingly acknowledged as a potential solution to copious problems overlaying present world agriculture. It is a farming system, which aims at evading the routine use of agricultural chemicals and reducing their rates of application. Clean farming systems directly give rise to four environmental biotechnologies, i.e., recycling of composted organic waste, fortifying the rhizosphere soil with bio-fertilizers, encouraging the use of bio-pesticides in agricultural practices and bioremediation of polluted agro-ecosystems. [1].
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Examining the Benefits and Barriers of edTPA on Agricultural Education Students at North Carolina State University.

Examining the Benefits and Barriers of edTPA on Agricultural Education Students at North Carolina State University.

One of the major skills that performance assessments stimulate is reflection. Darling- Hammond (2006) highlighted the important role teacher performance assessments play in promoting critical reflection amongst teachers. Okhremtchouk, Newell, and Rosa (2013) conducted a study on PACT with pre-service teachers and found it “evident that the PACT assessment has a positive impact on the reflective component of practical preparation and quality lesson planning” (p. 14). To also support this finding, one participant specifically stated, “My PACT lessons were some of my best lessons”, while another reported, “[PACT] improved my lesson plans. I felt like I reflected a little more on what I was teaching and how I was teaching” (Okhremtchouk et al., p. 13-14). In a similar study by Van Es and Conroy (2009) on examining PACT completion by 80 pre-service mathematics teachers, they found the higher scoring candidates noticed differences or inconsistencies in their planning and teaching on the dimension of their reflection, while lower scoring candidates did not.
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Job Stress, Burnout, and Professional Development Needs of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers

Job Stress, Burnout, and Professional Development Needs of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers

Practical implications abound related to this line of research. First and foremost, administrators, state leaders, and teacher educators should be aware of and concerned about job stress, burnout, and job satisfaction among agricultural education teachers. NAAE (2016) should continue efforts to create targeted professional development opportunities based on agricultural education teachers’ career stages. Secondly, opportunities related to the NQPS should be developed and provided to ensure agricultural education teachers are performing at their fullest potential. Additional research may provide clarity regarding specific segments of the NQPS in which agricultural education teachers at various career stages would benefit from new or expanded support, resources, or professional development. For mid-career agricultural education teachers, NQPS related professional development should address Experiential Learning and Program Planning and Evaluation. This aligns with the recommendations apparent within the Ag Teacher’s Lifecycle graphic (NAAE) suggesting that professional development for mid-career agricultural education teachers should focus on further developing pedagogical and technical skills. Additionally, regional or state-based professional development programs for mid-career teachers are encouraged, to meet the needs of teachers not participating in national level programming.
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Effects of Agricultural Education on Subsistence Farmers’ Crop Production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area Rivers State.

Effects of Agricultural Education on Subsistence Farmers’ Crop Production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area Rivers State.

The study examined“Effects of Agricultural Education on Subsistence Farmers’ Crop Production in Ogba//Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State’’. The objectives were to determine the impacts of agricultural education on crop production; ascertain the influence of agricultural education on crop farmers’ adoption of innovation and determine the factors that hinder agricultural education from making maximum effect on subsistence farmers in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni L.G.A. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A simple random sampling technique was used to select sixty-two (62) female farmers and forty (40) male farmers in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni L.G.A, resulting to a total sample size of one hundred and two (102) crop farmers. Data was collected using a well structured questionnaire designed in Likert 5 point rating scale of agreement. Data was analyzed using mean standard deviation with acceptance means value of  3.00 while z-test was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05% level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that agricultural education enhances crop farmers’ productivity, exposes farmers to agricultural technology, agricultural education increases local food availability among others. Also, creates awareness of improved crop varieties before they are adopted, provides adequate information concerning new innovation, adoption of innovation depends fully on the level of interaction between the change agents and the farmers amongst others. Lastly, the study found that, failure of first trials, lack of resources to obtain the new innovation, affixed with ancient method of farming and others are factors that hinder agricultural education from making maximum impact on crop farmers adoption in the study area. The study therefore recommends that government and NGOs should encourage agricultural education and its extension officers to carryout effective and adequate agricultural programme to develop farmers’ decision making skills, regular extension visits should be extended to rural farmers and adequate awareness should be created to improve farmers’ inputs.
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Utilization of Instructional Technology: Towards a Conceptual Model for Teacher Education

Utilization of Instructional Technology: Towards a Conceptual Model for Teacher Education

In examining foundations for the use of instructional technology, a general assumption is that universal decisions to mandate, standardize, and require the use of instructional technologies imply that it is possible for them to be applicable in all instances of education. However, many of these policies do not accommodate situational flexibility and often fail to recognize instructors as purposeful, goal- oriented individuals capable of determining whether or not to use technology in teaching (Zhao & Cziko, 2001). Therefore, some instructors petition for not using technology in instructional settings that may not conform to mandates that are strict and specify precise uses of technology (OTA, 1995). In response, emerging national instructional technology standards are more generalized than earlier mandates, allowing flexible application and adaptation depending on discipline and grade level. This new approach to standard-setting empowering educators to integrate
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