23 Mr. Russell from Turlock HighSchool expresses his views on SAE projects. Mr. Russell explains that SAE’s are essential to a successful agriculturalprogram. He mentions that he has seen programs that don’t have really strong SAE’s and that the instructors don’t necessarily think that it is a big part of an agriculturalprogram. Mr. Russell along with his staff at Turlock HighSchool believes that students need to have an SAE in order to be successful in the program. Mr. Russell explains what he thinks the outcomes are for students who do have an SAE project and he states that there are a lot of different outcomes. For those students who do have a livestock project as their SAE it requires the student to learn how to market their product and communicate with others over the phone. Another outcome that students receive from having an SAE project is by teaching them leadership skills and by taking the lead in a certain situation and seeing the outcome it can have.
classroom, when implementingSupervisedAgriculturalExperience, and participating in FFA activities. The population that was studied was all agriculture teachers in North Carolina with 12 month employment. A simple random sample of 172 was selected with a response rate of 45.9%. Participants completed a questionnaire that measured teachers‟ perceptions and collected demographic information. Data analysis indicated that teachers perceived that students with special needs benefit from being enrolled in Agricultural Education and that these students should be encouraged to enroll in agriculture classes, but that most often students are placed into Agricultural Education courses because they need an elective course with the least restrictive environment. Teachers felt students with special needs should be required to have SAE programs, but these students may have a more difficult time
agriculture, and the global significance of agriculture (Frick, M. J., 1993). In a study of the nationwide enrollment of middle schoolagriculture, the authors found that “good activities used to teach scientific agricultural concepts and skills will expose students to the type of instruction (hands-on) they will receive in a good highschoolprogram” (Rosetti, Padilla, & McCaslin, 1992), which ultimately could prepare them even further for employment opportunities. In this evaluation of previous studies, the importance of middle schoolagriculturalprograms was identified as to promote agriculture awareness to the general public, recruit students for highschoolagriculture classes, provide opportunities to learn about career options in agriculture, and expose students to FFA earlier on (Fritz, S., Moody, L., 1997).
The findings of the study will be of immense help to elementary science teachers and other agricultural science teachers as it will once more remind them of the importance of making proper use of the school farm in teaching their students. It will also help curriculum planners to re- emphasize the necessity of agriculture and the school farm in the school programme.
The linear drives have to be powered by DC motors fitted with optical encoders. Precise control of the motor would be required for exact positioning of the robot. The data from the optical encoders is to be stored in a computer to keep a constant record of the robots position. All precision agriculture related decisions of the robot depend on this coordinate data stored on the robots memory. The movement of railing 2 on railing 1 makes use of 2 DC motors, one mounted on each end of railing 2. The movement of the screw drive system on railing 2 makes use of one motor, while the screw drive system makes use of one motor. Appropriate linear drive controllers need to be used for the efficient and speedy performance of the linear drives. Also the oscillation of the suspended robot needs to be taken care of during the traversal of the robot. Various studies
In any event, over and above political considerations, decision-making as to future agricultural support regimes will need to take into account a complex range of factors which enjoy legal basis. In this context, WTO rules and the constitutional rights of the devolved administrations are very much to the fore. Thus, as has been seen, WTO rules have the capacity not only to impose overall limits on the amount of domestic support to farmers, but also to shape the design of individual measures. And, if preference is for support to promote higher standards of environmental protection and animal welfare, then specific difficulties may be encountered. For example, it is uncertain whether under current WTO rules there is scope to secure exemption for an incentive element to environmental payments, while there is as yet no express category of exempt support for animal welfare measures. Any such limitations on domestic support would prove the more profound if future free trade agreements were to permit imports produced to lower environmental and animal welfare standards. Further, if the UK were to seek to condition imports on the observance of high standards as applied domestically, the position is not free from doubt as to the legitimacy of measures of this kind in WTO law; and, even if they are legitimate, they would need to be closely crafted so as to exclude, inter alia, any discriminatory treatment.
The program is only two years old and the work- ers’ compensation rate for loggers has dropped sig- nificantly, says extension specialist Sarah Smith. “That didn’t just happen; we’ve made a difference.” Nurserywork is another industry where exten- sion is making a difference. In Connecticut, special- ist John Bartok is well aware of the muscle and nerve damage that can result from repetitive potting and pruning work and can disable greenhouse workers. Bartok’s regular columns in greenhouse media cover such industry specifics as low-volume sprayers that allow greater control over pesticide sprays or wrist supports to help maintain proper hand position.
This integrated class combines an interdisciplinary approach to laboratory science and research with agricultural management principles. Using skills and principles learned in the course, including the chemical and biological principles that govern plant science and crop production, students design systems and experiments to solve agricultural management issues currently facing the industry. The course culminates with an agriscience experimental research project in which students design and conduct an experiment to solve a relevant agricultural issue. Final projects will be eligible for Career Development Event competition at FFA events. Throughout the course, students will be graded on participation in intracurricular FFA activities as well as the development and maintenance of an ongoing SupervisedAgriculturalExperience (SAE) program.
There are many recruitment activities and materials that we have developed to promote agriculture courses. Brochures are available to all middle school students that discuss our program and explain the courses offered, encouraging them to develop an area of interest so that they can easily fall into a specific agriculture pathway as they enter highschool. We also participate in fun activities for the middle school students during FFA week such as petting zoos, and officer presentations. Previously we have invited 8 th graders to attend one of our meetings
is widely endorsed as a pedagogical practice that promotes student learning. Recently, the research focus has moved to the role of teachers’ discourse during cooperative learning and its effects on the quality of group discussions and the learning achieved. Although the benefits of cooperative learning are well documented, implementing this pedagogical practice in classrooms is a challenge that many teachers have difficulties accomplishing. The subjects of this study were 52 age teachers who teach in three different Zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and peoples’ regional State namely Gedeo, Sidama and Segen peoples’zones. structured interview were used to collect the required data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive methods and the qualitative data were analyzed using narrative techniques. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the teachers did not have clear learning. Among the interviewed 12 teachers, only two had a detailed understanding of the terms and features. The study indicated that the extent to which factors were perceived as barriers to cooperative learning, or issues that could be
The questionnaires were distributed to 36 Mkoba 1 teachers and heads of departments so that they could respond to them. These were later on collected by the researcher. Of the 36 questionnaires distributed, 32 were returned so the percentage response was 89%. Questionnaires were used because they are potentially useful, easy to use and are a reliable method of data collection. The fact that they are anonymous makes information collected to be authentic, people express their views clearly knowing that they are anonymous. Questionnaires were made up of both open- ended and closed questions to enable the respondents to give their personal views about the extent to which instructional media is used by secondary school teachers. Open ended questions enabled respondents to add some remarks and explanations. Closed questions on the other hand enabled comparison to be made. They could also generate frequencies of responses amenable to statistical treatment and analysis. However questionnaires have a disadvantage that, most of them may not be returned. The researcher therefore had to administer them herself and made a follow up.
representation and presentation of what needs be done and how to do it. The freshmen are inclined to follow the examples of the upper classmen and they want to be involved. This year we had 40 incoming freshmen, with 75% of them having their first SAE showing poultry at the Fresno County fair. Many of the students enjoyed their first experience at showing an animal at the fair. Several of them already talked about getting a larger species for next year to continue their SAE. We live in an agricultural area that grows mainly tree fruit. We try to pair our students with jobs in the packing shed industry or as a field worker harvesting or pruning the trees. Some problems we encounter with SAEs are that kids are embarrassed about the work they do. We inform them that any type of work in which they learn a skill in agriculture is an integral job and can be used as their SAE, even if their wages go to supporting their families.
and ICARDA selected durum wheat cultivars, Mesopotamia J.of Agr . MosulUniv.,Vol.33,No.1,pp.1-8. 6-Hassen S.A, 2015, Effect of supplementary irrigation on production of three wheat crops varieties in Mosul governorate of northern Iraq, Applied irrigation science journal, Vol., 40, N0. 1,pp.,91-114. 7-Awais et al, 2003, Water harvesting of traditional techniques to develop the drought environment, International center for agricultural researches in arid regions (ICARDA), No. 2, Elope, Syria. 8-Hassen and Thanoon, 2011, Management of supplementary irrigation of wheat crop in Mosul region, the second conferences of Technical Education in Baghdad, pp.54-58. 9- R.S. Tripathi, R. Raju and K. Thimmappa, 2013, Impact of Zero Tillage on Economics of Wheat Production in Haryana/India ,Agricultural
Another positive point in this area is the impact the public sector emigrants have. There is a widespread debate as to whether the income that the state benefits from them in the form of taxes is no greater than the costs that the state makes for them. Smith and Edmonston (1997) from studies undertaken in the United States conclude that the net impact is positive for the state budget. As far as the host countries are concerned, immigration has some positive effects. Among the most important are the growth of the workforce (which can boost the economy in the underdeveloped sectors) and the reduction of the production cost (emigrants enjoy and salaries that are lower than the sector's averages). In recent years, with regard to immigration, the term "brain gain", "brain absorption", has been widely used, which entered circulation from a symposium has held in Canada in 1990. Conclusions of this symposium noted that Canada it was gaining more talented people and more professionally skilled immigration than those who were losing through emigration (Roth, 1998). Given such conclusions, many developed countries have increased the visa quota for work towards qualified people. In 2000 Congress of the United States of America increased the number of such visas from 115,000 to 195,000 per year.
As fruit production is a multi-annual agricultural activity, it is more affected by global climate changes. To obtain high-quality products with balanced flowering and fruit set in the cultivation of fruit species, the chilling requirement, of which periods differ for varying fruit species, is needed. With the data of 4293 weather stations in the World, the amount of chilling exceeding 90% of all years was estimated using a dynamic model for safe winter chilling. It has been reported that in the warm and temperate regions, severe and potentially production threatening drops, and in cold areas, a rise in temperature can be observed (Luedeling et al., 2011). However, if global warming is analyzed in general, it has the potential to increase the air temperature in the winter period. These predicted temperature changes would have adverse effects in the regions where most fruit species, grapevine, and hard-shelled fruit production are common (Webb et al., 2007; Campoy et al., 2011; Luedeling et al., 2011; Pope et al., 2014).
significant effect on the environment. Declining water quality, loss of wildlife habitat, reduced biodiversity, and emissions of greenhouse gases are some of the major concerns specifically linked to agriculture. Contamination of soil, water and air, fragmentation of habitats and increased flooding and drought, soil erosion and increasing ices agriculture and land use. Well as agricultural ity. Intensive farming has serious consequences on the environment. Thus increasing concerns about excessive environmental impacts agriculture has led to environmental schemes. The purpose of this research was to examine factors environment in Southern Khorasan Province, East of Iran. This study used qualitative case study and purposive sampling method was nnaire. The results showed that factors environment consist of: Facilitating factors include motivations and profits. Health and safety, environmental, Ideological and philosophical and economic motivations are the most ng factors mentioned. Barriers to conversion to agri-environment include challenges and costs. Lack of knowledge, lack of government supports, fear of the future and production are mentioned as the most important challenges of the conversion to agri-environment. environmental context, examine the environmental statistics developments and future
The study was conducted at Awabel Woreda to analyze the market chain performance of bee honey. The area is known for its production of honey. However, market chain of honey is not well on market participants, the structure, conduct and performance of honey markets. The research design used for this study was cross sectional survey type. The data were generated by structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. This was supported by secondary data collected from NGO’S, bureau of agriculture and rural development, woreda trade and industry office, CSA, websites, articles, research works and review of cessors and consumers were the main actors in honey market chain. Quantity of honey passed through different marketing actors from farmers to Consumers channel carried the largest volume, which is 38.1% of the Consumers channel which carried about 21.9% of the total volume of honey transacted. Structure of honey market indicates four-firm Concentration Ratio (CR4), that is, the share of the largest four traders in the total volume of honey purchased. The four largest traders handled 38.4% of the total volume of purchased honey. This suggested that the honey market in Awabel Woreda shows a weak oligopoly market structure. In anism of the traders indicated that 57.4% of traders and 8% of producers set their selling price. Cheating was very common in honey marketing by manipulating weighing scale. Regarding payment strategy, about 100% of sample producers sold their ash bases. Traders took a total of 9% out of the total profit margin. The Total Gross Processors- Consumers (30.32%) followed by Consumers (16%). Therefore, the development of honey producers’ bargaining power through cooperatives is the best measure that should target at reducing the oligopolistic market structure and increases honey production in the Woreda.
In order to establish support from local businesses make a connection to why and how your program will help that business. The members who are developing the program should help them understand that there help will be beneficial to there community, schools, but also there business. The list of what needs to be done to address short-term goals for the program would be a main point during the meetings with local professionals. One person doesn’t run a FFA program and obtaining local interest will help establish support the program. Ultimately the support the local companies offer will go straight to the students of the program which is the most important step.
Work factors such as working conditions, salary, fringe benefits, occupational commitment, and work-life balance influence educators’ career satisfaction to stay in teaching. Brownell et al. (1994, 1995) stated that workplace conditions influence teachers’ decision to stay. Poor working condition is determined as one of the problems faced by agriculture teachers (Boone, 2007, 2009). Furthermore, salary is one of the critical motivations for teachers to teach (Crutchfield, 2013). In a survey conducted by Blackburn and Robinson (2008), 50% of experienced teachers identified salary as the main reason to keep teaching. Ingersoll and Smith (2003) found the main reason for teachers to stay or leave teaching is due to working conditions. Overwhelming workloads and excessive paperwork will affect the teachers to neglect education (Brill & Mc Cartney, 2008; Kersaint et al., 2007). Even further, the work-life balance will influence teachers’ decisions to remain in the classroom. Crutchfield (2013) studied agricultural educators and found that work engagement was positively associated with their professional life phases. Educators who have balance career and personal lives will have occupational commitment.
towards the Christians. In this book it is said that parents, in order to save their children from devshirme, often used to hurt them or to marry them, even if they were just 8 years old. This situation is expressed in a schoolbook in the following way: ‘Да би спречили одвођење деце, родитељи су обогаљивали децу секући им прсте или их женили младе, чак и са осам година, пошто су ожењени били изузети од данка у крви.’ (ʹIn order to prevent the taking away of their children, parents used to injure them by cutting their fingers off, or marrying them young, even at the age of eight, because married boys were exempt from devshirme’).(Љушић, 2012, p. 60) According to information from the same page, some parents were giving children voluntary for money in order to ensure their progress on the social scale. According to Ljušićʹs assertions (2012, p. 60) the children gathered by devshirme were taken to Bursa and İstanbul, where they were employed as slaves, forced to accept Islam, and then after learning the language they were being educated. (“Бирани према физичкој и интелектуалној обдарености,