Growing concerns about the effects of global warming among scientists, citizens, and policymakers have prompted federal proposals as well as some state and regional policies to restrict emissions of greenhouse gases from sources within the United States. Economists have pushed for a carbon-pricing policy as the most efficient approach to controlling greenhouse gas emissions, and indeed it has been incorporated in many proposals. Most have combined carbon pricing with other measures designed to accelerate adoption of renewable energy sources or reduce overall energy use by improving end-use energy efficiency. The failure of the U.S. Congress to adopt a policy to explicitly limit greenhouse gas emissions—and subsequent statements by President Obama that energy policy is now likely to be implemented in smaller chunks—suggest that policies to promote renewables and energy efficiency are likely to become the core of a more piecemeal federal climate and energy policy. This paper explores the potential of energy-efficiency policies to reduce demand for electricity and the associated costs of
PJM has then been looking to modify its ICAP system by developing a new methodology for peak load obligation, and by changing the month-ahead and day-ahead markets to a price-taker auction while retaining mandatory participation in the day-ahead market. Likewise, the ISO New England proposed a new locational installed capacity (LICAP) market since the capacity markets in New England were registering at certain times prices of zero while generation in constrained areas needed to be valued more highly (Davis, 2004). 32 The initial plan was to extend the day-ahead and real-time markets to include reserve availability bids. However, a primary difficulty was that the marginal cost of providing reserves in such markets was negligible (Cramton et al, 2005). The LICAP proposal included basing prices in demand curves for Maine, Connecticut, metropolitan Boston, and the rest of New England. New prices are to be phased-in through capped increments in a five-year period. These proposals were initially opposed by LSEs and other consumers since – in their opinion-- they would only produce huge transfers from LSEs to generators, without providing long-term incentives to increase new generation (Davis, 2004). However, the New England ISO abandoned the original idea of extending the day- ahead and real-time markets to include reserves, and proposed instead to price reserves in real time during shortages (shortage pricing) together with enhancing the forward reserve market for offline reserves. 33 The LICAP market and the forward reserve market then work as complements. LICAP rewards flexible resources, while the forward market provides compensations (based on locational prices) to reserve resources so that price reflects the economics costs of reserving supply.
After finding the optimal configuration using a dynamic model of a set of asynchronous motors, it is necessary to construct and investigate the dynamic characteristics of the transient processes of starting, braking, changing the load, and so on. On the basis of these characteristics, we can conclude that the system is static, by estimating the curves of the transient processes before and after optimization. Similarly, emergency modes can be simulated to test the dynamic stability of the system. In the program for finding the optimal network configuration, the boundary conditions must be introduced, for example, by the limit of the permissible voltage drop to ensure the stability of the operation of induction motors. In this case, if the optimal configuration of the power supply network proves to be unstable, the search process continues until another configuration, close to the optimal, is obtained, which will pass the stability test.
Electricity generation consumes 7.2% of the total gas consumed in Bulgaria, i.e. around 0.241 bcm/year or a daily average of 0.66 mcm/day. 5.7% of the electricity is generated from this gas, i.e. 2,228.69 GWh per year or an average of 6,106 MWh per day. If Bulgaria decides to lower its electricity exports as a result of a decrease in its domestic electricity generation, the cost of stopping electricity generation from gas would be equal to the loss of profits on exports. To calculate these losses accurately, we should consider the price of imported gas and compare it to the price of exported electricity. Because they were not available, these export prices have been approximated by the prices for very large industrial customers (cf. Table 8).
This thesis is about the electricitysupply in Latvia. Latvia, as part of the former Soviet Union, pretty much depends on electricity imports from Russia. Latvia should increase domestic production because availability of resources and materials at competitive prices is important precondition to reach economical development. Energy in general and electricity in particular is a vital resource. Many actors are involved in the electricity market such as electricity distribution company, the government, national and international organizations, energy suppliers, and private and industrial energy consumers. One of the main goals for the government is to ensure the country with safe and effective energy supply and to meet targets set by international organizations that Latvia has undertaken. The European Commission has set the targets for energy production using renewable energy sources - Latvia has to produce 42% of consumed energy using renewable energy sources by 2020 instead of the 36% the country is currently producing (Europe’s Energy Portal; 2010). It is large step and to meet this goal, Latvia needs to make changes in the energy policy in general and in electricity policy in particular to ensure goal attainment in 2020. It is assumed that many aspects of the Latvian electricitysupply need to be changed. The government is the main actor in the electricity system and it needs to find balance among expectations of all the involved actors; energy suppliers are using their impact in energy market by dictating rules in other policy fields; consumers are demanding predictable policy and electricity prices. In my research I will concentrate on institutional changes in electricitysupply, in particular changes that might increase energy production from renewable energy sources.
uncontrollably large institution continued, particularly amongst Conservative politicians. The world economic slump and electricity overcapacity which followed the 1973-4 oil crisis exposed more than ever the consistently over-optimistic predictions of demand in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s (DTI, 1961). The rise of natural gas as a major and very competitive energy source in domestic heating only served to underline this (Papadopoulos, 1981). Regular government overestimates of GDP also affected CEGB forecasts. Furthermore, the contraction of the economy and later cutbacks due to oil price shocks were not the only factors reducing overall energy demand in the mid 1970s. An emphasis on the need for energy conservation was rapidly developing at the time and was further boosted following the crisis. The “Save It” campaign was the most concentrated publicity campaign by a British government at that time, and the biggest energy conservation campaign before or since (Chapman, 1974, Chapman, Leach and Slesser, 1974). Unfortunately, this was largely a panic measure. It was thus ill-conceived, and has left energy conservation with a lingering negative public image. For many, energy efficiency still conjures an image close to “freezing in the dark”.
Regulators were asked to complete sixteen questions on actual levels and further twenty-six questions on standards of commercial quality. One question regarding the actual average response time to restore supply after disconnection is excluded from the analysis as it was open to different interpretations. Another question regarding the standard for responding to customers is also excluded on similar grounds that the question was somewhat ambiguous. In addition, each country was requested to de- fine in more detail the indicators of commercial quality in their country in order to aid the harmonisation of information received on actual levels. Information gathered on the actual levels and the standards which are in place can be found in Annex 1. Information was collected on the standards required from supply and distribution companies (rather than on the requirements of the regulator) and on the penalty payments in the event of non-performance of the required standards (where appro- priate). A further approach that could be adopted is identifying the characteristics of commercial quality important to the customer. This survey did not research the con- sumer protection policies and procedures across countries. Neither did it examine the customer perspective of the characteristics of good service commercial quality or at- tempt to measure customer attitudes and satisfaction. Information about the impact of liberalisation process on commercial quality regulation was gathered and can al- so be found in Annex 1.
Evolution of Malaysia ElectricitySupply Industry- The introduction of IPP had aided the TNB to overcome the electricity shortage issue and enlarge the electrical energy reserve margin. Since then, MESI had applied Single Buyer market model. Currently, there are 14 IPPs in the Peninsular of Malaysia, and the electrical energy is sold to the TNB on a fixed rate based on the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). The PPA which last for 21 years is signed between the TNB and IPP for the purpose of market risks protection. The restructuring is supported with the existence of Energy Commission (EC) which is an electrical regulator in Malaysia .
In the following years, the states in many countries tried to guide the electricity industry, regarding electrical power as an everyday necessity, instead of a luxury commodity. Further developments on the transmission grid had been observed, but there was a lack of interconnection between individual networks and also inadequate network control. This resulted in uncertain supply and large losses during the transmission of electrical power . After World War II, it has been addressed that in many countries, mainly in Europe and Latin America, the electricity industry was integrated into a single nationalised company, for strategic reasons. Such state ownerships led to new problems, since some governments were unable to invest in generation to cover the high-pace demand growth . Meanwhile, economic concepts were employed in the electricity sector in order to deal with the negative economic behaviour. The increasing economics of scale prevailed and the transmission and distribution grids were nearing completion. Eventually, almost all governments in Europe considered the electricity sector as a natural monopoly and small producers were merged into single nation-wide monopolies, placed under public ownership to prevent oligopolistic behaviour; France initiated this in 1946, while Italy, in 1962, was the last one. In many countries new entries into the electricity sector were forbidden by law, with the exception of Spain that had no entry barrier laws and some local competition also existed . During the following years, it was well accepted that the electricity industry is principally of a monopolistic nature .
The LSWG notes that potential routes to markets for CE and other local energy organisations do exist, such as by setting up a fully licenced energy supply company. However the requirements of becoming a licenced supplier are challenging for smaller organisations given the role of a licence holder in not just supplying energy to consumers but ensuring the continued operation and integrity of the entire energy system. As well as these broader responsibilities, the specific barriers experienced by smaller groups include: high start-up costs, legal complexity, and business risks. At present, only those projects that are able to supplyelectricity directly to the site on which it is generated are able to do this through a Power Purchase Agreement without undertaking the complex requirements and costs of a full supply licence. Alternative routes to market for organisations with embedded generation or aspirations to supply do exist, such as operating as an exempt supplier, operating a private wire, entering a white label relationship with a pre-existing supplier and Licence Lite (offering some relief from the high cost, high-competency industry code management requirements). Each of these options captures different values through exploiting different opportunities in the system.
I work on operating the Ishikawa Coal-fired Power Station (third shift). The power station operators conduct day- to-day operation and monitoring of the generating facilities and strive to maintain stable operation by quickly identifying any abnormalities in the equipment, taking responsive measures, and preventing shutdown of the power station by conducting on-site patrols. During the annual typhoon season (May to October) in particular, we work to ensure reliable operations and functioning as increases and decreases in output or even interruption of output can occur depending on the status of supply and demand in Okinawa Prefecture as a result of power
RENPASS is a simulation model that has been developed by a research group at the University of Flensburg. Using RENPASS, different pathways of energy transition can be simulated with a high temporal and regional resolution. The model calculates on a quarter hour basis the power supply in future sustainable energy systems, thereby enabling a 100% renewable energies system. The calculations of the fluctuating electricitysupply are always depending on the weather influence, and there is the need to ensure a matching of supply and demand for every point in time, so also controllable components, like hydro pump storage, biomass or compressed air storages could be used in the electricity system. The model provides, among others, quarterly-hour results about the individual generating plants, reservoir levels, power flow between the model regions and resulting prices (Wiese, Renewable Energy Pathway Simulation System - Manual, 2013). For this dissertation, not all these components were calculated. Only the normalized values for wind and solar were obtained from the model and used to calculate production, depending on the installations that were set up for the different scenarios (Wingenbach, Adaption of wind turbine and photovoltaic simulation algorithms of RENPASS to Portugal and Spain, 2014). These scenarios were defined manually according to some criteria.
applicant’s consumer installation as required of him under rule 47 of the Jammu & Kashmir Electricity Rules, 1978 in the presence of the applicant and his Licensed Electrical Contractor or his representative. Testing of consumer installation shall be done as per the procedure laid down in rule 48 of the Jammu & Kashmir Electricity Rules, 1978 and the inspecting officer shall maintain a record of test results in the format given in Annexure 10.9 as required of him under rule 47 of the Jammu & Kashmir Electricity Rules, 1978. If on inspection, the Licensee finds any defect (e.g. consumer’s installation not completed, bare ends of conductor/joints not properly covered with insulating tape, wiring of such nature that it is dangerous to life/property, etc.), he shall intimate the same to the applicant on the spot under proper receipt in the format given in Annexure 10.9. 4.30 During the inspection, the Licensee shall:
In a survey conducted by Marchat et. al. (2002) cited in (Yahaya, Salisu, & Uma, 2015) on Nigerian firms, it was found that 93.9% of the firms described electricity as their major problem while 97.4% of the firms have their private generators. The high cost of operating on generators caused about 800 firms to shut down only between 2009 and 2011. Therefore, the lingering electricity problem in the country is undoubtedly affecting the overall growth in the economy as well as the manufacturing sector. In addition, available statistics indicate that the industrial sector seems to be experiencing slow growth and one of the factors responsible to a considerable extent for this slow growth despite the policies and incentives is poor energy consumption (Ogunjobi, 2015). The manufacturing sector has always emphasized the need to improve various infrastructures, particularly, electricity which is in primary form of energy required for production. The major objective of this study is to empirically evaluate the impact of electricitysupply on output in Nigerian manufacturing sector. Specifically, it also determines if there exists a long run relationship between electricitysupply and output of the Nigerian manufacturing sector.
Western Australia’s largest urban areas are captured by the SWIS. The SWIS runs from Albany in the south to Kalbarri in the north, and also captures the Goldfields. This results in Western Power transmitting energy to over one million customers. This sophisticated network is operated by Western Power who is responsible for ensuring the safe and reliable provision of electricity to all its customers in the service area. The SWIS has a number of natural redundancies built in as the interconnectedness of the system allows electricity to flow via different paths to the consumer.
2173 | P a g e saving is the main objective. For per capita energy consumption criteria, BAU is the best scenario as according to its projections the value of per capita consumption of electricity in 2050 will be 3376TWh. Per capita consumption values in 2030 and 2050 though seem to be attractive in BAU scenarios; still it is far below expectations. To compete will the world standard we need at least three times the BAU value in 2030.
power plant in coal-burning process. However most researchers only give rise to the growing concern of the discharges and control methods of pollutants in coal burning process, not from the perspective of coal lifecycle, because of the high consumption of coal and high levels of waste emissions. Therefore, various measures have been taken to achieve better use of resources and energy as well as implement more sustainable practices in the coal-electricity system. Bates (1995), Uchiyama (1996), Restrepo, Miyake, Kleveston and Bazzo (2012) and Liang, Wang, Zhou, Huang, Zhou and Cen (2012) aimed at power plants in U.K, Japan, Brail and China respectively, studied the power plants’ influence on environment with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. Pacca and Horvath (2002) calculated Global Warming Potential (GWP) of coal, gas, solar power and wind energy power plants. Hondo (2005) calculated greenhouse gas emission in eight power plants’ construction, operation and retirement processes in Japan, using LCA method, process analysis and input-output analysis method. Kannan, Leong, Osman and Ho (2007) studied on five power plants and their influence on environment in Singapore from the point of power generation technology with LCA and LCC methods.
As well as with the supply of electricity energy, it can be influenced by several factors: number of generation units, installed capacity, power capacity, investment, energy produced, fuel consumption, the unit price of fuel, the energy produced per type of fuel, shrinkage energy and captive power (Statistics PLN, 2014). In addition to these factors, the supply of electricity is also affected by the selling price of electricity itself, fuel price, the level of technology used to produce electricity, and others depending on the characteristics of generating units. However, Eberhard (2000) expressed that the generated electricity and distributed to consumers can be lost technically and non-technically. Technical losses include the use in power stations, losses in transformers, losses in transmission and losses in distribution, while non-technical losses occur which caused by electricity theft. Further, several factors driving the supply of electricity consist of : fuel price, subsidies and renewable energy policies, technological development and structure of generating units, market design and market structure, market connectivity, availability of resources and security of supply (Ruoss, 2009 ; OME 2007).
Presently, Namibia’s only electricity generating utility, NamPower, also has the function of a single buyer and transmission trading agent. This implies that all imports and exports, and all wheeling arrangements that utilise the Namibian transmission grid are managed and controlled by NamPower. As the sole electricity trader, NamPower effectively purchases electric power from its own plants, i.e. Ruacana, van Eck and Paratus, and on‐sells power to transmission customers, such as the mines, the REDs, and a number of municipalities and water pumping schemes. In addition, there are cross‐border supply arrangements where NamPower supplies power at distribution or sub‐transmission level to Angola, Botswana and South Africa. NamPower has supply agreements with Eskom – largely modelled on Southern African Power Pool principles – that govern the amount, tariffs and general supply arrangements with South Africa. A new contract with Eskom has just recently been negotiated, but it no longer offers firm supply, and prices are escalating rapidly due to supply shortages experienced in South Africa. NamPower also holds power supply agreements with all its transmission and distribution customers.