Top PDF Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

Sustainable agricultural residue removal a b s t r a c t This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey data- base at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land man- agement and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop manage- ment zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricul- tural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.
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Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

Sustainable agricultural residue removal a b s t r a c t This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey data- base at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land man- agement and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop manage- ment zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricul- tural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.
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An investigation of sustainable agricultural residue availability for energy applications

An investigation of sustainable agricultural residue availability for energy applications

are important for certifying sustainable removal practices within NRCS conservation management planning guidelines, and thus ensuring reliable biomass supplies for biorefiners. The methodology developed by Nelson, 2002 was applied to a life cycle assessment of corn stover to produce ethanol by Sheehan et al., 2004. This study focused on providing a stover–to–ethanol system level analysis including collection, transport, and conversion for the state of Iowa. The Nelson, 2002 methodology was extended by including the CENTURY agro-ecosystem model (Parton et al. 1988, 2001) to quantitatively assess soil carbon impacts of residue removal. The scale of the calculations was county level, consistent with the Nelson, 2002 methodology. The study made the significant assumptions that all land would shift to a continuous corn crop rotation and no-till management practices. These assumptions, along with the implementation at county scale, were due to the computational limitations on the number of scenarios that could be investigated with the analysis tools being used. Residue removal was established using the Nelson, 2002 erosion methodology and the 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 90 year soil carbon values at the county level removal rates was calculated. The Sheehan et al., 2004 study found that for the scenarios investigated soil organic matter is maintained at removal rates determined by limiting erosion below tolerable limits. This study provided a life cycle perspective on producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa. However the coarse spatial fidelity and limited production scenarios investigated do not provide sufficient detail for cellulosic bioenergy industry decision makers.
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Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

bioenergy in the speci fic context being considered. Optimal options seek balance between the economic, social and environ- mental costs and bene fits as expressed in the common goals decided in the first step of the process and given preexisting conditions and constraints. The most obvious feedstock options often include agricultural and forestry residues that are already available or biomass that can be readily grown. Transport of the feedstock, storage, and use of the bioenergy product are all a part of the selection of feedstock and logistic options. Multimetric optimization allows for consideration of several alternative objectives and the tradeoffs entailed ( Box 2 ). The amount, type, location, and scale of waste production can be compared to other scenarios including “business as usual,” alternative land uses, and the introduction of alternative energy production systems. In view of the opportunities and constraints identi fied in step two, feed- stocks might be selected that reduce or recycle biological waste materials from other sectors within the region. For example, Muth et al. [58] have developed the “residue removal tool,” a down- loadable computer application that can help a farmer determine the amount and location of corn stover, if any, that could be removed from places within a field without compromising soil carbon content, productivity or erosion control. This spatially explicit tool focuses on soil carbon and does not attempt to assess potential costs and bene fits relevant to many other sustainability indicators.
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A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

Muth and Bryden (2012) developed an integrated model for determining sustainable agricultural residue removal using the model integration framework VE-Suite (McCorkle and Bryden 2007). The integrated model performs sustainable residue removal assessments considering water erosion, wind erosion, and soil organic matter constraints. Three models were integrated into the framework: The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Version 2 (RUSLE2) (McCool et al. 2004); the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) (Wagner 1996); and the Soil Conditioning Index (SCI) (USDA-NRCS 2012). In 2012, Muth et al. (2012) performed a county-level national assessment of sustainable residue removal using the model integration framework.
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Modeling Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal at the Subfield Scale

Modeling Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal at the Subfield Scale

As currently implemented, the tools require direct user interaction for each simulation scenario, thus limiting their application to a detailed scenario assessment. Scenario assess- ment is a time-consuming task in which data from one or more databases is formatted as input for one model, and then the output is combined with other data to become input for the other models. One way to address this concern is through an integrated modeling approach that takes advantage of the simu- lation capabilities of process-based environmental models and implements them within a modeling framework that facilitates hands-free model execution. Th is approach was used in a study by Muth and Bryden (2012) that investigated residue removal for the state of Iowa considering wind- and water-induced erosion and soil organic C as potential limiting factors. Th is study was performed using an integrated modeling toolkit that coupled the RUSLE2, WEPS, and SCI models with the SSURGO, CLIGEN (National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, 2009), WINDGEN (Wagner et al., 1992), and NRCS crop manage- ment template (ft p://fargo.nserl.purdue.edu/pub/RUSLE2/ Crop_Management_Templates/) databases. Figure 1 shows the framework for this integrated modeling toolkit. Th is assessment determined that under current crop rotations, grain yields, and tillage management practices, nearly 26.5 million Mg of agri- cultural residue could be sustainably removed in Iowa. Th e inte- grated modeling toolkit developed used political boundaries to specify the location and spatial scale for a particular assessment and then constructed the land management practices (i.e., crop rotation, tillage, and residue removal method) to be investigated. Th is assessment modeled sustainable agricultural residue removal at the SSURGO soil type spatial scale using representative slopes for each soil and used county-average crop yield and climate data.
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Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

The WEPS model consists of multiple executable components, including a java based user interface that manages the assembly of the analysis scenario and multiple FORTRAN executables that perform core model calculations. The FORTRAN executables use a set of input and output files to communicate with the java interface. The WEPS model interface built for this integration framework essentially replaces the primary functions of the java interface in creating and managing the input and output files that drive the core model executables. The framework utilizes the formatted scenario definition datasets from the Soils, Climate, and Management modules to assemble the WEPS input files dynamically. The comprehensive WEPS model wrapper distributes functionality between the data management modules discussed previously and the core integration wrapper here. In the case of soils data inputs, the WEPS model wrapper exposes a java library that builds and organizes the necessary soils data inputs. With completion of the data inputs as performed jointly between the data modules and WEPS wrapper, the basic model run parameters are set for the given analysis scenario of interest through the model wrapper. This includes building the custom WEPS run file, and establishing the correct command line arguments for the core WEPS Fortran executables. The wrapper then facilitates the parsing and distribution of results data for the continued analysis through the framework. Figure 5 demonstrates the basic process flow for the functions performed by the framework interface for the WEPS model. Within the framework, WEPS model iterations, including the exchange of data, construction of input files, running of the model, and acquisition of model results takes between five and ninety seconds depending on whether the model is being calibrated for a specific yield scenario.
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Forest Carbon Accounting Considerations in US Bioenergy Policy

Forest Carbon Accounting Considerations in US Bioenergy Policy

cumstances representative of the eastern United States, where most logging residues are produced and residue decay half-lives are generally 20 years or less (Zimmerman 2004, Russell et al. 2014), the use of forest residues that otherwise would have been left to decay typically accomplishes net GHG benefits within a decade when displacing coal-based electricity and within two de- cades when displacing natural gas-based electricity, even though wood energy sys- tems usually have somewhat lower efficien- cies than fossil fuel systems (Zanchi et al. 2012, Lamars and Junginger 2013, Walker et al. 2013). Longer times to see net benefits can occur in situations in which residues are normally left to decay, and the decay rates are lower (McKechnie et al. 2011, Repo et al. 2012, Lamars and Junginger 2013). Res- idue decay rates appear to be lower in parts of the Northwest than in the eastern United States, and burning of logging residues on- site is most common in the Northwest, fol- lowed by the North, the Southwest, and the South (Cleaves et al. 1999, Zimmerman 2004).
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Community versus National Financing - How to achieve a sustainable agricultural policy?

Community versus National Financing - How to achieve a sustainable agricultural policy?

tics. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/agrista/index_en.htm – (10) European Commission: Financial Program- European Commission: Financial Program- : Financial Program- ming and Budget. http://ec.europa.eu/budget/ faq/faq_report_budg_impl_en.htm#faq9 – (11) El-Agraa, A. M. (2004): The European Union, Economics and Policies. (seventh edition) FT Prentice Hall – (12) Elekes, A. – Hal- mai, P. – Vásáry, V. (2008): Long-term Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Vision. International Conference – Economic integration in the EU enlarged: From free trade towards monetary union, 16-20 April 2008., Institute of Economics, Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics, University of Wroclaw, Polen – (13) FAO (2002): FAO (2002): The state of food and agriculture, 2002. FAO Agricultural Series No. 34 – (14) FAO (2007): The state of food and (14) FAO (2007): The state of food and FAO (2007): The state of food and agriculture, 2007. FAO Agricultural Series No. 38 (15) Gross, D. – Micossi, S. (15) Gross, D. – Micossi, S. Gross, D. – Micossi, S. (2005): A better budget for the Eu- ropean Union, More value for money, more money for value. CEPS Policy Brief, No 66./February 2005 – (16) Gros, (16) Gros, Gros, D. (2008): How to Achieve a Better Budget for the European Union? CEPS Working Document No. 289/April 2008 – (17) Halmai, P. – Udovecz, G. – Elekes, A. – Papp, G. – Vásáry, V. (2007): The future of the Common Ag- (17) Halmai, P. – Udovecz, G. – Elekes, A. – Papp, G. – Vásáry, V. (2007): The future of the Common Ag- Halmai, P. – Udovecz, G. – Elekes, A. – Papp, G. – Vásáry, V. (2007): The future of the Common Ag- ricultural Policy. Manuscript – (18) Halmai, P. (18) Halmai, P. Halmai, P. (2007): Common agricultural policy, common budget? In: Jour- nal of Public Finance Published Quarterly, 2007/1 Volume LII, pp 92-105. – (19) International Monetary Fund (19) International Monetary Fund International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2001): Government Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2001
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Perennial grasses as sustainable bioenergy crops for marginal lands

Perennial grasses as sustainable bioenergy crops for marginal lands

Because the government proposed that 30% of the petroleum used in the US be replaced with renewable biofuels by 2030, the production of lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks is expected to increase (Milliken et al., 2007; Heaton et al., 2008). To reach this goal, the production of bioenergy crops will require increased production area, directly affecting land availability for premium food crops (Gallagher, 2008). Identifying and utilizing land areas that are not suitable for row crops, generally termed as marginal lands (Nelson et al., 1997), to produce bioenergy crops can reduce competition between food and bioenergy crops for prime agricultural land (Gallagher, 2008; Tilman et al., 2009). These marginal lands can have unsuitable physical characteristics in a poor climate, and can also include high salinity areas; waterlogged, marshy lands; or barren and glacial areas (Milbrandt & Overend, 2009), as well as be degraded and abandoned agricultural lands (Tilman et al., 2009; Shortall, 2013).
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PYROLYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE FOR BIO-CHAR PRODUCTION

PYROLYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE FOR BIO-CHAR PRODUCTION

Abstract: A horizontal bio-char reactor system was developed for preparation of bio-char from agricultural residues. The reactor was made up of mild steel of 2 mm thickness having diameter of 300 mm; length of 1500 mm. In this reactor, electrical heating element of 6 kW was wrapped externally throughout the reactor body to raise the temperature from room temperature to predefined set temperature. The study was conducted at three levels of predefined temperature of 450, 500 and 550°C and residual time duration of 60,120 and 180 min for optimization of temperature for obtaining the better quality of bio- char. In the present study char was prepared from pigeon pea stalk. The average recovery of bio-char prepared from pigeon-pea stalk was found to be 40.30%. Total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), and total inorganic carbon (TIC) of pigeon-pea stalks of sized Ø ≤ 5 mm (D 1 ), Ø = 5 to 7 mm (D 2 ) and Ø ≥ 7 mm
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Improving assessment in a comprehensive and sustainable way: infrastructure, strategy and staff learning

Improving assessment in a comprehensive and sustainable way: infrastructure, strategy and staff learning

• Strategy should involve gathering robust qualitative and quantitative evidence using, for example, student surveys, focus groups, student reps and curriculum mapping to really illuminate the overall student experience of assessment on a programme. This evidence can be very important in building staff commitment to change. Build on the imperative of student satisfaction but with better quality information about their experience.

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Effect of Corn Residue Removal on Subsequent Crop Yields

Effect of Corn Residue Removal on Subsequent Crop Yields

The stocking rates utilized were consistent with UNL grazing recom- mendations, which result in removal of half the husks and leaves produced (8 lb of leaf and husk per bushel of corn grain produced). The corn yields ranged from a low of 186 bu/ac in 2004 to a high of 253 bu/ac in 2009, with a median over the 16 years of 203 bu/ac. Recommended stocking rates would have ranged from 2.1 to 2.9 AUM/ac with a median of 2.3 AUM/ ac. The area harvested for determi- nation of yield ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 acres per treatment per replicate and was measured on the same strips of land each year. Grain was har- vested using a combine, and corn was weighed using a weigh wagon and soy- beans were weighed in a 550 bu grain cart with load cells. Each year, sam- ples were collected at harvest to deter- mine DM, and yields were adjusted to 13% moisture for soybeans and 15.5% moisture for corn grain.
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Improving assessment in a comprehensive and sustainable way: infrastructure, strategy and staff learning

Improving assessment in a comprehensive and sustainable way: infrastructure, strategy and staff learning

• Ensure plenty of formative assessment and dialogue • Help students ‘understand the rules of the game’ • Resist the temptation to ‘spoonfeed’ students • Help students develop academic and library skills • Capitalise on the potential of students to help one

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Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

The concept of sustainability is defined very vaguely in the literature, and this has led to lot of confusion and numerous definitions of this concept in various fields such as business management (Gallopín, 2003; Ivory & MacKay, 2012). In order to summarise basic elements of this concept, Ivory and MacKay (2012) explored the evolution of corporate sustainability and have critically reviewed the literature. They have concluded that corporate sustainability can be classified into two categories namely ‘sustainability business’ and ‘sustainable business’. “A ‘sustainability business’ focuses on the business contribution to global SD *sustainable development+; while a ‘sustainable business’ focuses on the business’ own sustainable development: that is its own survival and success” (Ivory & MacKay, 2012, p. 1). One of the very famous sustainability approach considered in the business world is triple bottom line (TBL) approach (economic, environmental and social dimensions) (Elkington, 1997, 1998), this approach falls under ‘sustainability business’ category as it is concerned about the global sustainable development. However, in this paper communities influence on bioenergy projects and its survival is studied, and this falls under the ‘sustainable business’ category. Such a focus of the business for its own sustainable development is also termed as ‘organisational sustainability’ (Garvare & Johansson, 2010; Johansson, 2008). Therefore, taking the above stated definition into account, sustainable bioenergy project can be defined as the project that focuses on its own survival. One of the most important necessities for a business survival (organisational sustainability) is profit, which depends on various factors such as license to operate, continuity of operation, market demand and raw material supply.
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Improving assessment in a comprehensive and sustainable way: infrastructure, strategy and staff learning

Improving assessment in a comprehensive and sustainable way: infrastructure, strategy and staff learning

Boud, D. and Associates (2010) Assessment 2020: Seven propositions for assessment reform in higher education. Sydney: Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Boud, D & Scoler, R. (2016) Sustainable assessment revisited Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 41 (3-4) 400-413.

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A sustainable supply chain study of the Indian bioenergy sector

A sustainable supply chain study of the Indian bioenergy sector

The work of Gold and Seuring (2011) presents upstream supply chain and logistics issues of bio-energy production. The research was carried out with an intention to identify “issues and challenges of designing and operating biomass chains that secure stable and competitively-priced feedstock supply for bio-energy plants” (p.32). The information for this study was collected through literature review. This article presents the assessment of literature initially, followed by the operational issues classified based on the operations such as harvesting and collection, storage, transport, and pre-treatment techniques and finally supply system design issues. Some of the important drawbacks of this work from the perspective of addressing the research interest of this thesis chapter are given below. Firstly, this paper does not deal with complete bioenergy supply chain instead it only considers upstream part of the supply chain. Secondly, this paper finds design and operational issues within different operations of the chain but it is not looking at the issues or risks arising from different operations impacting the whole supply chain (which is the focus of this thesis). Thirdly, this paper’s findings are based on the literature review and not directly based on the empirical evidence. Fourthly, as stated in the paper literature from “other regions such as Asia and Latin America are underrepresented” (p.34), which are considered in this study. Finally, the papers studied were predominantly related to the techno-economic assessments and environmental assessments while the papers from supply chain perspectives were lacking.
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A preliminary assessment of growth regulators in agricultural: Innovation for sustainable vegetable nutrition

A preliminary assessment of growth regulators in agricultural: Innovation for sustainable vegetable nutrition

Some questions that the research has raised and some future recommendations are mainly related to the importance of the balanced nutrition programme for sustainable management of crops. This has been defined by Liebig’s law of the minimum which is a fundamental principle in plant nutrition, this research has partially demonstrated the importance of this law on the overall agronomic efficiency of the crop (AE has not been assessed in this study. Furthermore, it would be recommended to follow the framework suggested by El Chami et al [11] who proposed a methodology to reached sustainable agro-systems based on a life cycle study [34]. Therefore, future studies will be intensified and will address these questions and will implement the methodology suggested by El Chami et al [11], towards the European “Farm to fork strategy” and the United Nations sustainable development goals.
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RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT. The current debate in relation to the French national sustainable development strategy

RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT. The current debate in relation to the French national sustainable development strategy

Sustainable development-oriented research also means research on Models, Methods, Tools and Theories The common denominator of all the research topics associated with sustainable development is their complexity. Research on molecules, cells, plants and animals, and ecosystems on various scales systematically comes up against this same difficulty. Use is therefore made of standard models, new modelling techniques that provide a simplified representation of reality (for instance artificial intelligence), increasingly sophisticated observation and processing methods and high-throughput analytical techniques, imagery, simulation and many other methods. One of the keys to technical progress is the ability to integrate data obtained through different scientific disciplines into relevant models. In all these fields, the rate of technical innovation in terms of tools is very rapid, and it will increasingly be necessary to adapt those tools and methods constantly. The increase in the volume of knowledge and the rapidity with which it is acquired will require an increased capacity for data storage and processing, exchange of information and data synthesis. For all these reasons, it is crucial to reduce the dispersal of research teams and encourage the development of international networks.
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Global warming and acidification potential assessment of a collective manure management system for bioenergy production and nitrogen removal in Northern Italy

Global warming and acidification potential assessment of a collective manure management system for bioenergy production and nitrogen removal in Northern Italy

Ammonia emissions that occur during manure storage, treatment, transport and land 298. application were estimated using the EEA Tier 2 methodology and a mass flow approach thr[r]

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