slaughterhouse carbohydrates, protein and lipids. They attributed their results to mitigation of inhibitory compounds, particularly dilution of fat concentration and mitigation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. The high CRI’s observed in this study for the RETAIL (1.68) and RETAIL:M blends (1.16) may be attributed to this effect as lipid rich baked goods (BG) were a constituent of both RETAIL and RETAIL:M blends. However, other high lipid content substrates did not exhibit such a significant kinetic synergism (i.e., BG:M and SEVICE (POST:PREP)). It is worth noting that BG and POST, although high in lipid content for commercial food wastes (11% TS and 19% TS respectively) have significantly lower content than the pure lipids or olive oil used in the Astals et al. (2014) study thereby resulting in less LCFA-related inhibition to mitigate. Another possible cause for the strong synergisms observed in RETAIL and RETAIL:M may be the supply of nutrients or trace elements from the co-substrates. Whereas, addition of a nutrient medium as cited in the BMP protocol referenced by Astals et al. may have masked this type of synergy. As a further example, combining BG with COF, both of which had higher lipid content resulted in a higher apparent hydrolysis rate coefficient (in the CAFÉ blend) than either of the individual substrates (k h,BG,COF =0.38 vs. k h,BG =0.26 and k h,COF =0.14) and a co-digestion ratio index of 1.59.
To ensure good quality and quantity of their products within a foodsupplychain, a well-planned and structured supplychain strategy is needed . The Fig. 1 is a typical foodsupplychain showing every player within the chain, it is essential to have a good plan in place to coordinate and manage the chain appropriately to ensure good food quality getting to the final consumer. Meanwhile, the battle for environmental protection has made sustainability i.e. the social, environmental and economic factors as one of the major criteria in the evaluation of supplier selection . The storage and procurement within foodsupplychain network either as raw materials or finished good to maintain their quality and keep their nutritional value is very important but could be so cumbersome , appropriate technology is needed to be in place to achieve this. Adequate temperature control is needed within any foodsupplychain for the fresh products to maintain their quality and keep every other natural feature intact. This temperature control has been reasonably achieved so far within the food industry using cold supplychainmanagement (CSCM) technique. However, full integration of the new industry 4.0 in this cold supplychainmanagement within the food industry will be a great breakthrough in enhancing the values of products in terms of cost and quality. The cold supplychain is defined as “the logistics systems of handling perishable agricultural products from the point of harvest until it gets to the final customer” . It has to do with procurement of agricultural raw materials and finished foods in controlled temperature process within a foodsupplychain network, it is needed to protect the integrity of the handled and transported products .
Production is the second activity that is important in developing SSCM. Environmental production can be achieved by using clean production method, new technology, and reducing raw materials and resources to reach low input, high output and low pollution . Lean manufacturing or the Just-in-time technique is the first production strategy that achieved environmental goals or named as environmental production (; ; ;  ; . Srivastava  asserts that “lean manufacturing is an important consideration in reducing the environmental impact of the production phase”. Liang & Chang  believe that lean production is helpful in improving environmental performance of manufacturers through activities such as waste reduction and minimizing hazardous wastes. King & Lenox  affirm that “lean production leads to improvements in environmental implementation and it assists organizations in reducing the marginal cost of pollution. Rothenberg, PiI, & Maxwell  identify that lean plants aim to minimize waste products and buffers in environmental technology and management. Recycling is another production activity that helps in developing SSCM. Baojuan  confirms that recycling helps organizations to improve the environmental image in front of their customers. Sustainable products lead to achieve sustainable in recycling for the products and some parts. Another activity of implanting sustainable production is reverse logistics , which is accepting products for remanufacturing and recycling purposes  . Economic factors such as reducing production costs also helped organizations to adopt reverse logistics . 2.3 Sustainable Marketing:
Towards the end of the study timeframe, the manufacturer company in this supplychain joined the international Sustainable Agriculture Initiative. This includes a commitment to source from sustainably managed farms. The dairy manufacturer states on their website that they are involved in a number of environmental initiatives, including the Dairy Industry Strategy for Sustainable Environmental Management, Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium, the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord, and the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems. They also promote their involvement in community capacity building programs in New Zealand but this was not evident in the South West. They do, however, provide a service of Best Management Practice advice to their growers in the South West which includes information on environmental management. This program is an important source of information to growers on company policies and a link to best practice information. Another important source of information and support on environmental best practice on-farm comes from programs such as Dairying for Tomorrow, which employs a local coordinator who has contact with most of the dairy farmers in the region.
Data from all our case organisations supports proposition RP2. We therefore conclude that comprehensively taking into account the population’s long-term requirements requires ingenious ways of leveraging enablers to accommodate these requirements and contingency factors. By refusing to use medicines which were considered safe by the government, Organisation C took the long-term needs of the population comprehensively into account. However, hard negotiations with the government were required until the organisation found a way to accommodate these contingency factors. Considering the needs of the population as well as the potential negative effect of humanitarian interventions on these populations, Organisation A had to think outside of the box and use its resources for drilling a new well, an activity totally outside its regular field of activities. Organisation D had to invest time in building relationships and negotiating agreements with the government, which is in line with suggestions from previous research (See e.g., Kunz, Reiner, and Gold 2014; Kovács and Tatham 2009), but is not the core activity of a relief organisation.
on organic food because people are willing to pay a premium for food grown organically. Sustainability can be a competitive advantage for many companies. If they can develop a sustainablesupplychain think of the money that can be saved by not having to dispose of harmful by-products, reducing obsolescence, decreasing the amount of money spent on scrap and the resources spent on adhering to regulatory issues from a sustainability standpoint.
Complying with Seuring and Müller (2008), our analysis shows considerably more win- wins than trade-offs between the three dimensions of sustainability. Once more, this optimistic view may be partly owed to the propensity towards positive reporting within business research. When considering the aim of overall supplychain performance, the relation between environmental and economic performance was usually focused in literature (e.g., Green, Morten, & New, 1998; Yakoleva, 2007). In contrast, the social dimension has been rarely addressed (Seuring & Müller, 2008). Seuring and Müller (forthcoming) present a grading of how the sustainability dimensions are interrelated: win-win situations are reached most easily between social and environmental goals, less easily between environmental and economic goals, and the least easily between social and economic goals. A meta-analysis conducted by Orlitzky, Schmidt, and Rynes (2003), on the other hand, point to a positive correlation between corporate social and financial performance. Newton and Harte (1997) generally criticize much of the business literature for overemphasizing the “easy wins”. They conclude that further-reaching incorporation of environmental objectives into business needs stronger state regulation.
For this issues, Government agencies, both international and national are responding to these developments by imposing new legislation and regulations to ensure safe and animal- friendly production, restricted pollution and to economize on the use of resources (Trienekens and Zuurbier, 2008). A food traceability system presents manufacturers with opportunities to follow a product and the processes it undergoes(Wang et al., 2009) Wognum et al., 2011). In addition, an efficient and effective traceability system transmitting accurate, timely, complete, and consistent information about products through the supplychain can significantly reduce operations cost and increase productivity(Regattieri et al. 2007). The Time Temperature Indictor Technologies in condition monitoring in the food industry provides effective quality contro of the temperature(Wang and Li, 2012 ; Zanoni and Zavanella, 2012). Moreover, Deasy (2002) stated that individual producers must reassess their handling of quality and traceability data for stretegic and competitive success.
Of late, consumers are more concerned towards food safety, quality, origin and authenticity for the reason of global food safety crises and incidents. Hence, this generated needs for more transparency in the foodchain and also guarantees the healthiness of food from the various features of quality information (Verbeke, Rutsaert, Bonne, & Vermeir, 2013). Indeed, a quality assurance system within the halal meat chain may change the civic and domestic coordination of quality towards an industry or market coordination of the halal meat market in non-Muslim societies (Bonne & Verbeke, 2008). Therefore, halal foodsupplychain is becoming well known as demand for halal product is increasing. This is due to the fact that Muslim population increasing yearly for instance in the year 2011, the World Muslim population is about 1977.24 million and it increased to 2013.62 million in the year 2012 (Muslim Population, n.d.) . Therefore, demand for halal food is also increasing as well as customers’ acquire for the halal foodsupplychain.
to be described as the activities carried out on agricultural products from production state to distribution for consumption. Fig. 2 shows typical foodsupplychain chart with key partners involved in getting food from raw material state to the table. Research studies identified the key characteristics of food SC as long production lead times, variable quality and quantity of the farm base output, variability in process yield, shelf-life constraints, transportation requirement, storage facilities requirements and variable season production . This agro-industrial and agribusiness sector is very important and promotes economy . Despite the relevance of this sector, the foodsupplychainmanagement has always been taken with levity and had never received the due attention especially in the emergent nations. The progression of the food product within these supplychain players requires monitoring, logistics and better transportation planning; this is what is referred to as the foodsupplychainmanagement (FSCM). Foodsupplychain networks can generally be divided into two types  in terms of how the food moves from the farm to the table which include; (1) Consumer-driven value food chains: direct movement of harvested agriproducts to the consumer without any alteration to its features, shapes, forms or value. (2) Commodity and producers-focused food chains: movement of agriproducts from the farm into manufacturing industry as raw materials for processing before it gets to the customer’s table for consumption. E. Sustainability and Sustainable Practices
The adoption of Blockchain can build trust by eliminating the opaqueness in the FoodSupplyChain. With this tremendous opportunity to revolutionize the food industry, many firms are still skeptical about adopting Blockchain. This paper aims to identify the various factors affecting the adoption of Blockchain by a firm and the type of effect they have (positive, negative, or neutral). A positive relationship is expected between the size of the firm, IT investment, and perception of early adoption risk with the blockchain adoption by a firm. A negative relation expected between the number of stakeholders in the supplychain and the adoption of Blockchain. Further research and analysis need to be conducted to bolster the hypothesis statistically. Organizations should understand the benefit blockchain can bring and strive towards the adoption of the Blockchain. Furthermore, future research should address the ways to overcome the limitations of the blockchain and attempt towards the adoption of the Blockchain by firms in the FoodSupplyChain.
Food safety problems caused by food quality problems often cause high concern from government departments and the public. As the core of the foodsupplychain, food processing enterprises should make emergency plans for sudden food problems in advance, and clearly define the principles and principles for handling problems. Once the quality problems of products occur, enterprises can timely respond to the consequences of risks according to the prepared plans such as actively taking remedial measures and conduct investigations on the causes of problems, holding press conferences, reporting the events and the latest findings of the incidents in real time, and having information sharing with consumers or the media. If it is indeed a business issue, the company must be brave enough to take responsibility and deal with the problem in a responsible attitude towards consumers. This will not only help the company deal with the problem before the crisis expands, but also regain the trust of
through food API then ingredients will be taken out by using barcode number. First registration. The registration form contains supplier details. Then login. Supplier sells the products to all manufactures what the produce. Then manufacturer .The manufacturer initially creates the account. They will analyze the raw materials and the manufacturer will request the quantity of raw materials to the supplier. The manufacture will send the product ID, expiry date, number of packets, etc to the block chain and then the created product will be added to manufacturer shipment. From the block chain the manufacturer will retrieve the product .Then the Distributer First registration. The registration part contains distributer details. And login. The distributer will be seeing the product in the manufacturer cart and then buying product by the distributer will be added to the block chain. At last the Consumer First Registration. The registration form contains user details. The consumer scan the QR scan by using the mobile app and then view the product in the mobile such as manufacturing date, packing date etc. The consumer will check the product and the will buy the product by using online transaction.In addition to the foodsupply chan management produce the details in the block chain. It is in encryt format. It willnotunderstandclearly to others.
Inventory of curd, lassi and other cultured product is maintained at 2-4 o c . Inventory of ice-cream is maintained at -20 o c temperature. Major inventory cost is incurred due to maintenance of such low temperature. A minimum stock level is always maintained to avoid any chance of stock out. Inventory is only maintained at the retail outlets to avoid supply on a daily basis. Outlets are supplied once in a week or twice in a week basis depending on their demand. The retail point owner gives his demand to the transporter or directly to company via its demand placing helpline. The inventory cost is directly incurred by the booth owner although this factor is directly included in the margin given to the retailer.
“Farmer-Supermarket Direct-Purchase” model is a new model of circulation that the farmers provide agricultur- al products straightly to the supermarket, food market and grocery store according to the intentional agreement signed by farmers and merchants . “Farmer-Supermarket Direct-Purchase “model is an innovation to optim- ize the supplychain of agricultural products in our country. In this model, supermarkets participate in the agri- cultural production, processing and circulation, using the advantages of market information, management me- thod to provide technology, logistics, information etc. services to farmers, which could effectively connects small farmers with big markets and play the role of driving the market. In the traditional agricultural products marketing method, the process between production and sales is complicated which can be expressed as the fol- lowing figure (see Figure 1).
Solér, et al.  analyzed the Swedish food SCM practices and found that consumers perceive information about the environment relating to food SCM distinctly and this distinct perception is affected by their location in the supplychain in relation to other stakeholders. Vorley  established that agricultural markets have undergone tremendous changes with wholesale markets replaced by closer SCM participants comprising of food processors, retailers and servicing personnel. Markelova, et al.  have recommended that petty agriculturists have to implement drastic alterations in organizing their producing and mar- keting mechanism to enhance their productivity and efficiency. Some of such in- itiatives may be adoption of sophisticated technology like spreading out pro- ducing processes, utilizing innovative means, enhancement of quality in pro- cesses, utilizing micro-irrigation mechanism and maintaining schedules of plan- tation and record of such schedule, quantum of plantation and expected produc- tivity and likely date of harvesting. Ardic, et al.  analyzed the global flow of credit to SME sector and found that a total of 10 trillion $ credit is extended to SME sector in the world and OECD nations account for 70% of such credit. The study has revealed that credit to SMEs work out to 3% and 13% of GDP of de- veloping and developed nations respectively. Pingali  has traced changes in Indian food habits during the preceding two decades and found that economic growth has transformed dietary habits of Indians which will adversely injure the interests of petty farmers engaged in subsistence agriculture. Adequate incen- tives and rational policies are needed to be provided for maintaining the livelih- ood of these agriculturists, integrating them to the world’s food market. Bhalla  have highlighted the positive changes effected by sophisticated technology in Punjab agriculture in enhancing productivity of rice and wheat cultivation. Utilization of upgraded technologies in the agricultural sector has increased deployment of non-agricultural inputs in the sector, leading to intersectoral lin- kage.
Supplychainmanagement (SCM) has been well known to influence the company performance in food manufacturing industries. However, the implication of SCM depends on type and culture of the companies. This paper presents the scenario of SCM in Kuwait food industry. In this study quality, time, information, flexibility, and integration have been selected as variables to predict their influence on Kuwait food industries. The methodology of the study was developed where five hypotheses have been proposed on the relationship among the selected factors and the performance. To evaluate the hypotheses, an examination through a questionnaire was conducted, followed by data analysis using Statistical Package (SPSS) and Minitab applications. It was found that out of five proposed hypothesis only two of them were supported by the analytical results. The accepted two hypothesis are related to the quality of supplychain and time management in supplychain to positively effect on the performance of food manufacturing companies. Oher three hypotheses were rejected. Information network, company flexibility and integration among the supplychain components were found to have no significant influence on the performance of food manufacturing industries in Kuwait. This study ranked the factors to prioritize to improve the performance.
An in-depth analysis of the selected papers shows us that there is a misunderstanding related to sustain- able practices that focus only on the environmental dimension. This finding can be related to the argu- ment presented by Carter and Easton (2011) when discussing the continuing confusion between the en- vironmental dimension and sustainability in general. According to the authors, the confusion can be ob- served in many papers. However, the finding relates to the argument presented by Ashby et al. (2012). These authors hypothesized that the environmental dimension of sustainability is substantially more rep- resented than the social dimension, as its principles and practices are covered more in the literature. Aiming to solve such misunderstanding, we highlight that the concept of Green SupplyChainManagement (GSCM) can be used as the concept that directly rep- resents a discussion of the environmental dimension in supply chains. In fact, GSCM was presented in some of the analyzed papers. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to observe the overlap of authors who discuss the topic (i.e. GSCM and SSCM) separately. For instance, some of the papers discuss SustainableSupplyChainManagement but use the concept of Green SupplyChainManagement as a translation of SSCM to Portuguese, which indicates that there is a lack of theoretical and epistemological alignment of these themes. Actually, a deeper understanding is needed. For GSCM and SSCM, it is necessary to reach an effective comprehension of the subject.
The growing consumer demand for local foods has prompted substantial innovations in food value chains. Such innovations pose new market partici- pation challenges and opportunities for small, commercial farms in the United States. In this case study, we examine these issues for CNY Bounty, a segment of a food value chain that gives farmers and processors the opportunity to benefit from participation in local value chains as an alternative to direct market channels such as farmers’ markets and community supported agriculture (CSA) arrangements. Our analysis suggests that CNY Bounty is an attractive option among distribution channels for participating farmers. This case study also underscores the importance of an intermediary in facilitating market coordination and value- sharing among chain members. However, the case also highlights the economic sustainability chal- lenges that CNY Bounty faces today. Future research should focus on the identification of appropriate policy interventions necessary to facilitate the emergence of value chains similar to CNY Bounty, and on conducting systematic studies using counterfactual outcomes in order to fully assess the economic, social, and environ- mental benefits of supporting them.