Top PDF Sustainable management of lithium-ion batteries after use in electric vehicles

Sustainable management of lithium-ion batteries after use in electric vehicles

Sustainable management of lithium-ion batteries after use in electric vehicles

To gain a better understanding of the scale at which EOL battery recycling infrastructure must be developed in future, Chapter 2 demonstrated a future oriented top-down material flow analysis (MFA) to estimate the volume of EOL EV LIBs generated in the near and long term future. Owing to the potential “lifespan mismatch” between battery packs and the vehicles in which they are used, both reuse and recycling potential exists for these batteries in future. In fact, there is a possibility that 37% to 43% of LIBs will be reused in vehicle applications itself. The commodity value of materials contained in the future EV LIB waste stream will vary with cathode chemistry composition of the stream. Cost efficient recycling processes will be needed for currently non-recycled materials like lithium and manganese as automotive manufacturers are transitioning to low cost EV LIBs. In terms of recycling, the actual economic value of EV battery recycling would depend on the LIB collection rates and recovery rates of the various materials present in the stream. Moreover, safe disposal of low value battery materials will be required owing to their large volumes in the waste stream. Due to the high tonnage and material variability expected in the LIB waste stream in future, LIB recycling infrastructure must be able to handle the scale as well as complexity of this waste stream.
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Performance Optimization of Onboard Lithium Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

Performance Optimization of Onboard Lithium Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

53 be used as energy resource to the grid at work places, public parking spots or charging stations. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles use large battery packs, containing batteries in series and parallel arrangement to obtain required battery configuration. Electric vehicles can now-a-days travel more than 100 miles with one complete charging cycle which is significantly more than daily commuting distance from home to office and back home. This allows us to look at the electric vehicles as the potential supplier of energy to the grid. Increase in the number of electric vehicles in the market will compel the grid to support the additional load. The charging time for electric vehicles is mostly during the nights. The grids have lower loads during nights as compared during the day. Also, the price of electricity during the night is low which helps to minimize the charging cost (H. Khayyam, 2012) . Hence, the grid load and electricity price could be regulated.
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Thermal Modeling and Optimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

Thermal Modeling and Optimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

114 polarization affected the high rate capability batteries even at high current load. The results motivated us to use the computer simulation to analyze the different configuration in an attempt to minimize the voltage drop caused by the internal resistance leading to a larger heat generation at the higher rate. In the model development, it is essential to define the adjustable and fixed parameters when carrying out the optimization process. We assumed a 20 second discharge pulse (16 A) is required to calculate the polarization and internal resistance of the cell at 4C-rate. Then we wish to optimize the cell performance at 4C through varying the initial SOC of the cell, the porosity (eps l ) and the particle size (r p ) of the positive active electrode material. Also, the model has calculated the energy efficiency of the pulse as a ratio of output energy to input energy. The other parameters provided in Table 5.2 or elsewhere in the study were considered to be fixed, including the temperature, film resistance, material properties, volume fractions, lithium concentration, electrodes and separator thicknesses. Thus, four cases are compared including the original cell design after 20 seconds discharge pulse application.
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A critical review of thermal management models and solutions of lithium ion batteries for the development of pure electric vehicles

A critical review of thermal management models and solutions of lithium ion batteries for the development of pure electric vehicles

Many experimental measurements have been conducted based on small cells at low charge/discharge rate near ambient temperatures, thus a standalone thermal model for the entire battery pack may not be sufficient accurate for predicting the thermal behaviour. BTM has played an essential role in eliminating thermal impacts of lithium-ion batteries, which improves temperature uniformity across the batter pack, prolongs battery lifespan, and enhances the safety of large packs. Temperature effects, heat sources and sinks, EV/HEV batteries, and temperature control should be considered before designing a good battery thermal management The thermal management strategies can be either internal or external. Limited internal BTM for lithium-ion batteries was reported which needs further investigation. BTM external to the batteries has been discussed extensively and they are categorised based on medium: air, liquid, PCM, heat pipe, or the combinations. Cheap air BTM is suitable for all cell configurations but the majority use is for NiMH battery packs in HEVs. Liquid BTM is regarded as a better solution compared to air and has been commercialised in cooling lithium-ion batteries in Mercedes S400 BlueHYBRID and Tesla Roadster.
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Analysing and evaluating a thermal management solution via heat pipes for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

Analysing and evaluating a thermal management solution via heat pipes for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

45 thermally manage Optima Spirocell lead acid batteries and control HEV components. Simulation and experiment results showed that a well-designed PHP system required the diameter of the heat pipe to be less than 2.5 mm and ammonia as working fluid. Wu et al. [159] suggested to use the heat pipes with aluminium fins to cool a large-scale lithium-ion battery, but difficulties in heat dissipation at the battery centre were found if no cooling fan at the condenser section was provided. Jang and Rhi [160] used a loop thermosyphon cooling method, which also combined the heat pipe with air cooling. Barantsevich and Shabalkin [161] introduced the testing aspects of ammonia axial grooved heat pipes to thermally control the solar battery drive, and Park et. al [162] obtained a numerical optimisation for a loop heat pipe to cool the lithium-ion battery onboard a military aircraft. More recently, Burban et al. [163] tested an unlooped PHP (2.5 mm inner tube diameter) with an air heat exchanger for cooling electronic devices in hybrid vehicles (Fig. 2.17 ). Steady state and transient performance with a hybrid driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle) was conducted and various heat pipe working fluids, inclinations, and different air speeds were investigated. Moreover, Tran et al. [164] proposed a flat heat pipe for cooling HEV lithium-ion batteries under natural and forced convection and highlighted the thermal performance under various heat pipe positions (Fig. 2.18 ).
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Lead-acid and Lithium-ion batteries for electric bikes in China: Implications on the future growth of electric-drive vehicles

Lead-acid and Lithium-ion batteries for electric bikes in China: Implications on the future growth of electric-drive vehicles

LI-ION PRODUCTION LIBs, whether for electric vehicles, electric bikes, and consumer electronics, are all produced using similar processes, described in depth in Gaines 2000. Hence, a single manufacturer can pro- duce battery sizes for a wide range of applications, from port- able consumer electronics to EVs (Broussely 1999). LIBs can be designed for high power or high energy depending on cell size, thickness of the electrode, and relative quantities of mate- rial used (Gaines and Cuenca 2000). High power cells are gen- erally smaller in order to dissipate the higher heat load. Both types use the same current collectors and separators. Lithium resources are abundant in China. As of 2000, they were the 2nd largest producer of Lithium in the world and in 2004 produced 18,000 metric tons (Ober 1999; Tse 2004).
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High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries for a Sustainable Transport

High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries for a Sustainable Transport

One of the key challenges to boost the progress of sustainable alternative energies and sustainable transport is the development of environmentally friendly, low-cost and safe lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with increased energy and power densities. To promote the large-scale diffusion of the low-fuel consuming vehicles, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and totally electric vehicles, the development of advanced LIBs with specific energy higher than 200 Wh kg -1 is necessary to achieve long electric-driving range. Approaches to increase the energy density of a battery are the use of high-voltage and/or high-capacity cathode materials, and LiNi0.4Mn1.6O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 are among the most promising cathode materials for the high theoretical specific capacity of 147 mAh g -1 and high nominal operating voltage of 4.7 V vs. Li + /Li. The combination with a graphite anode should yield full cells with specific energy higher than 200 Wh kg -1 . Despite their appealing properties, e.g. low cost, environmental friendliness and good safety, the major concern that limits the use of such materials is their reactivity towards conventional electrolytes, which are prone to decompose at high potentials leading to thick surface layers on the cathode and resulting in capacity loss. Since advanced electrolytes stable over 5 V are under investigation but not yet available, several strategies have been pursued to address the interface instability issues.
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Lithium Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment

Lithium Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment

Based on the range of Li-ion cell types, 18650 format cylindrical Li-ion batteries, prismatic Li- ion polymer batteries of comparable capacity to the test 18650 cells, and packaged power tool rechargeable battery packs with cylindrical cells were identified as the most pertinent for the analysis. These batteries are typically found in a host of different commodities, including, portable GPS devices, portable game players, portable DVD players, portable televisions, portable radios, cellular phones, music players, electronic readers, notebook computers, cordless headphones, universal remote controls, cameras, camcorders, two-way radios, rechargeable vacuums, electric razors, electric toothbrushes, and electric vehicles.
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Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries

Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries

OVERVIEW: A new generation of high-power lithium-ion battery for the hybrid electric vehicles are under development aiming the improvement of fuel efficiency and reduction of exhaust gas emissions in response to the worsening of global environmental problems. For Hitachi, this corresponds to its fourth generation of lithium-ion batteries and the group is currently investigating the prismatic shape. An output density of 4,500 W/kg (approximately 1.5 times that of the third generation) has been achieved through the development that includes use of a new manganese- based anode material, thinner electrodes, a low-resistance collector structure, and other new structural features. Prismatic batteries have numerous advantages including superior heat dissipation and Hitachi plans to evaluate the potential of these new-generation batteries for mass production by developing manufacturing processes while also verifying their long-term reliability.
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Model-based State-of-energy Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

Model-based State-of-energy Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

Abstract With the increasing application of lithium-ion batteries, the function of battery management system (BMS) comes to be more sophisticated. The state-of-energy (SOE) of lithium-ion batteries is a critical index for energy optimization and management in electric vehicles. The conventional power integral methods are easy to cause accumulated error due to current or voltage drift of sensors. Therefore the EKF method is employed in this study. A data-driven model is established to describe the relationship between the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and SOE based on the experimental data of a Li(Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 )O 2 battery. The dynamic urban driving schedule of Wuhui city in China has
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Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

Where V OC represents open-circuit cell voltage, IR O denotes Ohmic loss of the battery concerned with contact resistance, electrolyte resistance, I expresses battery charge current, V p describes the polarization voltage in respect of mass transport or concentration polarization and charge transfer or activation polarization of the battery. The open-circuit voltage can be obtained by measuring the terminal voltage after the battery left in an open circuit condition for a long time when got to steady state. The Ohmic resistance Ro could be got through battery voltage response data at pulse current. And the polarization voltage can be calculated based on Equation (1).
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Testing and characterisation of large high energy lithium ion batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

Testing and characterisation of large high energy lithium ion batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

• Another possible architecture is one protecting or managing module per cell. The modules can be attached directly to the cell terminals and make each cell “intelligent”. However, in high power and large battery systems, the current requirements usually do not allow having one disconnecting device per cell, because it would become too big, heavy and expensive. This means that all the cell management systems would still have to communicate with each other and with external devices. Each cell will require additional connections for communication and also for analogue safety. A central master module is probably required for sophisticated functionalities ad providing certain bus system standards such as CAN or RS485, making this solution less neat. Finally, due to many different cell shapes and designs, it will not be possible to have “one design for all”. However, there may be specific applications and certain market volumes or cell designs,
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Identification of dynamic model parameters for lithium ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles

Identification of dynamic model parameters for lithium ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles

The equilibrium potential is the open circuit voltage measured when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal in an electrolytic solution, thereby establishing the potential of an electrode. The equilibrium potential of the battery, which is determined by Nernst equation, depends on the temperature and the amount of active material left in the electrolyte. Fig. 2 illustrates the open-circuit voltage (OCV) as a function of SOC after charge and discharge at room temperature. In this experiment, the battery was first discharged at constant current of 30 A from fully charged state till 10 % of the nominal capacity (100 A h) was consumed. It was subsequently left in open-circuit condition, while the open-circuit voltage was observed. After one hour, the measured voltage was considered as equilibrium voltage since the rate of the increase of the open circuit voltage was negligible and hence the battery was assumed to be got to a steady state. The battery was subsequently discharged by a further 10 % of the nominal at the same current and the equilibrium voltage measured after waiting for one hour, and the procedure was repeated to obtain the remaining data points on the discharge curve in Fig. 2. The battery was then recharged at the specified current, the equilibrium voltage after charge could be obtained every 0.1 SOC. From Fig.
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Android Based Battery Monitoring System for Lithium Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

Android Based Battery Monitoring System for Lithium Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

KEYWORDS:Electric Vehicles, Web Based Application, Lithium ion batteries, On-board monitoring device. I.INTRODUCTION With the problems of energy and environment becoming more and more serious, electric vehicle becomes a kind of new, fast-developing vehicle in the latest years. As the core of developing EVs, the power battery packs are getting more and more important. Lithium-ion battery has been a preferred choice for the packs because of its merits in the power characteristics. However, the power lithium-ion battery on EVs have high capacity and large serial-parallel numbers, which, coupled with such problems as safety, durability, uniformity and cost, imposes limitations on its wide application. For reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion batteries on EVs, the battery management system plays a vital role with the functions of states estimation, cell balancing, thermal management etc.
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The Electrochemical Performance and Applications of Several Popular Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles - A Review

The Electrochemical Performance and Applications of Several Popular Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles - A Review

LTO 2.2-2.4 50-80 Wh/kg Comparing the operational voltage and energy density of these five lithium ion batteries, it can be found that LMO, NMC and NCA batteries enable the EVs to gain a longer mileage on single charge due to the higher energy density. LFP and LTO batteries have low energy density which means the EVs need to bring more battery cells to achieve the energy requirement. However, this results the increasing of vehicle weight, the mileage one a single charge still cannot be improved in essence. On the other hand, more batteries are adopted in EVs leads the Battery Management System (BMS) to face greater challenges.
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Thermal Management of Lithium-ion Battery Modules for Electric Vehicles

Thermal Management of Lithium-ion Battery Modules for Electric Vehicles

Conclusions A simplified pseudo 3D coupled electrochemical-thermal model for an NCA prismatic battery that can be implemented into the automotive BTMS is developed. The presented model featured a greater degree of accuracy in predicting battery thermal responses compared with the lumped or empirical thermal models. The non-uniform Ohmic heat generation and temperature distributions during different discharge rates are considered in the model. The verification of the electrical and thermal predictions is carried out by comparing the numerical results with experimental data from a 4Ah NCA prismatic battery. The model showed good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that the presented methodology can be used for the analysis of the battery thermal behavior for electric vehicle applications. During the high discharge rates, the Ohmic heat generation is dominant and the uniform reaction rate assumption results in reasonable temperature distribution estimations. The location and geometry of the positive and the negative current collecting tabs has a significant effect on the distributions of current density distribution and therefore the heat generation and temperature distribution within the battery. Temperature gradients along the battery thickness direction can be considerable even in the case of high forced convection cooling and should be considered in the design of any BTMS. The contact resistance between the cell unit components has been rarely considered in the literature. The model can be extended to include the effects of the electrical and thermal contact resistance between the cell components, and the effects of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer which can result in more accurate estimations of the temperature gradient, capacity fade and rate capability of the Li-ion batteries.
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Battery management system for Li-Ion batteries in hybrid electric vehicles

Battery management system for Li-Ion batteries in hybrid electric vehicles

The efficiency, safety and reliability of this system considerably depends on the accuracy of the SOC readings. Since the SOC is a non-directly observable quantity, these readings are the result of an estimation process, which can range in complexity from simple voltage-SOC correlation calculations to more complex stochastic filter- ing techniques. In less stringent applications, like portable electronic devices, where the power involved is smaller and the charging/discharging dynamics are slower and more predictable, the simpler methods can be successfully implemented. Unfortu- nately, these approaches are not viable in more stringent environments, e.g. when using lithium-ion based batteries in a HEV design. In this case, performance and safety requirements dictates the necessity for more advanced techniques, capable of optimally combining historical and present measurement data with a satisfactory model of the battery, and of adapting the model to the aging of the battery.
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ESTIMATION OF STATE-OF-CHARGE (SOC) OF LITHIUM BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

ESTIMATION OF STATE-OF-CHARGE (SOC) OF LITHIUM BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Storage batteries are used as a representative of the power storage system. Storage batteries in conventional mainstream was lead-acid battery. In recent years, high-performance lithium ion batteries are becoming the mainstream. The lithium ion battery has excellent energy density and also have better charge and discharge mechanism in comparison. Therefore, the lithium ion battery has advantages in performance and efficiency. Also, it is very compact. However, there are problems related to safety and degradation of lithium ion batteries, so management and control of the lithium ion batteries is important. Hence, determination of accurate operating parameters of lithium ion batteries (such as State of charge) is gaining more importance as these Traction Batteries are the major source of power and thus one of the most important component in an Electric Drive Vehicle.
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Life Cycle Assessment of Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

Life Cycle Assessment of Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

competitive conditions and irrational traditions and practices, this information is all hoarded up and salted down, kept out of sight behind physical and legal walls, to stay there. With this in mind, I have set out to produce this master's thesis on lithium ion battery cathode materials, with a little synthetic graphite on the side. My hope is that this thesis will count as a small but significant advance in our shared understanding of electric energy storage and its place in the great struggle against anthropogenic global warming. A golden age of battery application is about to commence. As Nissan, Tesla and other producers are churning out new electric vehicles at prices and with characteristics appealing to Western motorists, the need to properly map the impacts of lithium ion battery production is greater than ever. The use of
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Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

7 Summary and conclusions It is well recognized that the key issue in the design of a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle is the selection of the battery. The consensus view is the battery will be of the lithium-ion type, but which of the lithium-ion chemistries to use is still a major question. The selection will depend on a number of factors: useable energy density, useable power density, cycle and calendar life, safety (thermal stability), and cost. This paper is concerned with the testing and evaluation of various battery chemistries for use in PHEVs. Test data are presented for lithium-ion cells and modules utilizing nickel cobalt, iron phosphate, and lithium titanate oxide in the electrodes. The energy density of cells using NiCo (nickelate) in the positive electrode have the highest energy density being in the range of 100-170 Wh/kg. Cells using iron phosphate in the positive have energy density between 80-110 Wh/kg and those using lithium titanate oxide in the negative electrode can have energy density between 60-70 Wh/kg. The situation regarding the power capability (W/kg) of the different chemistries is not as clear because of the energy density/power capability trade-offs inherent in battery design. The power densities can vary over a wide range even for a given chemistry. This is particularly true for the graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it seems possible to design high power batteries (500-1000 W/kg at 90% efficiency) for all the chemistries if one is willing to sacrifice energy density and likely also cycle life. The data indicate that high power iron phosphate cells can be designed without a significant sacrifice in energy density. When power densities greater than 2000 W/kg for lithium-ion batteries are claimed, it is for low efficiency pulses. For example, for an efficiency of 65%, the 15Ah EIG iron phosphate battery has a pulse power of 2330 W/kg rather than the 919 value for a 90% efficient pulse.
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