Top PDF Sustainable management of lithium-ion batteries after use in electric vehicles

Sustainable management of lithium-ion batteries after use in electric vehicles

Sustainable management of lithium-ion batteries after use in electric vehicles

Additionally, it is estimated that LIBs after the end of their useful life in EVs would have 70-80% of their capacity intact, thus capable of serving less demanding energy storage functions in the utility sector (Heymans et al., 2014, Williams and Lipman, 2010; Neubauer et al., 2012; Neubauer & Pesaran; 2011; Cready et al., 2003, Narula et al., 2011 etc.). Several economically and technically feasible secondary use possibilities for retired EV LIBs have been identified such as transmission support, light commercial load following, residential load following, and distributed node telecommunications backup power (Cready et al., 2003). Additionally, collaborations have been established between automobile manufacturers and utility providers to test the technical feasibility of EV LIB repurposing and “cascaded” use for stationary energy storage such as those between Nissan and Sumitomo Corporation or General Motors and ABB Group. In fact, a recent study by Sathre et al. (2015) demonstrated that second use of retired plug-in electric vehicles in California has the capability of delivering 5% of electricity demand of the state in year 2050. However, as in the case of recycling, the cascaded use model would be accompanied with its own obstacles in terms of the performance, reliability, technology and design requirements, business models, as well as lower perceived value by consumers (Neubauer & Pesaran, 2011; Cready et al., 2003; Frost and Sullivan, 2010; Hein et al., 2012). Moreover, since LIB cells have the potential safety threat of “thermal runaway”, the cascaded use pathway can face additional regulatory barriers governing the shipping and collection of EV LIBs and siting of large stationary energy storage systems (Elkind, 2014). Overcoming these roadblocks and economic and technical constraints of EV LIB secondary use in stationary application can create a sustainable market of repurposed EV LIBs grid-based, off-grid and renewable energy storage applications.
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Study on Cycle-Life Prediction Model of Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles

Study on Cycle-Life Prediction Model of Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles

This study employs the exponential fitting method to calculate the parameters of the battery capacity fading equation according to the experimental data. The parameters were modified based on the principle of the revised Arrhenius model, and then the expressions of various parameters were obtained with the charge current and discharge current being two independent variables. Moreover, the actual experimental data were compared with the calculated values produced by the proposed model. The comparison results verify that this prediction model is effective and it can predict the tendency and rate of battery capacity fading accurately. The estimation error of battery capacity is less than 5%. This model lays a theoretical foundation for future production and use of lithium-ion batteries.
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A critical review of thermal management models and solutions of lithium ion batteries for the development of pure electric vehicles

A critical review of thermal management models and solutions of lithium ion batteries for the development of pure electric vehicles

BTM has played an essential role in eliminating thermal impacts of lithium-ion batteries, which improves temperature uniformity across the batter pack, prolongs battery lifespan, and enhances the safety of large packs. Temperature effects, heat sources and sinks, EV/HEV batteries, and temperature control should be considered before designing a good battery thermal management The thermal management strategies can be either internal or external. Limited internal BTM for lithium-ion batteries was reported which needs further investigation. BTM external to the batteries has been discussed extensively and they are categorised based on medium: air, liquid, PCM, heat pipe, or the combinations. Cheap air BTM is suitable for all cell configurations but the majority use is for NiMH battery packs in HEVs. Liquid BTM is regarded as a better solution compared to air and has been commercialised in cooling lithium-ion batteries in Mercedes S400 BlueHYBRID and Tesla Roadster. In addition, PCM comes to consideration for that it eliminates the need for active cooling/heating during the majority of operating time, but low thermal conductivity becomes problematic when it comes to battery cooling or preheating. Using heat pipes for BTM is relatively new and the potential of combing heat pipes with air or liquid cooling needs to be further explored. Finding the cheapest, lightest and the most effective solution such as PCM and heat pipe is important to provide efficient heat transfer at low power consumption, but research should be extended at pack level such that the impact of thermal accumulation from various cycle performances could be fully understood.
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Thermal Management of Lithium-ion Battery Modules for Electric Vehicles

Thermal Management of Lithium-ion Battery Modules for Electric Vehicles

A simplified pseudo 3D coupled electrochemical-thermal model for an NCA prismatic battery that can be implemented into the automotive BTMS is developed. The presented model featured a greater degree of accuracy in predicting battery thermal responses compared with the lumped or empirical thermal models. The non-uniform Ohmic heat generation and temperature distributions during different discharge rates are considered in the model. The verification of the electrical and thermal predictions is carried out by comparing the numerical results with experimental data from a 4Ah NCA prismatic battery. The model showed good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that the presented methodology can be used for the analysis of the battery thermal behavior for electric vehicle applications. During the high discharge rates, the Ohmic heat generation is dominant and the uniform reaction rate assumption results in reasonable temperature distribution estimations. The location and geometry of the positive and the negative current collecting tabs has a significant effect on the distributions of current density distribution and therefore the heat generation and temperature distribution within the battery. Temperature gradients along the battery thickness direction can be considerable even in the case of high forced convection cooling and should be considered in the design of any BTMS. The contact resistance between the cell unit components has been rarely considered in the literature. The model can be extended to include the effects of the electrical and thermal contact resistance between the cell components, and the effects of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer which can result in more accurate estimations of the temperature gradient, capacity fade and rate capability of the Li-ion batteries.
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Lithium-ion Battery Market Analysis for Hybrid, Plug-in and Solar-Powered Electric Vehicles

Lithium-ion Battery Market Analysis for Hybrid, Plug-in and Solar-Powered Electric Vehicles

with the challenge of coming up with other energy sources for crude oil and natural gas have led to the success of the battery market, most particularly in the EV and HEV business. The demand for ecologically friendly vehicles has risen so that different research works have gone into battery cells technology to produce electric vehicles and to support internal combustion vehicles to form hybrid electric vehicles. The Lithium-ion, Lead-acid, Nickel Metal Hydride, Lithium battery are a few types of batteries used as energy storage systems to drive EV and HEV vehicles. Selection of a battery is based on efficiency, cost, durability, performance, power, energy, etc. This paper seeks to examine and discuss the utilization of different secondary batteries and their use as energy storage systems as well as in EVs and HEVs. The Lithium-ion battery will particularly be the center of discussion in this paper, its role in battery market and economics.
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ESTIMATION OF STATE-OF-CHARGE (SOC) OF LITHIUM BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

ESTIMATION OF STATE-OF-CHARGE (SOC) OF LITHIUM BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

such as solar power and wind power are difficult to harness as stable sources of power supply because of their inherent uncertain nature. Electric power obtained by these power generation methods is stabilized by using a power storage system [1-7]. Storage batteries are used as a representative of the power storage system. Storage batteries in conventional mainstream was lead-acid battery. In recent years, high-performance lithium ion batteries are becoming the mainstream. The lithium ion battery has excellent energy density and also have better charge and discharge mechanism in comparison. Therefore, the lithium ion battery has advantages in performance and efficiency. Also, it is very compact. However, there are problems related to safety and degradation of lithium ion batteries, so management and control of the lithium ion batteries is important. Hence, determination of accurate operating parameters of lithium ion batteries (such as State of charge) is gaining more importance as these Traction Batteries are the major source of power and thus one of the most important component in an Electric Drive Vehicle.
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Android Based Battery Monitoring System for Lithium Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

Android Based Battery Monitoring System for Lithium Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

With the problems of energy and environment becoming more and more serious, electric vehicle becomes a kind of new, fast-developing vehicle in the latest years. As the core of developing EVs, the power battery packs are getting more and more important. Lithium-ion battery has been a preferred choice for the packs because of its merits in the power characteristics. However, the power lithium-ion battery on EVs have high capacity and large serial-parallel numbers, which, coupled with such problems as safety, durability, uniformity and cost, imposes limitations on its wide application. For reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion batteries on EVs, the battery management system plays a vital role with the functions of states estimation, cell balancing, thermal management etc.
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Testing and characterisation of large high energy lithium ion batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

Testing and characterisation of large high energy lithium ion batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

For the reasons outlined above it is essential to prevent every single cell in a pack from being exposed to any abuse conditions. This is important to bear in mind when designing test equipment and test procedures, as well as when working with the cells during testing. Electronic protection and management in order to monitor individual cells is required in the application or when testing several cells in series connection. Dangerous abuse conditions may also arise from either mechanical impact, from faulty cells or due to growth of dendrites, which could penetrate the separator and cause local internal short-circuits [71]. However, cell manufacturers and independent institutes conduct various mechanical and electrical tests including abuse conditions in order to assess the safety of the cell design (test specifications: UL1642, UL2054 and SBA G1101). Dendrite growth and separator penetration cannot normally generate sufficient local heat to start a thermal runaway. Low cell voltages or 0V at the cell terminals are indications for internal short-circuits and should not be ignored. Rapid charging should be prohibited in order to prevent sufficient local heat
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State of Charge Estimation Methods for Li ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

State of Charge Estimation Methods for Li ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

laid a path for automotive industries to adapt Electric Vehicle (EVs) as a best alternative for gasoline and diesel based vehicles. There are various kinds of energy storage systems used by different EVs which includes fuel cell, ultra-capacitors and Batteries[1]. In general, battery based energy storage system is a recommended choice for many EVs. Table-1 describes some of the importantproperties of different categories of batteries[2]. From Table-1 It is evident, Lithium-ion batteries are most commonly accepted by EVs because of its environmental friendliness, long service life, high efficiency and less self-discharge rate[3]. In EVs, the energy storage system is managed by a separate module called Battery Management Systems(BMS). A highly efficient BMS assure safety, increase reliability, efficient operation of battery pack under most critical and energy demanding condition. The main functions of BMS includes ensuring safe operation of battery, controls charging
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Surface Modification of Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Surface Modification of Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

The abusive consumption of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere and traps heat, causing global warming. With regard to these impacts, the development of sustainable energy is exceptionally imperative. Renewable energies will not have the anticipated impact unless we find an efficient way to store and use the electricity produced by them. Therefore, high-performance energy-storage devices with high energy and power density are highly demanded for electricity-consuming products. Electrochemical batteries have been considered as the most qualified candidate, taking into account the safety, power density, cost, longevity and efficiency, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are hitherto the most successful technique. The extensive application of LIBs not only resides in the vast portable electronics market, but also expedites the revolution of electrical vehicles. Although LIBs-driven hybrid vehicles are already commercially available in some companies, much more efforts are yet required to devote in order to achieve the energy density, safety and cost as the United States Advanced Battery Consortium Goals for Advanced Batteries for EVs – CY 2020 Commercialization has stated.[1-5]
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Thermal Modeling and Optimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

Thermal Modeling and Optimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

The EV’s performance is essentially depending on the battery power/energy ratio. The rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are still the most attractive proposition to be used in high- performance EV’s as compared to other types of batteries, yet its operation restricted within the safe and reliable operating temperature and voltage windows. The performance of the LIBs diminishes in higher temperatures quickly, and its power capability is very limited at low temperatures (<10C). The heat generation due to Joule heating inside the battery pack is much greater at higher currents. Therefore, a dedicated battery thermal management system (BTMS) is required to maintain the battery temperature within the desirable range to achieve the optimal vehicle performance. This research is motivated by the idea to improve a fundamental understanding of heat generation inside a battery and its effect on the battery operation, and assign a proper temperature control, and cell design optimization using electrochemical- thermal simulation.
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Development of Novel Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

Development of Novel Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

Currently there is significant debate in the literature concerning the dominant capacity loss mechanisms responsible for the continuing poor performance of Al nanostructured anodes. Firstly the volumetric expansion and contraction of intermetallic alloy formation and dissolution can impair stability of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer present on the anode surface [29]. The SEI layer is formed initially from partial irreversible reduction and decomposition of the electrolyte. In graphitic anodic materials the volumetric expansion for lithiation is low at around 6% [3], resulting in minimal growth or change of the SEI layer beyond the first cycle. In Al like in other metal-alloying anodes such as Si the much larger volume changes can partially destroy the SEI layer present upon delithiation [29]. With continued expansion and contraction of cycling this will expose fresh Al material for continuous formation of thick SEI layers, causing significant permanent loss of lithium from the electrolyte. Secondly there is the pulverization of the active LiAl material [14, 19], which is considered by many to be the dominant failure mechanism in Al nanostructures because it is consistently observed in Li-Si and Li-Sn intermetallic alloy active materials. The progression of pulverization in Al anodes has been intensely studied through in-situ TEM of Al nanowires (NW) during repeated lithiation-delithiation cycles, shown in the series of images in Fig. 2-3-7 [19]. Fig. (a) shows a schematic illustration of the in-situ experimental setup. Fig (b) shows a pristine Al NW with diameter of 40 nm contacted with the Li 2 O/Li electrode to form an
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Advancements in Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium ion Batteries

Advancements in Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium ion Batteries

Most of the researches are performed on these materials and their derivatives. New structure intercalation materials such as silicates, borates and tavorites are also gaining increasing attentions in recent years. During the materials optimization and development, following designing criterions are often considered: energy density; rate capability; cycling performance; safety; cost. The energy density is determined by the material’s reversible capacity and operating voltage, which is mostly determined by the material intrinsic chemistry such as the effective redox couples and maximum lithium concentration in active materials. For rate capability and cycling performances, electronic and ionic motilities are key determining factors, though particle morphologies are also important factors due to the anisotropic nature of the structures and are even playing a crucial role in some cases. Therefore materials optimizations are usually made from two important aspects, to change the intrinsic chemistry and to modify the morphology (surface property, particle size, etc.) of the materials. The materials with promising theoretical properties have high potentials as the candidates of future generation LIB cathode, therefore are under intensive studies. For certain materials such as the LiFePO 4 olivine, significant property improvements have been achieved
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CuSbS2 Nanobricks as Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

CuSbS2 Nanobricks as Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

electrochemical reactions, which is similar to the ternary sulphides by B. Qu et al.'s reported [22]. A sharp peak at ~1.2 V accompanied by two small humps between 0.5 V and 0.75 V are observed in the first cathodic scan (insertion of Li + ), While in the anodic scan (extraction of Li + ) exhibits a relatively sharp peak at ~1.15 V followed by a small shoulder at ~1.75 V. In the second cycle, the reductive peak near 1.2 V is much lower than the initial one, suggesting a irreversible reaction may exist in this position, which is the main reason of capacity fading, but the other peaks still remain with just slight shift. The CV analysis is in excellent agreement with the result obtained from charge-discharge curves. Additionally, the ex situ XRD on CuSbS 2 were performed on the electrodes after discharged
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Peridynamic modelling of fracture in marine lithium-ion batteries

Peridynamic modelling of fracture in marine lithium-ion batteries

Two multiple crack battery plate specimens with 6 cracks and 11 cracks are chosen to represent two different damage situations after several battery cycling (Fig 9a and Fig. 10a). Each crack has a 10% of specimen length and is randomly located at the central plate. As lithium ions diffuse into the crack tip regions, hydrostatic stress increase dramatically at the crack tips. Hence, some inner cracks merge into a larger crack (Fig. 9b and Fig. 10b) according to Eq. 1 and Eq. 11. However, other cracks especially those surrounded by the larger crack almost do not propagate. Once small cracks merge into a larger crack, hydrostatic stress at the crack tip regions reduces which may be the reason that the remaining small cracks stop propagating. In other words, the newly formed large crack doesn’t allow the small cracks to propagate. On the other hand, outer crack tips of the larger crack are not affected by other cracks and propagate towards to the high concentration region. Hence, the concentration at outer crack tip region becomes higher than surrounding regions according to Eq. 1 (Fig. 9d and Fig.10d).
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Hectorite-Based Nanocomposite Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Hectorite-Based Nanocomposite Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

lithium hectorite was mixed using a Silverson high-shear mixer into a solution of 40 g deionized water + 40 g EC or PC. The majority of the water was removed by drying the resulting gel at 100°C in a conventional oven for approximately two days. The gel was then dried in a vacuum oven at 120°C for approximately 1 hour. Care was taken not to remove too much of the carbonate, otherwise the hectorite particles would aggregate and require the addition of more water to redisperse. The maximum concentration appears to be approximately 50-60 wt. % lithium hectorite before significant aggregation occurs. Qualitatively, significant aggregation occurs when the composite is no longer translucent. The concentrated hectorite/carbonate was transferred to an argon atmosphere glove box where it was diluted with dry (< 30 ppm water) EC or PC to approximately 20-30 wt. % hectorite and hand mixed well. The concentrate was transferred back to the vacuum oven and dried again, diluted with EC or PC, and vacuum dried once more (three vacuum drying cycles total). The resulting concentrate composition was approximately 50 wt. % lithium hectorite with a water content of approximately 200-300 ppm. Composite electrolytes of various wt. % hectorite were made from the concentrated PC or EC based lithium hectorite composites. Equivalent lithium-ion molar concentrations are reported for these systems and are based on the total moles of exchangeable cations (complete exchange of Li + for Na + is assumed) per liter of solvent. All sample preparation and cell
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TiO2-Modified Spinel Lithium Manganate for Suppressing Mn Ion Dissolution in Lithium Ion Batteries

TiO2-Modified Spinel Lithium Manganate for Suppressing Mn Ion Dissolution in Lithium Ion Batteries

Then, the cells were cycled at a constant current of 10 C. From the data illustrated in Figure 6, Both at room temperature (Figure 6a) and at elevated temperature (Figure 6b), good cycling stability is demonstrated for the TLMO-based LIBs, which further proves the stability of the cathode material after modification. Furthermore, comparing the data in Figure 4b and Figure 6a, when the rate is increased, the capacity decreased dramatically, and the same conclusion can also be drawn from the data at 55 °C in Figure 5 and Figure 6b. The results imply that, at high rate, the charging time is short, the Li + transport channels are limited and the amount of Li + intercalation into the anode is far from the maximum capacity [40]. Meanwhile, the capacity at 55 °C is higher than that at room temperature. The results indicate that an elevated temperature does not accelerate Mn dissolution compared with the increased transport rate of Li + for the core-shell structured spinel cathode, which demonstrates the excellent performance of the material.
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Two-step Synthesis of LiVP2O7/C for Use as Cathode Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Two-step Synthesis of LiVP2O7/C for Use as Cathode Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries

The ongoing energy crisis and environmental pollution are arguably two of the greatest challenges faced by society today. To solve these problems, it is imperative to develop novel clean and renewal secondary energy sources. As a recyclable green energy source, lithium-ion batteries are attracting ever-increasing attention and have already found wide applicability [1, 2]. The performance and production cost of the cathode material, which is the primary component of lithium-ion batteries, directly determines their suitability for various applications. Therefore, it is critical to develop suitable cathode materials [3, 4]. At present, the commercial cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries include LiCoO 2 [5, 6], LiMn 2 O 4 [7, 8] , and LiFePO 4 [9, 10]. Based on the properties of LiFePO 4 , other
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Synthesis and Characterization of Maghemite as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Synthesis and Characterization of Maghemite as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Different nanostructures of magnetite, maghemite, and hematite have been synthesized to boost their electrochemical properties. However, most of these methods use multi-step and complicated processes to synthesize iron oxide. In our previous study[20], we showed that thermal decomposition of iron-urea complex in air results in coexistence of hematite and maghemite in synthesized powder. In this work, maghemite was synthesized with oxidation of derived magnetite from thermal decomposition of iron-urea complex in argon. Moreover, nano-sized maghemite as an anode for lithium-ion battery were investigated.
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Preparation of RGO/NiO Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries

Preparation of RGO/NiO Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries

As an efficient and stable energy storage device, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become an important part of today’s society and are widely used in production and life. The research on the performance of LIBs is also widely concerned by researchers. The electrode material that plays a decisive role in the performance of the battery is our key research object, and many kinds of new negative electrode materials have been explored. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a type of coordination polymers that have attracted wide attention in recent years [1-2]. With MOFs as the precursor, porous metal oxides and porous carbon materials with a controllable structure can be obtained. As electrode materials, they can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of batteries. Therefore, MOFs have become the preferred material of our new electrode materials. In this paper, hydrothermal method is adopted to prepare spherical porous Ni-MOFs material, which is calcined into metal oxide NiO material, and then its electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance are improved on the basis of retaining spherical pore structure. At the constant current density of 1C, the reversible capacity of NiO material maintains stably at 160mAh/g and the coulomb efficiency reaches 97.12% at 200 circles. In this paper, Ni-MOFs is synthesized with graphene oxide (GO) to generalize GO/Ni-MOFs material, and then it is transformed into reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to obtain RGO/NiO. RGO acts as a soft protective layer of active substances, which greatly improves the structural stability of the electrode during charging and discharging process. At the constant current density of 1C and at 200 circles, the reversible capacity reaches 440mAh/g, the coulomb efficiency reaches 99.49%, and its multiplying power and impedance performance are also very out.
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