Dass is located on the basement complex rocks of the North Central Highland. It is characterised by plutonic rocks that solidified at some depth within the earth’s crust. Solidification of the rock was slow, forming large crystals of rock of coarse grain size. The granite, gabbros, migmatite, gneisses and diorite that are seen on the surface in the study area are now exposed to the surface by denudation activities and erosion. Many private wells in the area obtain water mainly shallow wells ranging between (2.6 – 5.0) metres deep. Similarly, disposal of human and related household refuse into latrines and waste disposal pits are also done in shallow pit. Unfortunately, considerable population of the people in the area depend on this shallow and mineral deficient source of groundwater for general domestic use and consumption (Nyanganji et al, 2011).
The science of environmentalmanagement is one of the areas of great interest in the present millennium. It deals with the whole concept of the environment, its characteristics, resources, and effective exploitation for the benefit of man. The environment offers unlimited opportunities for socio-economic development through effective exploration and exploitation of the available resources and purposeful utilization of the proceeds in developmental projects. However, in developingcountries, environmentalmanagement is subject to various limitation and draw – backs. Consequently these countries continues to grapple with the challenges of climate change and its impacts, food security, population explosion, pest infestation, communicablediseases as well as pollution, contamination and environmental sustainability. The overall effects are poverty, low living standard, poor health, inadequate housing, high level of unemployment and under- employment, low agricultural productivity, technological backwardness and poor socio-economic development. Against the above background, it becomes pertinent to carry out an investigation on the essence and methods of effective environmentalmanagement, its socio-economic implications and the problems militating effective utilization of environmental resources in developingcountries, hence this research. The work is a descriptive survey and the investigation revealed that lack of knowledge and proper planning in environmental issues, lack of executive capacity, technical know-how and political will as well as inadequate funding and socio-cultural inclinations are some of the factors limiting effective environmentalmanagement in developingcountries. It is therefore recommended that adequate budgetary provisions be made for funding research on environmentalmanagement, capacity building and human development.
Developingcountries are under pressure to deal with a variety of environmental problems, such as industrial pollution, urban environmental issues, the deterioration of ecosystems, and global warming, while they are expected to simultaneously achieve high economic growth. In this context, they urgently need to leapfrog over environmental difficulties through progressive environmentalmanagement and technology by utilizing their “latecomers’ advantages” to the maximum extent possible. By utilizing the analytical framework of the environmental Kuznets curve (EK curve), this study examines whether or not developingcountries actually enjoy latecomers’ advantages in environmentalmanagement and technology, depending on their stages of development. The study’s main findings are as follows: (1) regional analysis focusing on selected East Asian countries shows that both the EK curve trajectories and observed facts are generally consistent with the hypothesis that developingcountries do enjoy latecomers ’ advantages; and (2) a regression analysis using cross-sectional data provides significant confirmation of the existence of latecomers’ advantages for addressing the well known environmental problem of sulfur emissions.
sustainability interests in development projections started in 1969 with the United States’ National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since then, several countries have successfully implemented the EIA process. As an environmentalmanagement tool, EIA has proven more effective than other tools like risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis and is the only tool that is enforceable by law  .
It is usually argued that such countries as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan which have increased their agricultural productivity achieved it on a cultural foundation of paddy farming implying that the indigenous farmers were ab initio well skilled. In Nigeria like in many other countries of Africa some hydrologists have argued that there is less of a tradition of irrigation agriculture and that the intensification of small scale farming through irrigation schemes may consequently take more time. As a result fund may be better spent on improving rain fed agriculture. But this might also be misleading as a basis for formulating water resources and agricultural development policies. No wonder Barrow (1987) has warned also that "population pressure" is far from being a unique significant stimulus to "grass root" agricultural improvement, hunger and poverty reduction than sustainablewater resources management in the face of changing climate.
Environmental hazards are requiring humans to change their behaviour and decision making criteria, as they gain relevance at an increasing pace. We had to forgo the comforting idea that “natural systems fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability”(Milly et al., 2008). As concerns environ- mental hazards, responses are typically characterised dichotomously: adap- tation and/or mitigation (IPCC, 2014), with the implementation of one not excluding the other’s. On the one hand, humans may (and do) adapt to a changing climate, reducing their exposure to the ensuing harm. This includes responding to abnormal hot or cold temperatures, adopting new agricultural techniques to cope with the impoverishment of soil, creating artificial snow in ski resorts, and much more (for a broad review on many other forms of adaptation, see Tompkins et al., 2010). On the other hand, humans may (and do) try to tackle the problem at its source and combat the causes of in- creased environmental risks. Efficient watermanagement, restoration of soil, substitution of fossil fuels with agricultural by-products are some of the mit- igation techniques currently under study for the agricultural sector (Smith et al., 2007). These strategies not only reduce the environmental hazards for the adopter, but for all agents, thus generating a positive externality to other agents. With respect to mitigation strategies, adaptation does not aim to reduce the problem, but rather to avoid at least part of its adverse affects. At times, this is done at the expense of other agents, i.e. adaptation strategies may generate negative externalities. For instance, a farmer suffering from reduced plot productivity due to soil degradation may decide to raze a forest area to expand her plot and compensate for her loss of income. However, in this way she is further contributing to the problem of soil erosion and to the general loss of regenerative capacity of the ecosystem. When a strategy is such that it worsen environmental hazards for everyone else or it dispro- portionally affects the most vulnerable, the literature defines it no more as adaptation, but rather as maladaptation (Barnett and O’Neill, 2010). We here study maladaptive and mitigation strategies and illustrate how global externalities lead to over-adoption of the former and under-adoption of the latter.
link upstream sources with downstream consequences. There is now a vast array of public domain and proprietary mathematical models for predicting chemical transport through aquatic systems . Typically, such models are constrained by the variables contained in the model, and usually have limited or no ability to add, reject or change these variables or processes. The working assumption by agencies or their consultants must be that the selected model is a realistic reflection of the variables and processes that apply to their situation. Usually there is no way to test this, especially when used by individuals who have little understanding of the assumptions and limitations of the model nor of the relevant environmental science. Once the model is chosen the modelled environment is forced into the constraints of the chosen model. Proprietary models owned by some consulting firms may be even more limiting in that the proprietary model may be the model of choice irrespective of better alternatives. Often the contracting agency, whether a national institution or an international financial institution, has not the experience to determine whether the approach recommended by the consultant is appropriate or not.
pollution and the water was being tapped from deeper aquifer across the city and this resulted in decrease or fall in the piezometric head of the deeper aquifer .Urbanization is based on the economic change mainly and in particular the growth of secondary and tertiary occupation in urban areas . With the high pace of social and economic development in world, the constant growth of population with increasing urbanization are leading to immense environmental degradation along with shortage of productive green lands and uncontaminated water. Urban pressure in watersheds involve denudation by removal of vegetation, alterations in land use due to construction of buildings, streets, re-routing of surface runoff by storm sewers and detention/retention basins. Such changes have resulted in the expansion of the watershed total impervious area which reduces the infiltration and surface storage of precipitation, thus increasing the surface water runoff .Movement of water i.e. runoff and wastewaters in urban environment which are reason of flooding in different systems and ultimately discharged treated partially in water body is shown below in fig.1 .
26 This definition contains two key concepts within it. The concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs (Kuhlman and Farrington, 2010). The core of sustainability is more extensive than just the environmental dimension since there is also a need to ensure a strong, healthy and fair society. This means meeting the diverse needs of all people in existing and future communities, promoting personal wellbeing, social cohesion and inclusion, and creating equal opportunity (Tetratech, 2010). These explanations clarify that effective management of the environment, the economy, and society is required to achieve sustainable development (Claasen et.al. 2011). As such the environmental, economic and social dimensions are inextricably linked and widely adopted as a conceptual model. The economic dimension accommodates the growth and development of a country and in the case of water resources, examines water demand projections comparatively, while taking into consideration factors such as drought (Claasen et.al. 2011). The environmental dimension touches on environmental protection being an integral part of ensuring sustainable development. The economic dimension has a high status as it is supported in many countries. The social dimension focuses on the well-being of the human aspect, which recognises the links between the environmental and economic dimensions (Claasen et.al. 2011). This dimension addresses issues such as poverty and underdevelopment.
Copyright to IJIRSET www.ijirset.com 13839 generally ignored, is the associated high levels of contamination. This occurs in networks where there are prolonged periods of interruption of supply due to negligible or zero pressures in the system (Vairavamoorthy et al., 2007a). Water loss represents inefficiency in water delivery and measurement operations in transmission and distribution networks. Many water utilities have been developing new strategies to reduce losses to an economic and acceptable level in order to preserve valuable water resources. Thus water utility benefits by (a) saving the production costs of the water, (b) increasing revenues through sales of water saved, (c) deferring the system expansion and capital expenditures through the capture of lost water, and (d) reducing increases in utility rates, and thus maintaining better consumer relations. In pursuing a continuous water supply, cities in the developing world must ensure that their water systems become more efficient and effective by reducing water losses, gradually increasing water tariffs, improving revenue collection, increasing staff productivity, and securing safe and reliable water supplies. When efficiency gains are ensured, investments in new infrastructure will lead to more effective and efficient water services . The most municipalities need to manage leakage in their pipe networks. During this century, water will be a scarce resource and therefore, needs to be harnessed in a scientific and efficient manner.
Lake Tana is the largest lake in Ethiopia which has multifaceted socio-economic function in the country’s development. However, the lake is infested by water hyacinth since 2011 and efforts have been exerted to control the weed. This study is meant to explore the perceptions and practice of ANRS Environment Forest Wildlife Protection and Development Authority development (EFWPDA) communication experts on Participatory environmental communication in eradicating water hyacinth from Lake Tana. The qualitative case study was conducted on the basis of the participatory development communication model which has been assumed to bring about sustainable natural resourcemanagement. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and document analysis. The collected data were organised and analysed in the form of content and thematic analysis. The finding revealed that participatory communication in EFWPDA is equated to a public relation activity of organising campaigns and the local people are urged to participate by providing labour contribution of harvesting and collecting the weed from the lake. The communication approach was found to be a one way top-down approach which does not facilitate a horizontal dialogue among stakeholders.
endogenous growth model. Based on the work of Lucas (1988) and Rebelo (1991), Bovenberg and Smulders (1995) present a two-sector endogenous model in which the production of new technical knowledge in the knowledge sector will improve the effective use of the renewable resources and reduce pollution. Hofkes (1996) introduces the concept of abatement into the two-sector endogenous model, which assumes that a proportion of final output can be used as abatement to reduce the level of pollution and recover the regenerative capacities of nature resources. The literature focuses on either optimal pollution/abatement choices (Byrne, 1997; Grimaud, 1999; Michel and Rotillon, 1995; Schou, 2000; Withagen, 1995), or the endogenous technical change and the optimal environmental regulation (Acemoglu, et al., 2009; Barbier, 1999; Groth and Schou, 2007; Hart, 2004; Rosendahl, 2004; Smulders and De Nooij, 2003). Though theoretical analysis of the optimal management of groundwater resources has been provided (Esteban and Dinar, 2013; Hannouche et al., 2016; Roseta-Palma, 2002, 2003), it has not been in the framework of the endogenous growth model.
Water is the most essential element of life on earth. It is easy to understand but difficult to manage. Waterresourcemanagement is one of the greatest challenges on the 21st Century. However History suggests it is nothing new as challenge. Since the beginning of the civilisations water and water resources remained the reasons of their flourishment and demise. Scientifically earth revolves around sun but practically life on earth moves around water. Water is central to life. Therefore, since the life on earth and the beginning of history writings, the past tells us the stories on watermanagement system. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on his message for World Water Day 2011 said "As the world charts a more sustainable future, the crucial interplay among water, food and energy is one of the most formidable challenges we face. Without water there is no dignity and no escape from poverty," According to World Water Development Report 4, March 2012 "Around 700 million people in 43 countries suffer today from water scarcity. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world's population could be living under water stressed conditions". The data suggest the crucial situation and raise question on our sustainable growth with an alarming note to decide future water policy by one and all, at local, state, national and international level with an efficient watermanagement system.
Aiming at the gravity of the problem, it requires an integrated and efficient management of land and water resources. The strategies which include, “ (i) effective control of soil erosion and implementation of soil conservation measures particularly in catchment and command areas of irrigation projects and (ii) intensive efforts for correcting the degraded land in the ‘Green revolution’ areas, (iii) recharging the ground water in severely ground water depleted areas ( S.D.Sawant, 2011). The Geo-spatial technology has enabled the geographers to have a better grasp of land use and land cover changes. GIS as a tool can handle vast set of spatial data. It can also map the pattern of temporal fluctuations in accordance with the environmental parameters of agriculture to enable the planners to adjust their models. Remote sensing and GIS tools can also be used for study the soil quality, status of soil erosion, land use and land cover as well as fluctuations in crop outputs.
More recently, large water development projects have come under close review and, in many cases, severe criticism. The development plan for the Narmada Valley in India centers around the large Sardar Sarovar Project that has inundated many villages while resettlement preparations have been vastly inadequate (Fisher, 1995). The World Bank has been the object of much of this criticism since it financed a large part of the development without putting sufficient pressure on the Indian Government to provide for human needs. The World Commission on Dams has recently completed an extensive review of the strengths and failures of big dams as development initiators (World Commission on Dams, 2000). That Commission concluded that dams have made an important contribution to human development and that there have been substantial net benefits in most cases. However, in too many cases an unacceptable and unnecessary cost has been imposed on the displaced peoples, downstream communities and the natural environment. The lack of equity in the distribution of benefits has often been sufficient to call into question the big dam approach in comparison with alternative water and development alternatives. Future planning must incorporate a comprehensive approach to integrating social, environmental and economic dimensions, while it must guarantee greater levels of local involvement and transparency.
The haste of globalisation, urbanisation and industrialisation has led to severe environmental concerns in developingcountries. Over the past few decades the natural resources have depleted remarkably resulting from accelerated pace of economic and social transformation. Economic and social changes such as natural growth of population, migration from rural to urban areas, increase in mechanisationhave transformed the country‘s natural resource base, both as a source of factor inputs and as a by product of pollution associated with economic activity. The continuously accelerated and unabated environmental degradation in the country is dangerous for sustainability of human development that is the foundation for long-term economic development. Especially in developingcountries the impact of environmental pollution is more rigorous, leading to ill health, increase disabilities and mortality rate annually [Greenstone and Hanna (2014)]. Developed nations have advanced technologies and resources to combat pollution consequently they experienced relatively fewer health risks and the probable repercussions of climate change.
At the Earth Conference held in Brazil on 1992 the significance of the immediate measures for achieving the sustainable development was emphasized. The message of the Earth to all the people of the world was that development is not possible without protecting the living environment and we should look for a way which helps all the current and future people of the world can equally benefit the gifts such as clean water, clean air and fertile lands. A general utilization and optimized development of all of the resources (natural, human, financial and renewable) in which all of the rights of the future generations are observed. Implication of sustainable competition-ability and development among the developingcountries has its own problems.
This section provides a concise overview of the historical use of the term ‘integrated’ in association with solid waste manage- ment and navigates its particular meanings. The term had become standard by the mid-2000s, as suggested by its wide adoption by the research community and reﬂected in names of newly establishing waste-related academic research centres such as 3R: Residual Resources Research, a PhD research school on integrated resource and waste management of DTU, Denmark, the Integrated Waste Management Centre of Cranﬁeld University, UK, Integrated Waste Systems of The Open University, UK, the CSIR Centre for Integrated Waste Management, South Africa and the Center for Integrated Waste Management of the University at Buffalo in the USA. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, in the peer-reviewed lit- erature the term ‘integrated’ was ﬁrst associated with solid waste management during the 1970s (see Murray et al., 1971; Tobin and Myers, 1974) and there has been an exponential increase in use of the term since then. A search on the Scopus research citation database carried out in March 2012 revealed only 10 papers published with all the terms ‘integrated’ ‘waste’ ‘manage- ment’ in the title by 1980, 31 by 1990 and 203 by 2010. Such usages appear in a wide variety of contexts, as summarised in Table 1. However, all these uses imply a systems theory approach, separating out identiﬁable discrete entities (‘items’, ‘elements’ or ‘units’) to describe relationships among them. Most of these uses reﬂect two of the dictionary meanings of ‘integrated’ (see, for example, http://dictionary.reference.com/) (a) combined or composite, made up of parts that work well
In the developingcountries of Southeast Asia where societies and governments are faced with extreme survival issues, a management approach to development with little regards for long term impacts on the environment and the society are commonly adopted. Often, sustainability tend to emphasise on the development for eradication of poverty and provisions of basic housing to the lower income community. Hence, in regions marked by poverty and economic problems, it is very difficult to establish environmental sustainability as a national priority. Common issues surrounding construction in the region are discussed in the foregoing paragraphs.
Singapore NEWater conducted a comprehensive set of physical, chemical and microbiological tests in each of the processes for over two years, and concluded that NEWater is considered to be safe for potable use. 3 The quality consistently met the latest requirements of the U.S. Environmental protection agency’s national primary and secondary drinking water standards and world health organization’s drinking water quality guidelines. 3 A complete two-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenic study were conducted on the recycled water in Denver and the existing drinking water supply, with no adverse health effects detected. Reproductive studies on the recycled water and the existing drinking water supply detected no adverse health effects from either supply. 2 Toowoomba’s proposed plant will use the treatment system similar to that of Singapore’s. The results of the comprehensive sampling and monitoring program and health effects study conducted in Singapore and Denver would reinforce the council’s initiatives to go on with the plan to augment the potable water supply from the reclaimed water from Wetalla wastewater treatment plant.