Exams: The midterm and final exams will ask you to interpret one (or more) historical theme(s) with reference to the events dealt with in the course and assigned readings. They will take the form of take-home essays that you will have several days to work on and should be formatted as essays – 1” margins, 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, with theses, introduc- tions, paragraphs with topic sentences, evidence, analysis, and a conclusion. I will discuss these further as the midterm approaches.
This survey of neonatal directors in the UnitedStates is, to our knowledge, the largest survey of delivery room resuscitation practices available. Because we solicited responses from directors, the actual practices of individ- ual providers may not be represented. However, much of the information obtained in this survey is related to available equipment and intent to use different practices. The results of this survey are most reflective of practices in advanced-level neonatal units; 84% of our responses were from level III or IV units. Therefore, the survey is less representative of resuscitation practices in level I and level II units. We are reporting the level of unit that was indicated by the respondents on the survey forms. Ac- cording to the directory used to identify directors, 85% of the units included were considered at least level III (subspecialty care including the designations IIIA–IIID) or were listed as a freestanding children’s hospital. Therefore, the response rate among levels does not seem to be different. Since the mailing of our survey, an American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement from the Committee on Fetus and Newborn provided new recommendations for levels of neonatal care. Therefore, what was labeled as level IV (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) on our survey would now be called level IIIC. 5
Under the rule of Elizabeth I, Sir Humphrey Gilbert was an Englishman of vision who saw the potential for English colonization in North America. He understood that, for his island nation to grow strong enough to stand against other European countries such as Spain, its territory had to expand. Colonizing North America would benefit the English in numerous ways. It would give them possible access to untold riches, such as the Spanish enjoyed in their colonies, as well natural resources like timber needed for fleets of ships. It would also give closer access to the best fishing grounds in the North Atlantic, a launch point for a search for the Northwest Passage, and safe harbors on both sides of the Atlantic. A man of influence with important connections at Court, Gilbert raised the funds for an expedition and was granted the letters allowing him to lay claim to land in the name of the English Crown and set out in 1583. He reached Newfoundland, which had a mixed temporary population of various European fishers as well as Indians. Gilbert claimed it for England and then sailed on. His little ship, the Squirrel, and its larger partner, the Golden Hind, were caught in a particularly fierce North Atlantic storm. Gilbert refused to transfer to the larger and somewhat safer ship, as he would not abandon his ship or its crew; instead, he stayed on the Squirrel even as its decks were awash with the sea. The crew of the Golden Hind watched helplessly as the lights of
other banks for just that reason – that a depositor thinks “other banks are suffering runs, so maybe I should remove my deposits from my bank” – then the subsequent banking crisis would be an observation of contagion-based systemic risk. The demandable liabilities held by depositors create the danger that banks may have insufficient liquid assets to satisfy depositor demands. Widespread liquidation risk is the source of banking panics that arose during the National Banking Era of the UnitedStates and the Great Depression. The depositor withdrawals can be motivated by rational or irrational reasons, and historical descriptions of banking panics indicate numerous instances in which irrational contagion predominates. 7 But it is widely appreciated that the provision of deposit insurance essentially has quelled systemic risk arising from depositors in the UnitedStates.
Lehman Brothers. This panic accelerated just as prior panics took turns for the worse after a large intermediary failure: Jay Cooke and Co. in September 1873, Knickerbocker Trust in October 1907, and Caldwell and Company in November 1930 or (arguably) the Bank of UnitedStates in December 1930. In these antecedents, the crisis spread to the interior affecting solvent banks as well but the channels of transmission were different. In the National Banking Era crises, the suspension of convertibility made interior bank deposits held in New York City national banks temporarily inaccessible creating a liquidity problem for some banks. But for the case of the Great Depression, the contagion effects were transmitted to interior correspondent banks mainly through liquidity channels – i.e., inability to access liquidity in the form of deposits with a failed correspondent. In contrast, the current financial disturbance is different; the unrest seems to be mainly confined to the largest investment banks, commercial banks, and nonbank financial institutions, having virtually no effects on retail depositor confidence or on hoarding. FDIC took away the incentives for depositors to run banks.
(Cost) i = α (MW) i + β (MW) i + γ (MWh) i + η (MWh) i (1) Certainly, other terms could be included in the prediction equation. Terms like event duration, time of day, and location could explain additional variance in event cost. One could also add additional Taylor series terms (cubic, etc). We conjecture, however, that Eq. 1 would capture a majority of the variance. Unfortunately accurate estimates for the social costs of most historical events do not exist, making it difficult to derive good estimates for α, β, γ and η. Some data exist for the commercial costs to individual customers associated with small blackouts, but these data do not provide enough information to build good estimates for the parameters α, β, γ and η. For example, from a study of 24,800 individual customer outages, Larsson et al.  found that reported commercial and industry customer costs increased, but not linearly, with outage duration. In this study, per kWh blackout costs increased over the first 9 hours and then decreased thereafter. A follow-up study  argued from the same data that much of the impact of large blackouts results from the
Chapter 11, The Civil War, 1861–1865, ran from pages 378–420. It had four sections: “From Bull Run to Antietam,” “Life Behind the Lines,” “The Tide of War Turns,” and “Devastation and New Freedom.” Within these sections were two insets: “Skills for Life: Summarizing Information from Multiple Sources,” and “American Heritage: My Brush with History: A Union Soldier’s story.” At the start of each section, authors included a “Reading Focus,” the “Main Idea,” “Key Terms,” and “Taking Notes,” where students could organize main concepts. Each section contained “Focus On” boxes, although the focus varied; government, world events, economics, geography, daily life, and technology. The chapter had various maps, photographs, paintings, charts, and a poster. The end included a two-page “Review and Assessment” (Cayton, Perry, Reed, & Winkler, 2003, pp. 418–419). Unusually, there was a two-page eyewitness account of life in the Union army. David Conyngham, a soldier and journalist, wrote of interactions between Union and Confederate soldiers, and of his march through Georgia with General Sherman. An inset box, “Understanding Primary Sources,” followed, along with three questions that required only basic reading to respond.
to its role in trade policy and export of items on the Commerce Control List, and has an Office of Space Commercialization to facilitate commercial space businesses. In 1983, the Department of Transportation (DOT) was given responsibility for facilitating and regulating commercial launch services companies. This function is performed through the Federal Aviation Administration. DOT and DOD co-chair a group that oversees use of DOD’s Global Positioning System of navigation satellites. DOT represents civilian users and has programs to augment the system’s utility to the civilian community. Other government agencies involved in space include the Department of Energy, which develops nuclear power sources for satellites; the U.S. Geological Survey in the Department of Interior which operates the Landsat satellites; the Departments of Agriculture and other departments that use satellite data for crop forecasting and map making, for example; and the Department of State, which develops international space policy and determines whether to grant export licenses for items on the Munitions List (including some types of spacecraft and launch vehicles). The National Security Council, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, also are involved.
I wish to thank the members of my committees both past and present for their support, patience, and understanding, which was essential to my ability to complete this dissertation. Dr. Eduardo Gamarra, who I met as an undergraduate teenager almost twenty-five years ago, has been a great example to me over the years. I was thankful for his acquiescence to be on my committee as well as his input and advice throughout this process. Dr. Victor Uribe, whose classes greatly helped in improving my craft, was equally a great source of comfort and advice when I initially stumbled in my pursuit of this degree. In her relatively short time on my committee, Dr. April Merleaux was not only key in my ability to finish on time, but also gave me valuable advice and guidance which helped me to complete my research. Professors Chantalle Verna, Darden Pyron, and Noble David Cook who all served on my comprehensive exams committee were also instrumental in allowing me to finish, and I thank all of them for their time and all their efforts on my behalf. I would especially like to thank my major professor, Dr. Kenneth Lipartito. From the time Dr. Lipartito first joined my dissertation committee, his guidance and support were essential to my writing and progress. His sage advice and encouragement helped me along the process, and made me believe in my ability to succeed.
Bonus Army: Unemployed World War I vet- erans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus Congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed from Anacostia Flats by federal troops. court packing proposal: In the wake of Supreme Court decisions that declared key piece of New Deal legislation unconstitu- tional, Roosevelt proposed increasing the number of justices. If a justice did not retire at age seventy, the President could appoint an additional justice up to a maximum of six. deficit spending: The English economist John Maynard Keynes proposed that govern- ments cut taxes and increase spending in or- der to stimulate investment and consumption. The effect was to increase the deficit because more money was spent than was taken in. Hoovervilles: Shantytowns that the unem- ployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that the people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression.
When you have completed the examination, you must sign the statement printed on the Part I answer sheet, indicating that you had no unlawful knowledge of the questions or answers prior to the examination and that you have neither given nor received assistance in answering any of the questions during the examination. Your answer sheet cannot be accepted if you fail to sign this declaration.
42 “. . . there are two types of laws: There are just laws and there are unjust laws. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws.”
British luck started changing with their capture of the city of Louisbourg in Canada. They blocked the St. Lawrence Seaway, which stopped all French trade to inland towns and the frontier. Then, the British struck a final blow to the French cause in Quebec in 1759. British Commander James Wolfe bravely sent his forces up a rocky hill to surprise the French. In the battle that followed on the Plains of Abraham, both Wolfe and the French commander were killed. The British gained control over this important territory. They continued to be successful in battle after that, conquering Montreal as well. Ultimately the British gained control of the territories at stake, and thus the French chapter in North American history was over.
Figure 5. Temperature reconstructions for the last 3000 years for the NE US and adjacent regions, sourced from diverse paleoclimatic proxies and archives. (a) Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruc- tions based on U K 37 in marine sediments (Sachs, 2007); (b) SST based on alkenone unsaturation in marine sediments (Keigwin et al., 2003); (c) tree-ring widths from the Northern Hemisphere extrat- ropics (Esper et al., 2002); (d) northeastern US grid cells areally averaged (from 37.5 to 47.5 ◦ N latitude and 67.5 to 77.5 ◦ W longi- tude) from multiple proxies (Mann et al., 2009); (e) tree-ring widths from temperate North America (Trouet et al., 2013); (f) North American pollen data (Viau et al., 2006); (g) North American pollen data (Trouet et al., 2013); (h) northeastern pollen data (Williams et al., 2011); (i) NE US (39 to 46 ◦ N latitude and 67.5 to 97.5 ◦ W longitude) temperature simulation from the Community Earth Sys- tem Model-Last Millennium Ensemble (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2015); (j) NE US temperature simulation from the Community Climate System Model version 3 SynTrace experiment (TraCE-21k; Liu et al., 2009). Vertical gray bands are only provided as a visual aid to identify the timing of features in the records. Pink and blue vertical bars mark the MCA and LIA intervals.
Worokya Duncan, Ed.D is a professional educator and entreprenuer with over 14 years of experience, offering vast classroom experience, a Doctoral-level education, a great deal of energy, and a commitment to students. Over the course of her career, she has taught both elementary and middle school students in a variety of subjects, including UnitedStatesHistory and Science. Her efforts undoubtedly extend beyond academics. I work hard to instill a sense of school pride, building community awareness, and motivating students to set higher standards. In addition to general education, her teaching experience encompasses inclusion classes. With all of her students, she takes time to connect with each one, demonstrating genuine sensitivity. She has a distinguished record in teaching and technical innovation achieved through conceptualization, development, and implementation of flexible delivery style learning techniques; expertise in applying sophisticated quantitative and qualitative research methodologies demonstrated in working towards successful completion of Ed.D.; and a visionary, goal-driven work ethic, combined with solid team collaboration competencies and individual strengths utilizing sound follow-through and detail orientation to plan and achieve projects from concept to successful completion. Dr. Duncan married to a wonderful man, Bryan, and we have three children- Jabari (8), Kimoni (4), and Zariah (2). For her undergraduate degree, she attended Duke University. While there, she double majored in Public Policy Studies and Political Science, and minored in African American Studies. Upon graduation, she matriculated into the Divinity School at Duke University, with a focus was on Liberation and Feminist Theology. After working in municipal bond industry, she knew her call was elsewhere. As her mother and grandmother were teachers, it was in her blood. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The labor movement has played a significant role in the history of our country. Many people came to the UnitedStates as laborers, either in the form of indentured servants or slaves. The unionization of laborers also takes its roots from the early beginnings in America. Although unions during the Revolutionary period were mostly temporary, their movements set the stage for the “modern” unionization of workers. The unionization would lead to many of the benefits that workers enjoy today.
B. The Relator is a resident of the State of North Carolina. In 1998 and 1999, she filed two qui tam actions in the UnitedStates District Court for the Northern District of New York captioned UnitedStates ex rel. Cirrincione v. Tingley, et al., 98-CV-1929 (N.D.N.Y.), and UnitedStates ex rel. Cirrincione v. Hamel, et al., 99-CV-2082 (N.D.N.Y.) (hereinafter “the Civil Actions”). In these actions, the Relator alleged that New York State, a number of localities within the State, and certain named individuals violated program requirements governing the provision of speech therapy services under the School Supportive Health Services Program and the Preschool Supportive Health Services Program.
It is true, of course, that such authors are almost always not accounting academics in leading universities with long lists to their names of refereed articles on the historical development of accounting. Yet, authors of this genre are typically experi- enced writers who seem to rely heavily on the official histories of firms, such as Arthur Andersen, and/or classic accounting history texts, such as A History of Accountancy in the UnitedStates: The Cultural Significance of Accounting by Previts and Merino  and The History of Accounting: An International Encyclopaedia, edited by Chatfield and Vangermeersch , as well as, in a number of cases, oral history interviews and recollections of their experiences by leading accounting profes- sionals. Classic texts on accounting’s past at least summarize, in a convenient form, the relevant accounting history research which underpins their preparation.