most frequently in the case of software companies (75 percent) and components firms (55 percent), as compared to 41.2 percent of direct services companies and one-third of IT-enabled services companies. According to Hausmann and Rodrik (2002), the reason why some Latin American countries’ investment in R&D is so low is that businesspersons in these countries learn what they are good at producing, rather than focusing on producing new goods which can be patented. These authors argue that while intellectual property regimes protect inventors of new goods by allowing a temporary monopoly (e.g., patents), a businessperson in a developing country that realizes that an already existing product can be produced profitably in his country usually does not obtain intellectual property protection, no matter how high the social return. In other words, some domestic ICT firms may not be protecting their innovations because they may be very simple adaptations, such as those described by Evenson and Westphal (1995), and may
One of the challenges experienced by Posicom during the development of Seekuence Medical has been the lack of dedicated personnel involved from the hospital. Enthusiasts have done a lot of the project work at evenings as an additional work assignment, resulting in a development process with hampered progress. According to Harald Noddeland, manager of pre-hospital services at Vestre Viken, there are a lot of creative and inventive personnel at the hospital, but they are restricted by requirements of operating as efficiently as possible. Therefore, activities beyond daily operational tasks that do not result in immediate value are neglected. Noddeland reasons that innovationprojects are not profitable within strongly pressured and short-term oriented budgets. Resources available to health services are scarce, and budget constraints with short-term perspectives are hindering investments in innovation with potential financial gain in the future. For the health services it is more important with liquidity this year or the next than a potential reward over a ten-year period. Additionally, Noddeland claims that the increase in service quality is not a strong enough incentive and that Vestre Viken requires monetary rewards with immediate effect on the bottom line. The consequences of budget constraints further affect Seekuence Medical, as video processing is not part of a life threatening operation at the hospital. Noddeland explains that scarce resources will be allocated according to the degree of necessity for life threatening tasks rather than to fund the development of video processing.
The research contributes to studies of information systems that adopt an interpretivist approach, which have been growing steadily over the past two decades. However, it has been noted that in the area of e-government there are few that adopt such a perspective (Heeks & Bailur 2007; Yildiz 2007; Coursey & Norris 2008). Interpretivism is well suited for this research study that adopts a performative view and focuses on the doing to examine the ongoing enactments of e-government systems, which is in line with ideas that have been promoted by many notable academics in the social sciences (Berger & Luckmann 1967; Weick 1979; Giddens 1984; Feldman 2000). The interpretivist perspective is an underlying assumption that can guide qualitative or quantitative research (Klein & Myers 1999; Klein & Myers 2001; Myers 2008). This study is based on qualitative research since it enables the close involvement with the social world of the ICT professionals. Such qualitative research is appropriate for this exploratory study since it leads to rich data and allows for unanticipated findings during fieldwork and the possibility of shifting research plans (Bryman 1984). The experiences of small shifts in research questions, methods and some of the themes explored, in the face of events encountered in fieldwork, will be presented in the subsequent sections on data collection and analysis.
Many different companies have diversified into the virtual mobility space; this trend was clear when visiting the Easyfairs ICT trade fair 2010 (Gothenburg) and mobility was identified as a key area also at the Mobile World Congress 2010 (Barcelona). However, it is difficult to pinpoint how the Gothenburg region innovation system is distinguished from the Swedish as a whole. Within Virtual mobility, video conferences is one sub-sector that is talked about a lot, when discussing Green ICT. Due to the financial crises many companies have realised that they need to reduce their travelling costs. To replace the meetings that requires travels different kinds of communication can be used. Cisco and Tandberg are together marketing the telepresence videoconference system, a system that offers high-definition video and audio. However, these systems are expensive and used by large multi-national companies that have a strong motivation to use them. Smartphones such as Iphone constitute another platform for mobile communication, and videoconferences via smartphones are also possible from service providers such as Cisco and Skype. Still ordinary teleconferences are much more frequently used than the different video conference services (SIKA, 2007). The reason is that the hardware (telephones) is already present everywhere, but another reason might be that the quality of the video conference is determined by the different hardware and services all participants are using. It also depends on the users need for interaction, many times text, voice and sharing the desktop is enough level of communication for e.g. communicating with customers.
Delivering safe, effective and high quality patient care relies heavily on access to accurate and comprehensive information. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to record, store, manage and access information within health care offers vast opportunities to reduce clinical errors, to support health care professionals, to increase the efficiency of care and to improve the quality of patient care  . Clinical information systems will increasingly become common place in health as health care providers and consumers realise the full potential of ICT to provide rapid and comprehensive access to information at the point of care.
Since innovative technologies cannot exclusively lead to success in today’s competitive market, companies also need to develop competitive business models that differentiate their offerings from other companies’ offerings. Business models are important within the market economy where the customer has a choice, where transaction costs exist, and where there are differences between consumers, competitors, and suppliers. Technological innovations often require a business model in order to be introduced on the market, and to cover customer needs. The different elements of the business model need to work together in a system. The choice of business model will affect the company’s architecture. This in turn leads to that the company often tries to expand based on the first business model. A business model constitutes a company’s organizational and financial structure (Teece, 2010). It also describes a company’s architecture, and its partner network used in order to create, market, and deliver value, as well as establishing good relations with one or many customer segments in order to create profitable and sustainable revenues (Dubosson- Torbay et al., 2001). Furthermore, the business model is also related to other components such as the business plan and operational aspects. Business models are not strategies, but involve strategic elements (Morris, et al., 2005), (Shafer et al., 2003). Business models address internal as well as external components that forms a company’s competitive advantages. Competitive advantages can emerge from a supreme performance of the company’s activities within the company’s value chain, coordination of these activities, or managing the interactions between the company and other partners in the network (Morris et al., 2005). An organization’s business model is never complete, but is a permanent and iterative process.
For all the above reasons, outsourcing some activities related to project implementation has been considered by YPEPTH as absolutely necessary. The Research Academic Computer Technology Institute 2 (RACTI) has been selected by the ministry officials to perform such functions. RACTI has the legal credential to be assigned such a task as a private institution supervised by YPEPTH, while at the same time it has extensive expertise on PM issues. For this purpose, it was assigned some of the tasks of EYE, including the overall management of the directorate. Within this framework, RACTI created the Ministry of Education Support Office and staffed this office with a group of experienced personnel to carry out the job of supporting the functions of EYE. It was not the first time that such work assignments of YPEPTH to RACTI took place. In fact, for many years RACTI has been a technical consultant of YPEPTH undertaking the implementation of a large number of specific ICTprojects on behalf and for the benefit of the ministry. However, such cooperation was basically on a yearly contract basis. This time, the ministry essentially created a strategic partnership with RACTI and delegated to it some of its non core functions related to project implementation.
Study of the Mobile Industry Zsofia Derzsi, Jaap Gordijn
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Abstract: The problem of business-ICT alignment lays in the difficulty of matching needs and requirements of customers over certain ICT services with the offered ICT services of suppliers. Our aim is to provide clearly determined factors and guidelines that characterize the optimal alignment in the ICT domain. To do so, we combine the e3-value methodology with the so-called service ontology. The resulted technique helps to understand the distribution and exchange of value objects between actors and the complexity of services. To reason over a successful alignment between service needs and offerings and to generate optimal service bundles it is necessary to combine these two mentioned techniques. The question is whether this combination is also sufficient for our purposes in the ICT domain.
Th us, the purpose of M&E is to provide credible options based on the best information that can be gathered to support one or another decision. One of the ﬁ rst choices that must be made concerns the breadth and depth of the M&E task. Naturally, this is as least partly determined by the resources that can be made available (see Chapter 3). Yet, there are also conceptual issues in breadth and depth. For example, is a broad national representative sample necessary in order to justify the impact of a major ICT4E implementation of, say, computer labs in secondary schools? If a large (and perhaps debatable) investment has been made, then only a broad, large-scale study might convince policy makers that either more of the same is required, or that a change in policy is needed (say, if the PC’s were poorly utilized and under- staﬀ ed). Alternatively, if an NGO set up a small number of very innovative Internet-enabled kiosks which provide health education information, it might be most appropriate to undertake an in-depth ethnographic casestudy of how the health information was used in real time, and whether it had impact on healthy behaviors.
45 mostly a part of the institutional proximity. So, institutional proximity is the one that actors can enjoy in the macro-level. It can be expressed by either formal institutions, such as laws, or informal institutions, such as cultural norms, and affect the way in which actors coordinate their actions. Institutional proximity provides to the actors stable conditions for knowledge transfer (Boschma & Frenken, 2010). Institutions constitute ‗glue‘ in the knowledge network promoting collective actions, as they reduce uncertainty and transaction costs. The notion of institutional proximity includes both the idea that actors share the same formal rules for their economic activity, as well as, the same cultural values. A common language, shared habits, a common law system and other elements, secure a basis for coordination and interactive learning (Maskell & Malmberg, 1999). According to Ponds et al (2007), geographical proximity can compensate for the absence of institutional proximity, while institutional proximity facilitates the interaction between actors located in distant places. So, in the present research the institutional proximity it is measured with the case that one actor is located in the region under investigation and the other to be located inside the borders of the country, sharing the same institutional and cultural context. Due to the fact that the present casestudy takes place in Italy, considering the normative, institutional, and cultural differences between the north and the south of the country, in a second level, the control about institutional proximity is realized considering the cases in which one actor is located in the region under investigation and the other in one of the regions of North Italy.
When we examine the prior knowledge and common knowledge in the four case studies, it is important to mention the aforementioned learning phases of the innovationprojects (exploratory, project testing and knowledge to the firm phase Brady & Davis, 2005). In the exploratory phase of case A and B the initiating firms developed a large part of the innovation in-house based on their firm’s internal technical capabilities. In the second phase, the initiating firms were in need of external knowledge to develop the product to a final stage. The firms that were attracted as partners could offer specific capabilities. The external knowledge was rather diverse in both cases, since all partner firms came from different disciplines, although they were used to work together in construction projects. The last phase indicates whether learning from the innovation project went back to the firm. In case B, the knowledge developed in the project was rather specific. This implied that the firms could not use this knowledge directly; it had to be processed by the project members first in order to generate lessons learned. In case A, the project-related knowledge was learned through acquiring the new techniques and applying them in real-life projects. The partner firms applied the knowledge and combined many areas of specialised knowledge to produce their own product (an improved technology). Grant (1996) refers in this respect to the ability of both acquiring knowledge through specialisation and applying knowledge by combining specialist areas.
Participatory appraisal may be suggested by the Grantee as a suitable approach for gaining a picture of the household. Participatory appraisals are appropriate for the purpose based M&E. In the light of the infoDev strategy the focus of the Framework is on gathering evidence of the impact of the pilot project in such a way as to convince other development practitioners about mainstreaming. In this case participatory visual exercises can sometimes be unconvincing. However, quantitative data alone rarely paints a complete picture. Qualitative data is important for understanding the needs, context and outcomes of the pilot ICT Project. Some of the best qualitative data is generated by participatory exercises which have been designed to include the marginalized. If the Grantee wants to conduct participatory exercises as a part of the evaluation to learn from it as well as to encourage the community to take the innovations forward by sharing ownership of the results, this should be supported. However it should be noted that over reliance on purely participatory techniques can open the assessment to the criticism that they are “only stories” and did not provide evidential data that “proves” the impact of the pilot. For the purposes of evidence gathering for the Research questions, participatory appraisals should form a part of an overall study that has both qualitative and quantitative data.
After selecting the schools 3 , four work teams were organized. These subgroups
adapted to the problems posed by each school and its workfl ow in a customized way such that the rhythm refl ected the needs of each specifi c context and not the application of a standardized solution. Meetings were held bi-weekly at each school for two hours and were audio recorded. Transcripts were then analyzed to prepare a progress report that was sent back to the school for joint refl ection regarding the process carried out. At this point, problems, needs, diffi culties and advances were addressed and experiences were shared among the schools. The fact that reports were prepared by consensus with the teaching staff based on these meetings made it possible to share developments among all research teams, and to reach a level of detail that allowed for a meaningful analysis and refl ection processes. In addition to the four research teams at each school, a fi fth team was set up which included researchers and technicians funded by the project to analyze the aforementioned reports and extract specifi c needs as well as provide possible solutions and techni- cal support for the innovation proposals at each school.
Case Studies on Open Innovation in ICTInnovation Strategy - Celoxica’s innovation strategy evolved from a closed to an open setting, across two phases of the company’s life. In a first phase, the model was typical of a science-based spin-off company. It was characterized by the participation in multiple R&D projects for FPGA exploitation, rather than being focused on a specific market. The ESL model ignored the need of complementary knowledge and expertise needed to build FPGA system architectures in each partner industry. This lack of focus in the ESL innovation model and the missing internal expertise required the company to redesign its innovation model in order to find more areas of application for the technology. Nevertheless, ESL’s R&D costs increased, leading to almost negative operating margins from single products. The evolution of the innovation strategy in the second phase of the life of Celoxica was a direct consequence of the first strategic mistake that led to the decision to focus just on one application of FPGA technology. A strongly focused strategy based on a single FPGA application for the financial industry characterized the new round. The company realized that complementary external product/market knowledge was essential to successfully exploit transversal technologies (FPGA). Consequently, Celoxica’s business model shifted from products to specific services solutions (ultra-low latency solutions) for the electronic trading community based on FPGA technology. With the management team renewal, the composition of the company’s internal capabilities fundamentally changed: technological competences arising from 15-year R&D on FPGA technologies were balanced with a new management team coming from a financial market environment. A deep integration between technical background
Based on the third casestudy of this case series - the PIE rooted in Gothenburg urban area - another type of PIE can be derived, which is focused on strong industrial interests, represented by the two Volvo companies Volvo AB and Volvo Cars (see chapter 2.3). The fact that this PIE is strongly influenced by industrial dynamics, has generated organisational (public and private) structures to develop cross-disciplinary and cross-industry projects, embedded in a landscape where a leading science park (Lindholmen Science Park) as a platform channels these projects, supported by regional and local authorities. The industrial aspect is the essential system property, and this allows us to speak, in general terms, about an Industrial Innovation Ecosystem. As analysed, Gothenburg´s PIE is not a system that is controlled or orchestrated by one specific actor, but the dynamics within the system depends on different stakeholders and the interactions between them. Nevertheless, there are leading stakeholders, like the big industrial players, the municipality, the regional authorities and the academic landscape, such as universities and research centres. The so - called Gothenburg spirit, which describes the good collaborative climate between decisive stakeholders in Gothenburg´s PIE, is representative for the informal governance model in the region: “It is clear that in the Gothenburg area, informal governance is possibly more important than formal governance.” (Rissola (ed.), Sörvik, Zingmark and Ardenfors,2019, p. 53). Also, the entrepreneurial spirit of small companies is an essential part of this PIE model, which describes the
On a particular case in Europe it is rapidly being embraced the adopting phrase of "fade and fashion" as a motivation for managers and employees to engage in to creativity so that the Organisation benefits in whole . Therefore it is crucial that managers organise the projects and listen and encourage the employers to get involved with their creativity and get out from their "comfort zone" and start thinking out of the box.
In the case of technology being involved in the project, the literature suggests that the technology should be chosen with great care. “The technology used (...) should be appropriate to the economic, educational and cultural conditions of the host country,” states SIDA (2007) in its evaluation manual for development projects. While this may seem obvious, the literature indicates it has not always been the case in ICTprojects. One of the main findings of an UN study 2001 of ICT in development projects was that ”the priorities of many ICTprojects tend to be influenced more by the interests of external organizations rather than community-based organizations” (FAO, 2001). Instead the study asked project planners to not introduce technology for its own sake, but ”solely to meet the information and communication needs of the target group” (FAO, 2001). Other researchers consent in this finding, e.g. Heeks (1999) states that when stakeholders with an own agenda, such as ICT vendors, consultants or aid donors, dominate the project there is a risk they promote their own interests with an “if it works for us, it’ll work for you” mentality. Fife et. al., (2007) concludes that when selecting technology “oftentimes, simpler is better”. Overall, there is great support in the literature for choosing technology with simplicity in mind. In this situation, the principle of Occam’s razor can be applied: choose the most simple technology that satisfies the given need.
The process-based assessment uses established procedures for assessing proposals for funding. It is mainly used by, for example, banks granting loans to small, technology-based enterprises, or large research organizations, e.g. NASA, when choosing new products to develop from various technological projects. The process-based assessment tends to be a regular process, with proposals arriving and being reviewed on a regular basis. A regular process warrants an investment in methods and tools that lend themselves to comparing several options simultaneously and that keep records so that future opportunities can be compared with past opportunities. In contrast, the culturally-based approach does not assess all projects against a formal methodology. Instead, assessment is based on the assessor’s experiences both individually and collectively. Business angels and venture capitalists are the most common users of the culturally-based approach to assessing new technology ventures. The assessment is usually done on a case-by-case basis by a team consisting of experts with different backgrounds.
Many EU countries do not really spend much money on doctoral students‟ skills development no matter what their language or ICT skills are. The finances of educational institutions are constantly lowered, thus the chances of PhD students to attend prestigious international scientific events are limited as well. In our project we focused on providing them with an inexpensive platform to train communication and conferencing skills at minimum expenses. Besides, they could exchange their professional knowledge and enrich their international experience before they start regular cooperation in person. The project brought together English teachers, PhD students and young researchers in IT study programmes with similar syllabi, using English for Science and Technology (EST) as a means of communication. The involved students improved their language and communication skills using ICT, strengthened their presentation social and specific technical skills as well as they had the opportunity to chair the individual on-line meetings (Chmelíková, 2015). We provided them also with the real chance to deliver their presentation at an ESP conference 2015, Niš, Serbia.