When an older adult accidentally falls on a hard surface, it is sometimes impossible for them to call for help. Research shows that approximately 33 percent o f elder people experience fall injuries every year . The proposed healthmonitoringsystem is tasked with detecting falls and abnormalities in vital signals. The central hub is responsible for receiving commands during such incidents, and capturing a photo using an infrared camera. Infrared technology provides the ability to determine the user’s status in dark conditions. The system provides more knowledge on user’s current situation by capturing and eventually sending the picture during an incident. In a real world application, the smart home system would typically require more than one camera for tracking the user’s location. In this thesis, only one camera is used with the central hub to demonstrate its functionalities and advantages. In a production system, multiple cameras throughout the household would be acting as special nodes within the smart home sensor network. Figure 8 shows the JPEG color camera; it uses UART serial communication protocol for processing the commands to capture a photo and to transfer it.
In this paper, demonstrates the use of Wearable Wireless Body Area Networks as a key infrastructure enabling unobtrusive, continual, ambulatory healthmonitoring. We monitor the physiological parameters of patients both in medical center as well as home which provides a sustainable and high-quality service in healthmonitoring. This technology has potential to offer a wide range of benefits to patients, medical personnel, and society through continuous monitoring in the ambulatory setting, early detection of abnormal conditions, supervised rehabilitation, and potential knowledge discovery through data mining of all gathered information. We have described ZigBee and GSM architecture. We have addressed several key technical issues such as sensor node hardware architecture, software architecture, network time synchronization, and energy conservation. Further efforts are necessary to improve QoS of wireless communication, reliability of sensor nodes, security, and standardization of interfaces and interoperability. In addition, further studies of different medical conditions in clinical and ambulatory settings are necessary to determine specific limitations and possible new applications of this technology.
Our health and well-being are the most important elements for longevity. Healthcare and healthmonitoring are important to the society because people get ill, accidents and emergencies do arise and the hospitals are needed to diagnose, treat and manage different types of ailments and diseases. A person who need treatment in emergency conditions has to be noticed to minimize the time delay. This intimation of a person getting sudden ill can be found with the help of electronic systems such as sensors and controllers. Now this data has to be transferred to the family members to monitor the patient’s health condition. The present healthmonitoring systems works absolutely fine. But these activity trackers shifts data of the person from the device to the nearby mobile phone through short range communications like Bluetooth. The user can monitor or the data can now be transferred to the internet or family members from the local processing unit like mobile or pc. The current paper involves the latest technology of microcontroller from which the data of the patient can be transferred to the internet from the patient’s wearable device itself. In this system we used pulse sensor to measure the heart beat rate of a person, and accelerometer to count number of steps, distance, speed, calories burned and a controller board Ti’s CC3200 ,which has inbuilt Wi-Fi that works in both station mode and access point mode. The pulse sensor’s data goes to controller, then the controller sends this data to the internet enabled mobile application by using available Wi-Fi network. The information can be viewed from mobile application with security credentials like login details.
Adequate health care services and doctors are often unavailable in rural and remote areas and this problem is expected to grow worse in near future. “Patient healthmonitoringsystemusing wireless sensors” objective is to provide essential medical services online to users irrespective of their location. The system offers mobile support to facilitate faster using sophisticated medical equipments in emergency cases. The daily records are also maintained so that drugs are dispatched in a proper way. The proposed healthmonitoringsystem consists of four modules: 1) Doctor module, 2) Patient module, 3) Nurse module and 4) Admin module. For the successful execution of modules sensors are being used. The sensors used are namely temperature sensor, heartbeat sensor and blood pressure sensor. This system will work on basically three algorithms namely KNN algorithm, semantic matching algorithm and data distribution algorithm. This system helps to overcome time and memory required to a great extent. The sensors used in the system are developed using low-power dedicated sensor arrays for temperature and movement. It also resolves the issue of inaccurate results.
existence and reduces cost of electrical wiring and uses the already available power line wires known as the power line communication. The intent of this work is to send the biomedical parameters like the heart rate, respiration rate and body temperature through PLC system  Some of the elder care systems as mentioned in  monitor activities of the elders in their home. They embed a video system in the living environment of elders and continuously monitor their activities at home. However, this system doesn’t measure any of the vital parameters of the elderly patient. Measuring the vital parameters is inevitable if the elder person suffers from any sort of heart ailments, which are very common in individuals aged above 60 . In mobile devices like Calyx (Complete Ambient Assisted Living Experiment) which can measure vital signs like ECG, pulse, Blood pressure, Movement and Fall detection. However, the design we have proposed can monitor vital parameters and fall detection along with tilt monitoring for the bed-ridden patients to monitor any case of bedsore. Some devices as in  monitor only fall detection for the elderly patients based on the sensor readings from accelerometers and microphones attached to the body of the patients. The system proposed in  is applicable to patients. And elders for activity monitoring and fall detection and also sports athletes exercise measurement and pattern analysis.  A wearable wireless sensor networkusing accelerometers has been developed in this paper to determine the arm motion in the sagittal plane. The system provides unrestrained movements and improves its usability. The lightweight and compact size of the developed sensor node makes its attachment to the limb easy. Experimental results have shown that the system has good accuracy and response rate when compared with a goniometer.
Among the important research projects much deployed in healthcare field there is the wireless body Area networks (WBANs) applications, which can widely help to remote monitor the human health. This research aims to develop a wearable WBAN application for health remote monitoring, that monitor patient's health through the continuous detection, process and communicate of human physiological parameters. This application use four biomedical sensor nodes that are able to measure physiological signal (ECG, SPO2, heart rate and breathing) and convert it to useful data. Then, the data is transmitted by a processor and then sent to a central node by a transceiver. The data is collected and send to monitoring pc in real time, which projects and records the physiological parameters on a graphical interface.
OVERVIEW: Instead of the industrial production, which drove economic growth in the 20th century, the driver for growth in the 21st century is productivity in knowledge work and service businesses. For this reason, the authors developed a technique for measuring happiness usingwearabletechnology. The research found a hidden signal representing a person’s happiness within the basic pattern of physical activity known as the “1/T rule.” This result uncovered a close relationship between the “trinity” of physical activity = happiness = productivity. Combined with a technique for using artificial intelligence to generate KPIs automatically, the technology can foster the ability of groups to engage in “co-creation” while also encouraging autonomy and commitment in individuals. This new technology is recognized as having the potential to open up new pathways in corporate accounting, production, and human resource systems.
Abstract: Negative emotional responses are a growing problem may lead to serious accidents on the road. Measuring stress- and fatigue-induced emotional responses by means of a wearablesystem would be useful for potentially prevent roadway tragedies. Now a day’s road accidents are increasing mostly in heavy traffic countries this may lead to serious accidents or even death. The reason behind this is the driver is in stress or fatigue condition. The focus of this paper is to develop a wearablesystem and it would be useful for avoiding roadway tragedies. This system provides two alerting methods. An auditory response is from buzzer and is based on the Inertial Movement Unit. A Photoplethysmography Sensor, detect the heart beat rate and display a warning message to the LCD. During the critic situation a message is send to the predefined number through GSM. A motor will connect to the driver’s seat, which will provides vibration when the driver is in an unconscious condition. A break system will also implemented with the help of a DC motor and a push switch. By using all this techniques we can protect the life of a driver. Index Terms: Photoplethysmography Sensor, Inertial Movement Unit, GSM module
Abstract—The main goal of this research is the development of a prototype of wearabletechnology that allows monitoring the vertebral column by record- ing movements in healthy individuals to assist the treatment of low back pain. Thus, a prototype of wearabletechnology with sensors that monitor the verte- bral column movements and register the data in a smartphone application was developed in this research for later use by health professionals. The prototype was evaluated using a sample of 33 volunteers observing the functionality of the product, a clinical evaluation of the vertebral column, the identification of be- havioral habits sample characterization. Computational embedded technologies feasibility in clothing products is evidenced by this research as a study field in evidence by facilitating the user’s data collection day to day.
Continuous ECG data monitoring with IoT will be a platform for the healthcare industry, which will enable doctors with quicker, smarter and effective methods of diagnosis. Statistical Analysis of Real time monitoring of patients and feeding the monitored data to the internet is going to be one of the big things in future. IoT Healthcare can be used for critical patients needs to be under continuous observation; especially in the absence or unavailability of medical doctor. Early detection of diseases is possible with IoT Healthcare applications and the doctor can be notified immediately. IoT healthcare has a wide range of applications like Heart-rate monitoring, ECG monitoring, bloodpressure monitoring, etc. ECG monitoring with IoT and the methodology of its implementation. It is proposed and implemented a Smart healthcare application using a IoT system based on AD8232 heart rate sensor interfaced with Arduino UNO and further connected to Cloud using an ESP8266 Wireless LAN Module. The data collected from the sensors are updated in the cloud without identity. The aggregated data can be made available to the doctors for their research and studies. Data analysis tools will be used to interpret and present the data. Since dates are update in the cloud the availability is ensured and by hiding the identity, confidentiality is maintained. Thus continuous monitoring of patients through IoT will help both patients to maintain the health and doctors to diagnose the disease or predict the cause of the disease. Keywords : AD8232, IoT, ESP8266, Arduino, HTTP, Cloud, Heart Rate Monitoring
In recent years, there is a problem of irregularity of students which may affect the student growth in education. This problem is also faced by parents as they don names or passing a sheet of paper. Both ways have respective know whether their ward is attending the school/college or not. Today, in most Institutions teachers take attendance by calling out names or passing a sheet of paper. Both ways have respective drawbacks. First way of taking attendance is time consuming as well as prone to errors and in second case there are chances of having proxy attendance . So RFID and GSM Based Attendance MonitoringSystemusing door locking/unlocking system aims at removing all these problems and drawbacks. In this System, Each student is assigned a RFID Tag that has a unique ID. Whenever the Student enters the college premises, he will swept that card near the Reader. The Reader will read the Student’s Information and if that information is correctly matched then the door of the Institution is opened and student is permitted to enter. After some time the door gets closed automatically and at the same time message will get displayed on LCD indicating that at the attendance has been taken. At the same moment SMS will be send to the parents mobile via GSM SIM 300 Modem to alert the parents that their ward is attending the college/school. Here Microcontroller is used for controlling the events This System is implemented using RFID Card Reader AT89S52 Microcontroller, RFID Tags, Driver unit for door/locker control, GSM SIM 300 Modem and LCD display As similar as other technology.
Gamification is the use of game thinking to engage and educate users in a non-game context to help them solve problems. The rationale was based on a psychological idea suggesting that individuals will be more engaged and learn better when their needs for competition, achievement, status, and closure are met . The increased use of games and similar strategies within healthcare was explained as part of a movement toward giving users a sense of control, as well as motivating and engaging them . There have also been studies about how the rewards and incentives within such gamification affect motivation. One such study considered how different game elements can address various motivational mechanisms . Another study identified the specific ways in which gamification changed users‘ health behaviors by analyzing data of 132 health and fitness apps available in the Apple App Store that are specifically related to physical activity and dieting. Each app was checked to determine whether it included proper game elements, health gamification components, and health behavior constructs. Most apps had gamification features, but many lacked health behavior components, which are required to make health-related behavior changes . One game was designed for diabetes management using gamification and involved in-game social components to motivate the patients to develop good habits of regular self-measurement of their blood glucose levels . However, there were no empirical results regarding the application of gamification in healthcare in most of these studies due to the difficulties associated with obtaining ethical clearances as well as the prohibitively high cost of conducting trials.
In this paper, a low cost, real-time water quality monitoringsystem which can be applied in remote rivers, lakes, coastal areas and other water bodies is presented. The main hardware of the system consists of off-the-shelf electrochemical sensors, a microcontroller, a wireless communication system and the customized buoy. It detects water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH in a pre-programmed time interval. The developed prototype disseminates the gathered information in graphical and tabular formats through a customized web-based portal and preregistered mobile phones to better serve relevant end-users. To check the system effectivity, the buoy ’ s stability in harsh environmental conditions, system energy consumption, data transmission efficiency and web- based display of information were carefully evaluated. The experimental results prove that the system has great prospect and can be practically used for environmental monitoring by providing stakeholders with relevant and timely information for sound decision making.
Gateways have played an important role in environmental monitoringusing WSNs. Personal computers enable the gateways in WSNs to have better computing capability and expandability. Many studies have proposed different gateways. For example, in Szewczyk’s study, sensing data from sensor nodes (called ‘Mote’) was collected by a laptop that served as a gateway and was then stored in the PostreSQL databases. Through the wide area network (WAN) supported by a satellite, the gateway provided sensing information to users . For WSNs applied to indoor monitoring, personal computers are a suitable candidate for gateways due to their powerful computing and data storage capability. But power shortage would be the most essential issue for this kind of gateways in ecological and environmental monitoring. To overcome this problem, an energy-efficiency gateway with a low power microcontroller (MSP430), manufactured by Texas Instrument (TI), was proposed to monitor Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) in real time and transmit sensed data to a database through GSM. This energy-efficient gateway was powered by solar energy to achieve long-term environmental monitoring . In addition, a liquid crystal display (LCD) was added to the gateway. The LCD presented simple information about the gateway status. Limited by its interface, however, the maintenance for the gateway was difficult.
Abstract: Today Battery is an essential component of all critical electrical systems. Battery stores chemical, not electricity. Two different lead in an acid mixture react to produce an electrical pressure. This electrochemical reaction changes chemical energy to electrical energy. Some batteries are sensitive to overcharge and deep discharge, which may lead to permanent damages. Hence all these stationary batteries require routine maintenance to identify and correct problems. A visual inspection can identify physical problems, electrical testing identifies overcharging and undercharging problem. And state of charge test checks the electrolyte strength. This paper presenting a design of a cost effective battery monitoringsystem which can be easily installed on various type of batteries, captures data regarding the status of battery and sends data to authorized person. Also to estimate state of charge (SOC) accurately a very accurate, robust, stable method such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used. It will help us to prevent overcharging and over discharging the battery which ultimately results in longer battery service time.
empowerment is the key to the world development. Now a day’s women’s are facing more troubles physically in countries like India. The main reason for this type of troubles is the lack of safety for women. Government has only provided some safety measures, but it is the duty of every woman to prevent them self. As we know that they are not physically stronger than men to defend themselves some additional equipment’s are needed for the women to protect themselves. The main aim of our project is to design a security system which is a wearable jacket. It has a control button that will be used by women’s to inform their parents and nearby police station when they are in distress. This jacket directly gets connected to the satellite through GPS when activated. Then the location is transferred through the GSM. It also contains a shock mechanism to produce a non-lethal electric shock in emergency situations to deter the attacker.
life. Sound health is necessary to do the daily work properly. This project aims at developing a system which gives body temperature and heart rate using LM35 and pulse sensor respectively. These sensors are interfaced with controller Arduino uno board. Wireless data transmission done by Arduino through wifi module.ESP8266 is used for wireless data transmission on IoT platform i.e. thing speak. Data visualization is done on Thing speak. So that record of data can be stored over period of time .This data stored on web server so that it can seen to who logged.
In order to transfer information of patients vital signs received from IPDA to long distance situated medical server within short duration as per priority and do the proper diagnosis by medical staff or healthcare persons to improve the patient’s health, physiological signs has given weight as per priority as shown in table 1.Physiological sign having priority weight 1 has highest priority means, that physiological signal should transfer first without time delay. Also it shows that patient is in critical condition and needs immediate help from doctors. Data is compressed in smaller units and transferred due to which utilization of bandwidth is maximum. Priority scheduling decreases traffic congestion as well as improves the transmission delay .
In , "Health Internet of Things: Metrics and methods for efficient data transfers" the authors "Mersini Paschou, Evangelos Sakkopoulos" quoted as The rapid development of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in recent years and their introduction into people’s daily lives worldwide, has led to new circumstances at all levels of the social environment. In health care in particular, sensors and data links offer potential for constant monitoring of patient’s symptoms and needs, in real time, enabling physicians to diagnose and monitor health problems wherever the patient is, either at home or outdoors. However, the use of Internet of Things concepts in the health domain does not come without extra data and therefore a data transfer cost overheads. To deal with these overheads, novel metrics, and methods are introduced in an attempt to maximize the capabilities and widen acceptance/usage provided by the Internet of Things. Without losing its generality, the method discussed is experimentally evaluated in the paradigm of the Health domain. The focus is on the need for an overview of available data formats and transmission methods and selection of the optimal combination, which can result to reduction/minimization of costs. An analytic methodology is presented backed with theoretical metrics and evaluated experimentally.
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper.