used DBSA as the dopant and as surfactant in the reaction system. DBSA allowed the control of the morphology and size of PAni nanorods and magnetite particles. Magnetite particles were formed simultaneously during sedimentation, and the formed nanorods were also decorated by the particles . Radhakrishnan et al. reported the synthesis and characterization of DBSA doped polyaniline (PAni) and its magnetite composites. The composites showed excellent dispersibility in water and organic solvents. The composites were evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications; they found that the single electrode of composite and the symmetrical capacitor based on it showed, respectively, enhanced capacitance of 228 and 180 F g -1 at 1 mA cm -1 . Besides,
The wet chemical method was utilized for the synthesis of manganese nanoparticles. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized low temperature oxidative method. Mn-PANI nanocomposites wassynthesized by in situ approach. The characterization of Mn-PANI nanocomposites was carried out by UV- Visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD and TEM techniques. The size of manganese nanoparticles observed from XRD and TEM techniques was 43.20 nm. The nanocomposites had cubic close packing with average particle size of 42.62 nm. The direct and indirect band gaps were calculated using UV-visible spectra data. Polymer nanocomposite exhibits superior properties such as mechanical, optical, electrical etc. as compared to micro- or macro-composites.Metal–polymer nanocomposites are used in the fields of ultrahigh/infralow refractive index materials, dichroic color filters, nonlinear optical filters, catalytic polymer membranes, etc.
most consequential application of conductive polymers is the development of sensors for bio- chemical species. A bio-sensor is an analytical tool assembling a biological or biologically derived component. Thus this development of effective sensing devices for industrial process control and environmental monitoring is a fast growing need. Also in recent years, the synthesis and characterization of electro-active polymers have become impor tant research area in Polymer Science 2 . Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most
[4 , 21 – 23 ], but about PANI–ZnO nanocomposites specially ﬁlled with nanorods morphology, there is less attention. ZnO is a semiconducting material that has direct wide band gap (3.37 eV) and large excition binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature [20 , 30 ]. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a nontoxic material, n-type semiconductor with a good photocatalytic activity  . The structure and morphology of ZnO have an important effect on its properties and applications; thus, several parameters such as reaction time, rate of evaporation and precursor concentration are found to determine the growth of ZnO nanostructures like nanoparticles, nanorods and nanospheres. The one dimensional nanostructure such as nanorod, nanowire and nanotube has obtained more attention in various applications due to its potential as a building block for other structures especially in paints and coatings. Further- more, its electrical and optical properties are better due to the reduced carrier scattering in one dimensional structure [32 , 33 ]. This one dimensional nanostructure has gained enormous attention due to its extraordinary characteristics in photonics, optics and electronics, and therefore has been used in various industries such as rubber, medical and dental, pigments and coatings, catalysts, ceramic, concrete and in chemical synthesis [31 , 34 , 35 ].
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a technique used to determine and measure the absorption of light in the infrared spectrum at each wavelength. It can also be used as a quantitative technique to identify unknown materials, and the amount of components in a mixture. The spectrum results in certain absorption peaks, which are frequencies from vibrations of the bonds of the atoms. The size of the peaks provide us the amount of each material present in the substrate . Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer was used in both transmission and reflection mode, to understand the doped polyaniline films, dye doped, or composite polyaniline films (figure 24).
Suspension polymerization of aniline in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) with sty- rene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and without SBS was carried out and results indicate that DBSA acts simulta- neously as a surfactant (emulsifier) and as a dopant  . Particle size and conductivity can be decreased by increasing the concentration of stabilizer  . These are related to the mass of insulating stabilizer ad- sorbed. The size and type of the dopant (anion) affect the morphology, size and electrical conductivity of result- ing polymers  . The type and concentration of oxidant (dopant), type of protonic acids and additives af- fect the yield and electrical conductivity of polyaniline prepared chemically . The polarity of the counter ion plays an important role in the conductivity as well as in the chemical properties. Conductivity increases which small counter ions are used . The surfactants influence the physical properties (morphology, solubility) of the resultant polymer . It has been reported that nanotubes of hydrophobic interiors were prepared by disas- sembling anionic micelles in the inner walls of positive charge bearing conjugated polymer . It was also stu- died that supramolecular complexes involving nanoscopic amphiphilic assemblies (AAs) and polyelectrolytes have been used to prepare a variety of materials, wherein the dynamic AAs retain the structural features . In this study, PANI-PFO was prepared in the aqueous solution by chemical oxidation method using KPS as an oxidant in the presence of various surfactant ratios. The effect of the anionic surfactant i.e., PFO on the chemical polymerization of aniline (An), at different surfactant ratios and potential windows is investigated. The doping of PFO changes the surface morphology of PANI. It is also found that electrical conductivity of PANI-PFO was better than that of PANI and governed by changing the concentration of surfactant during the polymerization of aniline.
Characterization of synthesized polymers was also carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All electron micrographs were obtained from the powdered form of polymers. SEM micrograph of polymers in base form gives a smooth and homogeneous appearance. SEM images shows the differences in morphologies of the polymers.
Composite of polyaniline and high surface area graphite powder was prepared by mixing polyaniline with varying weight percentage of graphite powder. Pellets of 500 milligram are prepared and accordingly fractions of PANI and graphite were mixed. First polyaniline was powdered by using mortal pestle, manually. Then graphite powder was added to it. This mixture was ball milled for 20 minute for uniform mixing of powders and then taken for compaction under hydraulic press. Pellets of 15 mm diameter were then compacted at the load of 5 ton using hydraulic press. The proportion of graphite nano powders [milled for 100 min, 200 min and 300 min] in PAni is varied from 10 % to 60 % with the increment of 10%.
Organic polymer has played important rule for industrial manufacture such as paint, plastic, adhesive, electronic and energy. It is easily synthesized; modification and elasticity become an important consideration. Moreover, organic polymer with conductive properties also attracts attention. Complement to these physical properties, the organic conductive polymer also gain attention for certain purposes, such as for solar cell, light emitting diode[2,3], conductive ink, sensor[4–7], semiconductor, super-capacitor, energy storage, catalysis and catalyst supporting material[11–13]. In our ongoing research finding non-metallic material catalyst for alpha-pinene oxidation[14–16] into more valuable chemicals, it turned up on polyaniline nanoparticle (PANI-NP) as prospectus catalyst. Polyaniline (PANI) consists of a long chain of benzenoid ring series and quinoid ring[17,18] and gives moderate conductivity[19–21] about 200 s/cm with hydrochloric acid as dopant.
SHS is an efficient, low-cost and self purifying method which evolves soft and fine nanoparticles with high surface area and different surface properties [Shakir M et.al., 2009, Aruna ST et.al., 2008]. In this paper, NiO nanoparticles (NNP) are prepared by self-propagating high- temperature synthesis (SHS). Such synthesized nanoparticles have a distinct surface property impact on dielectric and conductivity. Synthesis of PANI is done at 0-5 0 C in Emeraldine salt form by chemical
techniques. The data analysis showed an interfacial interaction between PANI and MZFO through the formation of core-shell structure and exhibited an increase in the thermal stability of PANI matrix with the addition of MZFO. The magnetic characterization indicated ferromagnetic behavior for MZFO and showed an improvement in the PANI magnetic properties by the addition of MZFO. The conductivity measurements as a function of temperature showed a decrease in the conducting properties of PANI by the addition of MZFO and a consequent change in the electrical properties from metallic to semi- conducting behavior. Generally, the obtained results indicated the possibility of tailoring electromagnetic properties of PANI depending on the weight percent of MZFO.
The Polymer systems with unique properties are the recent fields of increasing scientific and technical interest, offering the opportunity to synthesize a broad variety of promising new materials, with a wide range of electrical, optical and magnetic property. Technological uses depend crucially on the reproducible control of the molecular and super a molecular architecture of the macromolecular via a simple methodology of organic synthesis. Among the conducting polymer, Polyaniline (PANI) is one such polymer whose synthesis does not require any special equipment or precautions. Conducting polymers generally show highly reversible redox behavior with a noticeable chemical memory and hence have been considered as prominent new materials for the fabrication of the devices like industrial sensors. The properties of conducting polymers depend strongly on the doping level, protonation level, ion size of dopant, and water content. Conducting PANI is prepared either by electrochemical oxidative polymerization or by the chemical oxidative polymerization method. The emeraldine base form of PANI is an electrical insulator consisting of two amine nitrogen atoms followed by two imine nitrogen atoms. PANI (emeraldine base) can be converted into a conducting form by two different doping processes: protonic acid doping and oxidative doping. Protonic acid doping of emeraldine base corresponds to the protonation of the imine nitrogen atoms in which there is no electron exchange. In oxidative doping, emeraldine salt is obtained from leucoemeraldine through electron exchanges. The mechanism causing the structural changes is mainly recognized to the presence of -NH group in the polymer backbone, whose protonati deprotonation will bring about a change in the electrical conductivity as well as in the color of the polymer..
X-Ray Differaction pattern of polyaniline tells that, it has semi crystalline nature with broad peak centered around 2θ=26 o . The strong interaction between polyaniline backbone chain & the inorganic oxide particles due to the polymerization reactions is clearly observed in XRD patterns. By comparing the XRD patterns of composite with polyaniline, it is confirmed that iron oxide have retained their structures even though they are dispersed in PANI during polymerization.
Protective coatings are commonly used to protect steel structures against corrosion. The use of organic-inorganic composites or hybrid materials have proven to be effective because it combines the various attractive properties such as flexibility, ductility and dielectric of organic as well as the desirable properties such as thermal stability, strength and hardness etc. of the inorganic constituent . The use of conductive polymers modified inorganic nanoparticles are also known to improve the physical properties of materials . These types of modified pigments are capable of providing the highest level of protection against corrosion. The use of polyaniline modified anticorrosive pigments include; polyaniline-SiO 2 composite [6-7], polyaniline-Fe 2 O 3 composite coatings , polyaniline-
From the position of the low angle diffraction peaks and using Bragg’s equation average d-spacing of the clay and the nanocomposite were calculated (table2). It can be seen that there is a slight increase in the d-spacing of the clay in the nanocomposite indicating that the clay galleries have expanded for the intercalation of the polymer. The average crystallite size calculated using Debye-Scherrer’s equation is found to be 38.6nm (table 2) showing the formation of composite in the nanoscale. This has also been confirmed by broadening of the XRD peaks.
around 2855 - 3000 cm −1 and bending at 1403 cm −1 . A single medium peak in 3100 - 3500 cm −1 for aromatic C-H and an intense peak in 1100 - 1350 cm −1 for C-N bond were shown for PANi. The presence of benzene rings in polyaniline structure was also confirmed with an intense C-H out of plane bending peak around 1475 - 1600 cm −1 .
absorption spectrum of Pani, the peak at 328nm is due to the π – π * transition within the benzenoid segment. The second shoulder-like absorption band at 450 nm is attributed to the doping level of Pani and the third absorption peak around 800 nm is related to the formation of localized polaron at the backbone of the polymer. The observed three characteristic peaks in absorption spectra indicate only pure emeraldine salt (ES) formed in the system without the formation of emeraldine base (EB) or leucoemeraldine base (LB) of Pani. The absorption peaks in core-shell composite embedded in Pani are due to the synergetic effects of polyaniline and the core-shell materials. The core-shell composite embedded in Pani shows a wide
Ray Diffractometry, Fourier Transform Infra- red Spectroscopy and Ultra Violet Visible spectroscopy. Further from the quantitative analysis of the conductivity data, the temperature dependence behaviour of electrical conductivity for all the samples is observed. In addition to that, the pH measurements also taken for all the samples. Finally it will be concluded that the insulation nature of Al 2 O 3 influencing the chemical and electrical properties polyaniline emeraldine
The aim of the present research was to improve the catalytic properties of an activated carbon fabric by electrodepositing Pt directly onto bare carbon and onto polyaniline modified carbon surfaces. In this sense, Pt/C and Pt/PANI/C electrodes were examined in sulphuric and amaranth/sulphuric media in order to establish their electrochemical behavior. The electrochemical treatment of azo dyes used in textile industry is a matter of special interest since it is one of the main study lines of our research group. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear voltammetry (LV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) were the techniques used to carry out the electrochemical studies.
The synthesis of metal–organic polymer and polymer–inorganic nanoparticles have potential applications in industries and have attracted much attention recently due to their interesting properties [10- 13]. To prepare the nanoscale materials successfully, several approaches have been employed such as physical mixing , the sol–gel technique , in-situ chemical polymerization in an aqueous solution with the presence of polymer monomer and inorganic particles , emulsion technology , sonochemical process , and ir-radiation technique .