specific, and is difficult to formalize and communicate or transfer from one person to another by the process of writing or verbal expression and is not captured by language or mathematics and also difficult to reduce to writing and is made up of mental models, values, beliefs, perceptions, insights and assumptions (Nonaka 1991, Polanyi 1966, Davenport and Prusak 2000, Nonaka and Nishiguchi 2001). Examples of tacitknowledge are, speaking our own language, manage to ride a bicycle, cook dishes without seeing a recipe, etc. (Polanyi 1966).
Furthermore, practitioners in public healthcare services work in a complex environment, where formal research lit- erature cannot be accessed. In these environments, tacitknowledge can help in the understanding of explicit knowledge (12) and can complement technical skills for health care delivery (13). Research results have also con- firmed that health practitioners lay more emphasis on tacitknowledge while tackling health problems (14, 15). Studies have also reported the crucial role of tacitknowledge in team-based practice (12, 16, 17) and collective decision- making (16). The importance of strengthening teamwork interactions and discussions for collective decision- making is inevitable for organizations in developing countries, where organizational members may be reluctant to collab- orate or share information with others to maintain their dominant position or to be acknowledged by their superi- ors. This spirit is damaging to group cohesiveness (18). Thus, providing a framework for sharing tacitknowledge and improving the knowledge creation cycle is highly im- portant for tacit and explicit knowledge conversion pro- cesses and for promoting collective decision- making. To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the methods of utilizing tacitknowledge in health organiza- tions in these countries. Therefore, this study explored the solutions to share and utilize tacitknowledge in health or- ganizations.
Cognitive model: It is deeply embedded in positivistic science as the tool for understanding a mechanical universe driven by single cause-effective relationships. This model is rooted on identification of knowledge as an economic asset and it should be managed and accounted as a part of normal business and a number of efforts are being made to develop procedures for measuring it. It requires careful capture, representation, storage, measurement, preservation and dissemination. It focuses on organizational perspective of knowledge and considers ICT as an enabler of the KM process. The key focus is on reuse, replication, standardization and ‘weeding’ of outdated routines. Swan and Newell (2000) question the application of this model in rapidly changing environment characterized by technology discontinuity such as software development. Network model: This model is based on socialization of knowledge and relationships of actors. It focuses on awareness of ideas that exist outside focal organizations that can be adapted for a vantage position. Knowledge work is seen as building social relationships, social capital and attending to reciprocity. It highlights the role of social patterns between individuals and interest groups in knowledge creation, acquisition, sharing and transfer. It inoculates the collaborative aspect of creating knowledge and sharing which is a key factor in software development especially in geographically dispersed teams (Hemetsberger and Reinhardt 2003). It indicates that knowledge is seen as requiring collaboration through networks, allowing teams to use the knowledge for the betterment of the organization. It put less emphasis on individual achievement and more on teamwork. It has the advantage of focusing on external sources of knowledge through interest and practice networks.
Knowledge is the most important factor of production, next to labor, land and capital. It is about managing and sharing knowledge for the development of an organization. In the competitive business world, knowledge management (KM) has become more essential for the sustainable development of organizations. In the 21st century knowledge and KM become the most professional element in many fields of knowledge, such as, education, cognitive science, health, sociology, management science, information science, computer science, information and technology, economics, philosophy, psychology, knowledge engineering, artificial intelligence and all branches of business. Through the application of successful KM, organizations can improve their effectiveness and can gain competitive advantage. KM helps in the decision making process for the benefit of a company. It leads to higher efficiency in terms of less duplication of work, followed by notably better performance, enhancing new staffs’ capabilities and better quality decisions. The paper discusses the fundamentals and the importance of KM for professionals, users and technology experts. This article also examines the concepts of knowledge and KM in organizations. The major challenges and barriers for implementation of KM in organizations are discussed in some details. Additionally, the paper discusses the proficiencies, responsibilities, profiles and the roles of a knowledge manager. An attempt has been taken here to enhance knowledge related efficiencies in any organization.
Knowledge is regarded as a strategic factor in knowledge management implementation. It is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. Tacitknowledge is created in the human mind as individual know-how and can be expressed as innovation. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their peers in the organization. For the sustainable development of the modern global economy tacitknowledge can play an important role. Acquire and extract of tacitknowledge is not a very easy task, since it is very complex in its nature. The success and well-being of humankind is an essential issue in the twenty first century and use of tacitknowledge makes the job easier. Management of tacitknowledge effectively and efficiently is a key success factor for the organizations. The paper tries to discuss sharing of tacitknowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. It analyzes the importance and difficulties of sharing tacitknowledge. This paper also makes an effort to explore the properties and characteristic of tacitknowledge thinking for the new readers.
Organizations need technologies to transform the business processes to achieve the value and growth for their business functions. Knowledge Management is one of the tools most appropriate to integrate the technologies with organizations business processes. Many companies and non-profit organizations have resources dedicated to internal Knowledge Management efforts, often as a part of their business strategy, information technology, or human resource management department. Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding Knowledge Management to these organizations. This paper aims to explain how successful organizations engage in Knowledge Management process by development of various stages include from corporate culture, knowledge dimensions and technologies that facilitate the process. It also tries to explain various technologies used in implementing Knowledge Management in organizations through which value creation for customers and stakeholders can be done. It rationalizes the implementation of Knowledge Management in strategic, managerial and operational elements of a business to achieve the organizational performance. The data is collected from various published and unpublished journals, articles and relevant books on Knowledge Management.
Knowledge is an important resource for modern organisations as organizations successful at generating, transferring, and adopting knowledge are likely to gain competitive advantage. It is common to distinguish explicit knowledge and tacitknowledge. Explicit knowledge can be easily captured, transferred, and organised in digital form, while tacitknowledge is highly personal and context specific and cannot be easily formalised (Pearlson & Saunders, 2006). Tacitknowledge is widely believed to be a source of sustained competitive advantage, because it is difficult to transfer between different organisational contexts (Cavusgil, Calantone, & Zhao, 2003; Johannessen, Olaisen, & Olsen, 2001; SENKER, 1995). Direct interactions between individuals is necessary for transfer of tacitknowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). Therefore, communication between employees is one of the most important ways for creating and transferring tacitknowledge in a modern organisation.
management and other spheres relied. This method, in fact evolves other methods of management, not something that suddenly is discovered and can be implemented within 6 months within the organization. Successful organizations have found that their most important asset knowledge and some basic principles of knowledge management, there are organizations and their staff and knowledge management in the organization sees as a key success factor. For this reason, large investments have to apply this type of cost management. Efforts have long history and include discussions about jobs, internships official, discussion and exchange of ideas, vocational and advising training programs. Recently, with the increasing use of computers in the second half of the twentieth century, technologies such as knowledge base, expert systems, group decision support systems, intranets and work collectively with computer support are offered to further improve such efforts. The five areas of knowledge management in organizations operating in the field of education, feedback, retrain and provide training to remove or usually to create, preserve and restore capabilities of the organization is required. Many information professionals with systematic storage and retrieval and reuse information for the act, but in a knowledge-based organization focusing only on this aspect alone is not enough, but information should be based on real business needs, in terms of quality control and join to relevant business processes. Through common ties between business intelligence and mental processes and the man eventually new knowledge and understanding is created. In fact, the space created in the field of knowledge and new ideas the development and further change to more profitable business is established. Knowledge management cycle is shown in Figure 1-1 (Jafari, 2003).
In a study covering two information technology and business administration colleges in Malaysia, Rashid, Hassan and Al-Okaily (2015) determined that tacitknowledgedevelopment spurred competitive advantage for the institutions. Further, that because of weaknesses in measuring and tracking tacitknowledge factors, UNITEN had missed out on the opportunity to use the available tacitknowledge resources to enhance its competiveness. In another empirical study conducted by Jackson (2012) in the USA, the results of Pearson correlations showed a significant statistical correlation between tacitknowledge and the selling level, confirming the hypothesis that tacitknowledge embedded in customer relationships and product knowledge helps drive the performance of sales teams which in turn increases the competiveness of a firm.
companies to have the correct strategy and method in knowing the current need of customers. Companies within this industry need to explore and find new knowledge that caters for the need of the customers. In most cases, explicit knowledge is readily available from the feedback of customers that can be attained from social networking sites and platforms. Tourists would be the best promoting tools as they would recommend the best experience when they go on holiday. As for tacitknowledge, organization would have to invest on what the tourists’ future needs are when they are on holiday. Hence, the knowledge based on the tourism industry requires tourists’ own creativity and innovation capability in providing the best services. One of the challenge of KM in the industry is corresponding not to the organization, but to the micro level of KM where the destinations are the main focus of any tourism aspects (Zehrer, 2011). As pointed out by Gretzel and Fesenmaier (2004), knowledge based information system at micro destination level integrates different levels of knowledge. They also pointed out the adopting of the technology usually takes place in three stages and is interrelated with experience that the organizations have in KM. There are basically three categories of tourist experiences: planning process, the actual trip and memories of the particular trip (Larsen, 2007). Tourism is one of the major industries that contributes to a country’s gross domestic products (GDP). Many companies and organization are involved in getting the chunk of the pie from the industry profitable opportunities. There are many opportunities that can be acquired by having the correct platform that an organization can benefit from. The result in KS in tourism enables operators to update and adapt the best practice to serve the tourists and having direct links to online resources to keep them in line with the current trends and development in the industry (Braun & Hollick, 2006). With the contest of securing customer for choosing a destination with an agency, knowledge on giving the best service possible is crucial in this industry. This is the role of social media in disseminating information to potential customers (Nezakati et al., 2015). Every player in tourism industry should adopt and adapt the best application in using social media that are famous and mostly used by users. Knowledge in acquiring the best practice would entitle business owners and entrepreneurs to be up to date in generating the current preference of the market.
Not all information is valuable. Therefore, it is up to individual companies to decide what information qualifies as intellectual and knowledge-based assets. In general, however intellectual and knowledge based assets fall into one of two categories: explicit or tacit. Included among the former are assets such as patents, trademarks, business plans, customer lists, marketing lists etc. Normally explicit knowledge consists of anything that can be documented, archived and codified, often with the help of IT. The concept of tacitknowledge or know-how in people’s mind is difficult to grasp. The challenge inherent with tacitknowledge is figuring out how to recognize, generate, share and manage this knowledge. While IT in the form of E-mail, groupware, instant messaging and related technologies can help facilitate the dissemination of tacitknowledge; identifying tacitknowledge in the first place is a major hurdle for most organizations.
The results from the 54 established SMEs surveyed support proposition 1. The organisation of transferable tacitknowledge in a business enterprise is central to growth and viability. Informal business development and operational indicators derived from ad-hoc management accounting systems complement business tacitknowledge in SME decision making. Financial accounting information plays a secondary role in SME decision making. That is, the organisation and transferability of tacitknowledge play a critical role in the growth, establishment and decision making of SMEs. Formal planning and the use of financial accounting reports in management decision making are absent in the majority of SME environments surveyed. Decision making in the established SMEs surveyed is based on ad-hoc management accounting information combined with intimate understanding of customer needs and operational processes. The embeddedness of tacit business knowledge held in an SME can be described as organisational motor cognition, that is, the embeddedness of mental and social actions within an organization required to fulfil market needs and deliver customer satisfaction. The use of ad-hoc management accounting information acts as a steering mechanism that refines the actions fulfilled by the embedded organisational motor cognition.
To identify the tacitknowledge transfer subjects is the origin of tacitknowledge transfer process, generally con- tains four steps. 1) According to enterprise’s strategic development target, positioning key positions as know- ledge receiving jobs. Enterprise strategic objective is based on the core business processes, so that to identify the key positions in the core business process and to achieve the goals of these jobs will directly decides the realiza- tion of enterprise strategic target. 2) Comparing the tacitknowledge gap between the qualification of key posi- tions and the existing incumbents, and determine the tacitknowledge transfer requirements. Use competency analysis method to analyze key positions, and identify the necessary tacitknowledge which the core positions require and then to measure the tacitknowledge stock of the incumbents to analysis the tacitknowledge gap between the incumbents and job qualifications, as well as the demand for knowledge transfer. Measurement tools and methods could be chose depending on the type of tacitknowledge, for example, the tacitknowledge with low implicit levels (e.g. professional skills, problem solving, etc.) can be measured with evaluate scale; For the tacitknowledge with high degree implicit (e.g. individual mental models) are generally measured with the scene view method, experiment method, role playing method, man-machine auxiliary experiment. 3) According to the demand of the tacitknowledge transfer, to position the knowledge outputting positions as target rotation job. Utilize the knowledge map or job analysis to position the target outputting positions which own the required knowledge. If the enterprise need to transfer the knowledge stored in an individual, then we need to position knowledge carrier person as the primary knowledge transmitter. 4) To select rotators. Enterprises select the right person in the knowledge receiving positions to rotate to the knowledge outputting positions in order get new ta- cit knowledge. This requires rotators have subjective willingness to participate in job rotation and have good learning ability.
Pharmaceutical firms frequently rely on partnerships with biotechnology firms as a primary source for scientific discoveries crucial for the development of new drugs. Because of their lack of focus on the basic scientific research, it is often difficult for managers of pharmaceutical firms to gain a tactical understanding of this type of research. Conversely, the exclusive focus on research by biotech firms enables their managers to have a deeper tacit understanding of specific types of basic scientific research. Difficulty in effective transfer of the knowledge regarding scientific discoveries made by biotech firms to pharmaceutical firms is due in large part to the contrast in scientific paradigms emphasized by each type of firm. The potential benefits associated with a successful alliance between biotech and pharmaceutical firms are substantial. Drugs produced by pharma-biotech alliances are 30 % more likely to succeed in winning Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval than those developed by a single company. In addition, nearly a third of new pharmaceutical products are now developed through alliances, compared to only 7 % a decade ago (Hess & Evangelista, 2003). In addition, the largest pharma-biotech deals have steadily increased in size in recent years, from SmithKline Beecham’s $125 million deal with Human Genome Sciences in 1993 to the $1.3 billion collaboration between Bayer and CuraGen in 2001 (Hess & Evangelista, 2003). Porter argued that industry improves and sustains its competitiveness via every well- organized activity and infrastructure in the value system. Every element in the knowledge cluster plays a particular role and creates specific value to it (Porter, 1996).
This dimension also called as “relational embeddedness” (Rindfleisch & Moorman, 2001), is about quality of connectivity the actors keep. The quality of connectivity is dependent on the interactions’ history (Granovetter, 1985) which leads towards relationships of trust, commitments and reciprocity (Fukuyama, 1995; Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998; Ring & van de Ven, 1992; Ring & Van De Ven, 1994). To cultivate such relationships of trust, it is essential that actors maintain a certain level of communication, collaboration and coordination linkages. Such level of linkages develops over time through repetitive interactions expressing actors’ willingness to share resources (Dyer & Nobeoka, 2000). Due to relational capital, the actors tend to engage in a strategic partnership and maintain long lasting economic and social relationships. The trust makes it possible to transfer tacitknowledge (Levin & Cross, 2004) because transparent behavior facilitates willingness among actors for social cooperation and exchange (Fukuyama, 1995; Ring & van de Ven, 1992; Ring & Van De Ven, 1994). The trust even facilities the exchange of confidential or private information (Knack & Keefer, 1997). With repeated contacts, interactions and transactions, the trust deficiency reduces and actors have a tendency to be least alarmed about the opportunistic intension and behavior of others. The tacitknowledge transfers when there is assurance, informal contact, and face-to-face communication (Kogut & Zander, 1992; Levin & Cross, 2004) because tacitknowledge obliges insights and beliefs and both are intertwined tightly with knowledge sources’ experience (Polanyi, 1966). In case of explicit knowledge, the role of trust is not stronger as it is already codified and available for sharing but access and transfer of that knowledge is facilitated by trust. When actors attain a repute of trustworthiness and exploitation of opportunistic behavior is least, the exchange and combination of resources increase necessary of development of novel ideas and innovation. Proposition 3: Socially embedded linkages of organizations with community based on trust will
According to questionnaire results, the academic staff in UNITEN University has positive culture to adopt new solutions of knowledge management services in order to improve their working activities and enhance the working outcomes. Thus, they have the ability to learn and implement new applications of knowledge management in the working environment. On the other hand, the academic staff believes that tacitknowledge is important key to produce efficient services and products of the university. Therefore, the development and management of tacitknowledge is important to provide the competitive advantages over other universities. Moreover, the tacitknowledge measurement is necessary to manage the tacit assists in the university in order to understand how to develop the employees’ skills and experiences of researching and teaching activities. Also the tacitknowledge measurement supports the leaders’ decisions to insight and structure the working tasks based on their tacit levels. However, there are no effective methods to measure the employees’ tacitknowledge in the university. Thus, the university has not good understanding of the tacit resources which lead them to manage and develop the tacitknowledge of the employees depend on traditional methods such as the employees’ years of experience and the jobs roles. The lack of knowledge measurement lead to minimize the efficiency of knowledge management activities in the university due to inaccurate
A vast body of strategic management literature has focused on offering explanation on performance heterogeneity in organizations (Hughes and Morgan, 2007). The resource-based view (RBV) focuses on characteristics of firm resources that contribute to performance in the form of competitive advantage (Grunert and Hildebrandt, 2004). It assumes resource heterogeneity between competing firms, and further contends that these resources are not mobile, which makes long term, sustainable competitive advantage possible based on the internal configuration of strategically relevant resources. In particular, intangible assets such as knowledge, innovation, and intellectual properties have been identified as value drivers and sources of company’s competitive advantage. Makhija (2003) suggests that these valuable resources are frequently found in the organization in the form of tacitknowledge. Furthermore, Liu and Wei (2009) confirm that knowledge-based assets or resources provide heterogeneous capabilities that give each company its unique character and are the essence of competitive advantage.
tacitknowledge is the source of competitive advantage and critical to daily management activities. Tacitknowledge is also divided into two types, cannot be articulated and implicit knowledge, knowledge we know but do not want to express. The division of tacitknowledge into individual and collective is elaborated by Choo (1998). Collins (2001) from the sociology perspective argues that tacitknowledge can be passed through personal contact. Tacitknowledge is an attribute of an individual, unspeakable and unteachable is the definition given by Wagner and Sternberg (1999), from the behaviorist view point. Stenmark (2000) believes that tacitknowledge resides in individuals. Tacitknowledge is valuable and a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Although it resides in individual, organizations must identify and capture the tacitknowledge (Davenport and Prusak, 1997).