Top PDF Tacit knowledge; Job engagement; Effect of tacit knowledge transfer

Tacit knowledge; Job engagement; Effect of tacit knowledge transfer

Tacit knowledge; Job engagement; Effect of tacit knowledge transfer

In previous research, researchers usually focused on job burnout rather than engagement. Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment occurring among individuals who work with people in some capacity (Iwanicki, 1981). Job burnout is possible to happen in any fields, especially the fields of workers in client- centered which are most susceptible. Previous research indicated that job burnout and engagement were two ends of continuum. Based on this idea, a job-person fit model was proposed to analyze the antecedent variables of job burnout and engagement. In the job-person fit model, work load, control, reword, community, fairness, and values are considered as the six factors which affect the burnout and engagement. It means that job burnout would be generated by employee, when they are in the following situations: work overload, lack of control, low return, lack of work team, unfairness, and culture conflict. Otherwise, employees will be under the state of job engagement (Maslach & Leiter, 1997).
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The Impact of Tacit Knowledge Sharing on Job Performance

The Impact of Tacit Knowledge Sharing on Job Performance

According to Ford and Hakansson (2013), there is a great potential for businesses to profit in a competitive market. However, the pressure to increase sales could cause employees to use unethical tactics. In addition, competition can lead to challenges that directly impact tacit knowledge sharing, such as mistrust, different learning styles and inaccurate information. Businesses should reduce uncertainties related to competition through the sharing of tacit knowledge (Ford & Hakansson, 2013). Preventative measures can be taken to avoid competition and jealousy by promoting collaboration between coworkers. This can be accomplished by placing an emphasis on teamwork. Research suggests that positive coworker relationships formed early on have an effect in the long run. Evidence shows the correlation between positive coworker relationships and improvement in job satisfaction, organizational commitment and communication (Glaman, Jones & Rozelle, 2002). Trust plays a pivotal role in creating a collaborative culture and is a prerequisite to tacit knowledge sharing. Collaboration occurs when everyone learns to confide in and respect one another (Kucharska, 2017). Once a person learns that working as a team can generate better results than working individually, teamwork becomes a natural aspect of the organizational culture.
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Tacit knowledge transfer: Cross-cultural adventure

Tacit knowledge transfer: Cross-cultural adventure

The third category involves individual enjoyment, sometimes with subthemes of envy or curiosity. Keywords such as fun and play are typical, and key phrases such as ‘I wanted to see what it was like’, and ‘Why should they have all the fun?’ This may be seen as an example of the tourism demonstration effect (Fisher, 2004) as well as a transfer of tacit knowledge. This motivation may also be coupled with the possibility of future status and money. Locals, and indeed tourists, who learn to surf purely for personal pleasure, may nonetheless harbour secret dreams of becoming professional athletes, able to travel the world at their sponsors’ expense. Even though a single motivation may be dominant and expressed at the time of interview, individual motivations may change over time. Since we recorded motivations from each informant over only a brief period, however, we cannot currently track these changes.
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Balancing on ice: the implicit learning of tacit knowledge

Balancing on ice: the implicit learning of tacit knowledge

For example, a training manager in an Antarctic organisation may apply Model A (Informal Workplace Learning) in conducting Training Needs Assessment (Noe, 2009), such as Person-, Task- and Organisational Analysis, in order to identify and match trainees with suitable training programme(s) and to facilitate their informal learning at a workplace. Additionally, a trainer may employ Model B (the Adaptive Implicit Learning model) to design training content, positive training environments, conditions, and methods of delivery and assessment to facilitate individual learning and on-the-job training. Lastly, a trainer, training manager and management of an Antarctic programme may apply Table 5 (Indicators of Disparities for Learning Transfer) to design and facilitate training and working environmental factors in order to increase the chances of training transfer, and informal learning transfer, across contexts. By using Cost-Benefit Analysis to evaluate and to validate training programmes and/or informal learning activities at a workplace, these change agents may measure different levels of training effectiveness, namely, Level 1 (Reaction), Level 2 (Learning), Level 3 (Behaviour), Level 4 (Result), and Level 5 (Return-of-Investment) (Noe, 2009). By determining the return-of-investment in human resource practices associated to a polar deployment, such as training, job analysis and job design, performance measurement, and recruitment and selection, these change agents may demonstrate, strategically, the applications of the learning models to the management of these organisations .
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A model for self-assessment of skills to identify tacit knowledge stock and enable knowledge transfer

A model for self-assessment of skills to identify tacit knowledge stock and enable knowledge transfer

4 address this gap, this research study focuses on identifying the tacit knowledge stock of organisational members to determine whether it facilitates knowledge transfer. RBV considers firms’ internal resources to be important factors in enhancing organisational competitiveness, whereas KBT considers knowledge (tacit and explicit) to be an important intangible resource in assuring a firm’s superior performance. It is vital that every organisation identifies the tacit knowledge stock of its staff, as this assists in enabling knowledge transfer in an organisation (Gupta & Govindarajan 2000). For example, an IT professional may be under-skilled for some jobs and over-skilled for others. Identification of the current skill set of the IT professional will enable him or her to acquire or share his or her knowledge as needed. According to research conducted by Stasser et al. (1995), group performance was improved when group members were aware of the skills of their colleagues. Likewise, job performance was enhanced when an organisation had developed awareness of its employees’ skills (Wegner 1987; Hemani & Rashidi 2016). Assessing current skills is one of the important methods of identifying the tacit knowledge stock of organisational members (Bartram 2004). There is evidence of an increase in the use of skills assessment in identifying the competency levels of staff in organisations (Shippmann et al. 2000). Skills assessment software can determine the knowledge capabilities of organisational staff (Grant 1996). Organisations perform skills assessments to measure the capabilities and potential of their staff (Bartram 2004; Nelson & Sidney 2005). There are multiple ways of identifying the tacit knowledge stock of staff in organisations. These include accessing previous projects of staff, interviewing, checking profiles, analysing existing documents produced by staff, and analysing relationships between employees (Newk-Fon Hey Tow et al. 2012). These methods mainly involve staff assessment. Besides, an evaluator’s judgement on skills assessment may not be accurate or comprehensive, as tacit knowledge is difficult to codify (Mitri 2003). Limited research has been done to examine the self-assessment of skills as an effective method of tacit knowledge stock identification for enabling knowledge transfer (Shrestha et al. 2017). Therefore, to fill this gap, the focus of this study was to identify the tacit knowledge stock of IT professionals in a case study organisation. This was based on a self-assessment of skills, with the aim of enabling knowledge transfer.
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The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

Knowledge (80); Individuals (50); Organisational domain (46); Skill (35); Non- Codification (28); Non-verbal (27); Experience (26); Context specific (24); Intuition (20); Learned (16); Know how (15); Not formal (13); Action (12); Expertise (11); Culture (10); Contingency based (9); Environment (9); Externalisation (9); Knowing (9); Not easily communicated (9); Practical (9); Sub-consciousness (9); Understanding (9); Cognitive (8), Internalisation (8); Mental models (8); Not directly taught (8); Not easily transmitted (8); Process (8); Abilities (7); Apprenticeship (7); Low environmental support (7); Management (7); Practice (7); Society (7); Two dimensional (7); Behaviour (6); Beliefs (6); Conscious (6); Direct contact (6); Face to face transfer (6); Goal attainment (6); Inferences (6); Learning by doing (6); Maxims (6); Non-awareness (6); Pattern recognition (6); Perceptions (6); Procedural in nature (6); Routine (6); Subjectivity (6); Tasks (6); Technology (6); Values (6); Common sense (5); Decision making (5); Embodied (5); Implicit (5); Implied (5); Information (5); Judgement (5); No idea (5); Not easily codifiable (5); Sharing (5); Taken for granted (5); Unconscious (5); Everyday situations (4); Interaction (4); Job knowledge (4); Know more than we can tell (4); Not easily formalised (4); Not formal instruction (4); Others (4); Physical control (4); Riding a bicycle (4); Rule (4); Schema (4); Time (4); Touch sensitivity (4); Wisdom (4); Abstraction (3); Access constraints (3); Awareness (3); Communal (3); Competitive advantage (3); Embedded (3); Emotions (3); Experientially established cognitive structures (3); Focal awareness (3); Groups (3); Holism (3); Ideals (3); Importance of language (3); Information retrieval (3); Insight (3); Learning by using (3); Meaning (3); Mind (3); Motor skills (3); Observation (3); Oneself (3); Particular uses/particular situations (3); Performance (3); Practical intelligence (3); Procedures (3); Resistance to revelation (3); Rules of thumb (3); Selective comparison (3); Semantics (3); Sense perception (3); Transmission (3).
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Tacit Knowledge in a Software Development Project

Tacit Knowledge in a Software Development Project

cornerstone of project management. Project managers, taking their cue from their superiors, will emphasize friendship, conviviality, healthy competition, and shared proprietorship vis-à-vis the project and its conceits. Good quality social interactions and hands tacit knowledge transfer. More than that, however, the frequency of social interaction aids the acquisition and sharing of tacit knowledge because it creates better quality interactions and creates various opportunities for people to share ideas and to practice their craft in the comfortable presence of colleagues they trust (Ryan and Connor, 2013). Once more, managing any project involving people means creating a comfort zone that serves all of them well. Find the people who work most effectively with one another, build upon previous relationships or shared commonalities between individuals and make it plain that the general atmosphere will be one that fosters and facilitates the exchange of complementary knowledge and expertise. In effect, a major part of the challenge is ensuring that the right people are all together and working on the same enterprise.
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

However, in the case studies, there is a clear history of tacit knowledge transfer that pre-dates the successor’s entry into the business and is embedded in the family context. This finding challenges Garcia-Alverez, Lopez-Sintas and Gonzalvo ‘s (2002) assumption that business knowledge transfer begins with entry into the business and provides an alternative explanation of the difference in tacit knowledge transfer between family and non-family successor experiences. In fact, in family firms generally, the phases do not seem as distinct in the cases in this study. Although the ‘familiness’ of the firm – the values and norms referred to earlier seemed to pre-date the successor’s formal entry into the firm, the transfer of firm specific business knowledge begins prior to the successor being formally identified as such, again challenging the distinct phases described by Garcia-Alverez, Lopez- Sintas and Gonzalvo (2002). It is unclear whether there is a point where the successor begins the business-specific knowledge transfer before the successor has been openly identified as the successor. It is reasonable to assume, given what we know about entrepreneurial personalities (adaptive, anticipatory), that the founder’s engagement in the business-specific knowledge transfer process commences when the successor views or assumes that their child will be the successor rather than when that is openly acknowledged, although our data does not lead to that as a conclusion. This finding extends this model in showing that the stages are not as distinct as the model suggests and extends our understanding of the family and business
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Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In  Higher Education

Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In Higher Education

The socialization mode refers to the conversion of tacit knowledge to the new tacit knowledge through social interactions and shared experience between people who have a common culture and who work together proficiently. Socialization is regarded as an opportunity for participating individuals to share their experiences and to learn through direct exchange of tacit knowledge. Only individuals with higher level of understanding and knowledge richness can transfer tacit knowledge to the others. In the organization, socialization is used by identification and the transfer of best practices. Knowledge sharing among individuals takes place through face-to-face contacts such as meeting, focus groups, conversations at lunchtime, on-the-job training and master-fellow relationships like craftsmanship and interaction with others. Techniques used in Socialization mode are observation, group decision support system and brainstorming.
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Emotional intelligence and tacit knowledge management in hospitality

Emotional intelligence and tacit knowledge management in hospitality

Table 1. Hypotheses status of confirmation 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Fenstermacher (2005) in his article “the tyranny of knowledge: What artificial intelligence tells us about knowledge representation” states that computer systems might perform same tasks with tacit knowledge using alternative representations. It seems that Technology somewhere in the future will exceed the human brain possibly in every way, but until then, however, a more focused look at the way theoretical and electronic knowledge is applied, it could recognize that it is established in tacit commitments. Even the most theoretical aspect of knowledge cannot form an entirely standardized system eliciting and applying it, due to the fact that it necessarily contains a personal quality – the human factor – who corresponds, adjusts and applies knowledge in a way inherent to personal values and future anticipations. In other words, personal knowledge is in charge of any business decision making and procedures in a unique and unprecedented way. Moreover, the discussion regarding the relationship between tacit knowledge transfer and emotional intelligence can be also based on the acceptance that every organism is an emotional field (Armstrong, 2000), within which overwhelming and sophisticated vertical and horizontal interpersonal relations occur, inevitably influencing leadership, trust, job satisfaction, anxiety, conflicts, decision making, etc. In this context, the importance of personal perception and emotions in the choice of any entrepreneurial decision taken within the hospitality establishment holds an imperative role. However, regardless the importance of human emotions and the contribution of human factor in the decision-making process, academia did not focus sufficiently on the connection between emotions and tacit knowledge management. This is why Fineman (2003) postulated – in a way ‘complained’ – that within knowledge management literature review, the emotional factor was substantially omitted. Indeed, until relatively recently, emotion as a component of collaborative and individual interest perception, determining organizational behavior, continues to be of limited interest. However, simple enumerations of the published articles in scientific journals indicate that increasing numbers of researchers are focusing on emotions as a criterion of organizational behavior.
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Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the pro- cess of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and deter- mination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM): depict the es- sence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Trans- fer Method (TKTM) into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of De- sign are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Having seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonym- ous), aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) proves the sig- nificant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey re- sults, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.
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Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Knowledge transfer is a process that the knowledge is transferred from knowledge sources to knowledge re- ceptors [5]. Formal tacit knowledge transfer channels contain mentoring, group learning [6], establishing the enter- prise internal knowledge market [7], expert database, knowledge map [8], etc. Some scholars put forward that the enterprise can also transfer tacit knowledge through informal communication channels, such as irregular se- minars, coffee gap chatting and so on. In recent years, people gradually realize that job rotation is also an effec- tive tool to realize tacit knowledge transferring within enterprises. Implementing job rotation provides the rota- tors with a real learning situation; at the same time, the knowledge receiver will be moved to the knowledge center to accelerate the two-way tacit knowledge transfer [9]. Then, what is the process that tacit knowledge is transferred through job rotation? Establishing tacit knowledge management mechanism, including target sub- mechanism, dynamic sub-mechanism and feedback sub-mechanism, can realize tacit knowledge transfer process to support the realization of strategic goals. Then, how can we build the tacit knowledge management mechan- ism within an enterprise?
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Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

An example of the tacit knowledge approach to transferring knowledge within a global organization is provided by Toyota. When Toyota wants to transfer knowledge of its production system to new employees in a new assembly factory, such as the factory recently opened in Valenciennes, France, Toyota typically selects a core group of two to three hundred new employees and sends them for several months training and work on the assembly line in one of Toyota’s existing factories. After several months of studying the production system and working alongside experienced Toyota assembly line workers, the new workers are sent back to the new factory site. These repatriated workers are accompanied by one or two hundred long-term, highly experienced Toyota workers, who will then work alongside all the new employees in the new factory to assure that knowledge of Toyota’s finely tuned production process is fully implanted in the new factory.
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Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

no research work. I come from a research background, having completed my Masters and later my PhD, research is my interest. I believe if you keep doing teaching, there is no progress. Academicians should do research to perform. I tried to ask for a transfer to the main campus, because I know research activities are quite active there. I tried many times but failed. Then I decided to find friends in the areas to do research. They are not only in the campus but also other organizations. I cannot really find people who want to do research. Most of them prefer teaching. The organizational environment also focus on teaching, your teaching load is like 18 hours to 23 hours. How do you squeeze in the research? I really wanted to do research, so I have to offset the time, find time after office hours to do research. I learned to surpass myself, and keep on working hard. In short, I have to prove myself that I can do it. Later, the research culture starts to come in. I managed to find some people from other organization who shared the same interest and started doing research. Meantime, I still applied for a transfer as I believe that I am better off in the main campus, in pursuing my research interest. Meantime, I don’t waste time, I write books, I utilize my time in trying to do research. I still want to pursue my interest and try various ways in doing it. I know I have the constraints but for me, I decide for myself but the environment surrounding me.
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Tacit Knowledge: Characteristics in nursing practice

Tacit Knowledge: Characteristics in nursing practice

a b s t r a c t Introduction: Tacit knowledge can be defined as knowledge which is used intuitively and unconsciously, which is acquired through one’s experience, characterized by being personal and contextual. Some terms such as ‘intuition’, ‘know how’ and ‘implicit knowledge’ have been used to describe tacit knowledge. Different disciplines in the fields of management or health have studied tacit knowledge, identifying it as a powerful tool to create knowledge and clinical decision-making. The aim of this review is to analyse the definition and characteristics that make up tacit knowledge and determine the role it plays in the nursing discipline.
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Global mobility of professionals and the transfer of tacit knowledge in multinational service firms

Global mobility of professionals and the transfer of tacit knowledge in multinational service firms

This is a repository copy of Global mobility of professionals and the transfer of tacit knowledge in multinational service firms.. White Rose Research Online URL for this paper: http://e[r]

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“Explication of Tacit Knowledge” Deliverable 10 – Interpretation

“Explication of Tacit Knowledge” Deliverable 10 – Interpretation

to their approach to the in-between spaces and how they work with them, she says: “I think that this student workshop and the PRS2 showed me that this sort of wandering through existing building and looking for in-between sites truly is our embedded, tacit methodology.” 135 This experience of the space at a eye-level and with walking through the space seems counterbalanced and enhanced by the media they use, such as axonometric view 136 , which are from above and rather conceptual and the collage of different media. The understanding of the space and its potentiality seems to rely on the conjunction of several and different media and tools. The in-between with its several meaning brings along “two paradoxical things because acupuncture is very precise, whereas, the “in-between” phenomenon is a bit here and there, and is therefore some sort of vague state where things can fall either way? 137 ” but is in the transformation of the scale and in the detail that the paradox seems overcome, she states that “I don’t see our work as interior design, I see it as pure architecture because we do not have the budget to choose super de- signer lamps and chairs. We basically design and draw everything by ourselves and we are inspired by situations that we see in public space and we want to generate them in the interior as well.” 138
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Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

Project specific characteristics In construction, project specific characteristics that promote sharing of tacit knowledge include a move towards change management, collaborative forms of procurement, enlightened owners, effective team composition, trust between team members, project complexity, and early involvement of contractors (Egbu and Botterill, 2001; Kurul et al., 2003). Collaborative forms of procurement tackle the fragmented nature of construction environment. The fragmentation of the industry, and its confrontational and litigious nature inhibit the sharing of tacit knowledge. Construction literature on collaborative forms of procurement often suggests a partnering approach, as it possesses the characteristics of long-term relationships and experiential learning (Haksever et al., 2001). Partnering is described as “a management approach used by two or more organisations or individuals to achieve specific business objectives by maximising the effectiveness of each participant’s resources” (Bennett and Jayes, 1995). Early involvement of the contractor provides tacit knowledge related to labour, materials, and cost during the design. Team composition plays a significant role in knowledge production in project environments. The fundamental attribute of an effective team is its flexibility and responsiveness in addressing the emergent problems and opportunities. This is largely facilitated by the high-level of expertise and ‘adequate knowledge-base’ within the team. Team members are more willing to share knowledge if they trust one another (Jawahar Nesan, 2004). Team stability (i.e. continuous involvement of the same team members throughout the project life-cycle) is important in establishing trust between team members. The project complexity (e.g. increased number of subcontractors/suppliers, design complexity, increased variations) creates challenges, which often influence the sharing of tacit knowledge and promote knowledge production.
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Capture of Tacit Knowledge through Storytelling

Capture of Tacit Knowledge through Storytelling

2.4 KM Storytelling Tacit knowledge should be delivered in a rather manageable and absorbable fashion. Storytelling allows a proper capture and sharing of knowledge (Sole & Wilson, 2003). Explicit knowledge may be easier to understand and lot easier to retrieve, but tacit knowledge is most knowledge that one has and it is considered as the most important knowledge which may not be specific to work but also on a daily needs (Denning, 2000). During a knowledge management conference in Singapore (Klein, 2011), He highlighted the importance of capturing tacit knowledge; he said “experts see patterns we do not see” he stressed on the importance of capturing the knowledge that experts have gained through years of experience. He suggested that storytelling is good method for capturing tacit knowledge.
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Tacit knowledge management at universities in Kenya

Tacit knowledge management at universities in Kenya

Just like any other company or organisation, universities employ staff who are either fresh from college or from the industry and lack experience in the higher education setting. The staff are employed on different terms; contract, temporary, casual or permanent and pensionable. After they are recruited, the staff are placed and/or deployed to different organisational departments or sections. Regardless of the terms of service or section deployed, training of such staff is important. This is so, because such groups of individuals need induction and exposure to the new environment. It emerged during the interviews that TK creation/capture is a difficult process. Respondents indicated that capturing this type of knowledge was tricky. They identified important ICT tools like, recorders, video tapes and cameras that can be used to capture TK. In the current knowledge economy, universities must manage TK. It was noted that in the universities under study, there were no complex ICT infrastructure apart from the ordinary ICT facilities. Respondents agreed that they use electronic media to capture TK. Social media was found to be a facilitator in knowledge creation and capture. The libraries in the case study sites use social media to collect information. Furthermore, knowledge was captured by employees through video recordings of meetings, as well as organisational documents, like the minutes of meetings and documentaries. In addition, this study finding revealed that universities create TK through experience of the human resource as supported by the mentorship programmes, and the learning processes. Ways to teach both TK and formal academic knowledge or job skills are similar. Universities indicated that they practice mentorship though it was informally done. Mentorship provides one of the key platforms of knowledge creation and capture. Workshops and conferences are also used as ways of creating TK. Such platforms are common in the education sector. Universities place call for papers, where individuals identify themselves with the proposed themes for writing papers for research and presentations. These were identified as platforms that promoted TK creation especially during the socialisation process as stipulated in the Wenger (1998)’s CoP model.
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