The conceptual framework for this study was SECI (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). The framework is grounded in (a) knowledge creation theory developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1995 and (b) transformational leadership theory (Burns, 1978). These theories are the basis for understanding leaders’ perspectives on strategies to influence knowledgetransfer and identification of potential barriers. I chose a case study so as to explore and capture the participants’ experiences and develop themes from emerging data. Bailey (2014) pointed out that the case study design adopts a step-by-step process for a better understanding of a given outcome. The basis for the use of a case study is to follow the path of constructivism. The view of constructivism centered on how people construct their understanding and knowledge of the world (Tadajewski, 2016). The described position allows me to examine the complexity of views of the research participants rather than the restricted meaning of the few ideas on the phenomenon of interest.
DHV is a leading international consultancy and engineering firm, providing services and innovative solutions in Transportation, Water, Building & Industry, Urban and Regional Development, and Environment & Sustainability. DHV offers services, including management consultancy, advice, design and engineering, project management, contract management and asset management. DHV, headquartered in the Netherlands, maintains a network of 75 offices worldwide with a staff of 6.000 DHV is known internationally especially in the fields of Water, Aviation and Intelligent Transport Systems. At this moment DHV has eight home-countries, which will be enlarged to nine with Vietnam. DHV wants to built long term relationships and to understand the local contexts of these countries in order to grow the business. Therefore the corporate management strategy of DHV is to create self-sustaining business units with a local management style. Furthermore, DHV has a multi- domestic strategy and thereby it can be defined as a multinational organization. However, DHV turns slowly into a transnational organization, which increases global competitiveness by combining centralized and decentralized roles and responsibilities. Resources are integrated through strong interdependencies (see appendix A: Description of DHV).
Human capital was found to be a key asset in TKM. This is because in all the four universities the respondents appreciated the role played by TK in improving performance. Even though this was noted, universities had problems of explicitly categorising this kind of knowledge asset. This therefore means, taking care of such resources was a problem. Lack of structures in place demonstrated the inability of TK asset management. According to Sharkie (2005), “tacitknowledge is the most important strategic resource that enables organizations to exploit and develop resources that enhances their fundamental ability to compete, meet the challenge of change and allows them to develop sustainable competitive advantage” (p. 37). Employees who are equipped with knowledge can guide an organisation to achieve its goals. Lack of TK results in stagnation in the growth of an organisation. TK is considered the most important asset in universities in Kenya. This is backed up by Hau et al. (2013) who asserted that explicit knowledge sharing requires less effort to share than tacitknowledge from employees. There was a significant association between TK assets and TKM since the p-value for the chi-square test was less than 0.001. Further, from the mosaic or association plot below it is clear that TK creation, sharing and use is heavily done by human capital and relational capital. TK storage is a problem and is heavily facilitated by innovation capital. There are no structures to support TK application and use. This leaves universities with no choice other than embracing TKM. This view simply emphasises the uniqueness of human skills and abilities in creating knowledge. Level of education, skills and qualifications, creativity, work experience and abilities of the employees add economic value to universities and the economy as a whole. Skills and qualification without social and communication skills is problematic. It means knowledge cannot to be shared due to poor communication skills. “Social interactions between and among people may be the route through which we acquire tacitknowledge, in that new knowledge is thought to be created through iterative social interaction (Nonaka & Tackeuchi, 1995), but not as first advocated, by making tacitknowledge explicit” (Ryan & Lero, 2012, p. 2). Polanyi (1966) established that TK transfer can only take place through close interaction. Employees with bad habits and poor personality - negative energy, poor team players, poor time managers are unproductive hence pool down the performance scale. The best employees are brands – iconic figures who are productive hence generate income to the institutions. Such individuals should be well taken care of because of the expert knowledge.
In today‟s knowledge economy ability to manage knowledge is crucial. Knowledge has been identified as one of the most important resource that contributes to the competitive advantage of an organization. . The Knowledge is a critical organizational resource that provides a sustainable competitive advantage in a competitive and dynamic economy(Davenport & Prusak,1998). Knowledge is recognition (Know-what), capacity to act (know-how), understanding (know-why) that resides within the mind . Knowledge refers to the capacity for action i.e. “know about” and an understanding of facts , methods , principles, techniques i.e. “know how”. Knowledge includes perception, skills, training, common sense, and experience and helps to draw meaningful conclusion. Polanyi (1966) first divided the human knowledge into two dimensions : explicit and tacit dimensions. Explicit knowledge is codified knowledge that can be specified or communicated verbally or in symbolic forms such as written documents, blueprints or computer programmes. Tacitknowledge is a knowledge that a person can store inside his mind and is developed from direct experience and accomplishment . Higher education institutions are knowledge intensive organizations. These institutions require to obtain, store, share, utilize and generate knowledge so as to train and educate the students effectively (Ozmen, 2010). The whole process of education involves acquisition and transfer of knowledge from one source to another. In higher education to acquire knowledge from different sources and disseminate it to the students is regular practise. By considering the importance of tacitknowledge in higher education, author tried to investigate how tacitknowledge is applicable in every facet of higher education and use of ICT tools and technologies for tacitknowledgetransfer in higher education.
Shao, Feng, and Wang (2017) conducted a quantitative study using motivation theory to evaluate leadership charisma's mechanisms on an individual’s tacitknowledge sharing behavior. Participants were selected from a field survey, and a collection of 117 questionnaires returned out of 153 that were sent out to 20 Chinese corporations. Shao et al. (2017) identified that the team leader who exhibited charismatic leadership traits successfully promoted a safe psychological atmosphere that facilitated a productive knowledge-sharing environment. The measurement model used was structural equation model analysis (SEM) this was in part due to the model allowed the incorporation and process of both observed and unobserved variables within the same model. SEM was able to handle errors of measurement within exogenous variables better than a traditional regression analysis method. Limitations were identified due to the localized use of participants instead of multiple locations; further, the examination was requested to test the research variables' external validity based on possible cultural factors. The researchers may contribute to my study using motivation theory, which focuses on critical factors that encourage and ensure the motivation of a company’s employees.
specific, and is difficult to formalize and communicate or transfer from one person to another by the process of writing or verbal expression and is not captured by language or mathematics and also difficult to reduce to writing and is made up of mental models, values, beliefs, perceptions, insights and assumptions (Nonaka 1991, Polanyi 1966, Davenport and Prusak 2000, Nonaka and Nishiguchi 2001). Examples of tacitknowledge are, speaking our own language, manage to ride a bicycle, cook dishes without seeing a recipe, etc. (Polanyi 1966).
tacitknowledge is the source of competitive advantage and critical to daily management activities. Tacitknowledge is also divided into two types, cannot be articulated and implicit knowledge, knowledge we know but do not want to express. The division of tacitknowledge into individual and collective is elaborated by Choo (1998). Collins (2001) from the sociology perspective argues that tacitknowledge can be passed through personal contact. Tacitknowledge is an attribute of an individual, unspeakable and unteachable is the definition given by Wagner and Sternberg (1999), from the behaviorist view point. Stenmark (2000) believes that tacitknowledge resides in individuals. Tacitknowledge is valuable and a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Although it resides in individual, organizations must identify and capture the tacitknowledge (Davenport and Prusak, 1997).
Dear Madams, dear Sirs,
Project managers are finding themselves under continual pressure to perform projects in shorter time, with lower costs, while the client demands more and more professional support. At the same time the many different requirements of stakeholders become evident in day-to-day communication and project meetings. Small and big conflicts escalate and require crisis management know-how. Executives and human resource managers are confronted with the challenge of making their organizations more flexible and efficient and - on the other hand – establishing a minimum standard in transparency of processes, competences and responsibilities.
and stages of a company’s operations. The key degree of tacitknowledgetransfer is Face-to-face interaction, close relationships formed to have informal interaction and physical demonstration of skills. Most of the Asian companies focus on face-to-face collaborative knowledge sharing, use telephone, voice-mail and real-time video conferencing to transfertacitknowledge. As tacitknowledge is hard to communicate and express in words. So in order to disseminate it in an organization – common ground of communication between particular units, mutual trust, and analogical way of thinking is needed. “The contact zone” therefore is needed, where units can have a direct contact with one another. One of the few ways to make knowledge more accessible is to enable more conversations to take place in online environments such as forums, weblogs and wikis. In this way sharing is easier and more accessible than by more formalised processes and by making these conversations "linky" people can navigate them, point to the good stuff and build up a collective memory of what was useful.
 introduced four modes of knowledge creation called SECI model consisting of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization that involved interaction and transaction of tacitknowledge and explicit knowledge. Socialization is the process of transferring experience or tacitknowledge through social interactions such as informal meeting, conversation, and living together. Socialization is a process of sharing experiences and thereby creating tacitknowledge such as shared mental models and technical skills . Externalization means the process of articulating tacitknowledge into written form or explicit knowledge so that it can be shared by others and become the basis of new knowledge. Combination refers to the process of converting explicit knowledge that is inconsistent into a more complex and systematic sets of explicit knowledge. During internalization process, the experiences from previous stages will be converted into valuable knowledge for individual and organization. The spiral indicates the spread of knowledge among individuals or community. The knowledge will be enriching by others and the new knowledge generation will begin dynamically.  mentioned, a self-generating loop of knowledge dynamics needs continuous flows of knowledge among the individuals.
knowledge refers to a composition of cognitive and technical elements where cognitive elements include views and thoughts of a person (Spender 1996). On the other hand, the technical elements comprise skills and ideas about a specific area (Nonaka 1994). According to Spender (1996), tacitknowledge is the knowledge which is not explicated yet. For example, the skills and abilities needed to master a musical instrument cannot be fully expressed in words, hence it is a tacitknowledge. Likewise, explicit knowledge refers to the knowledge which can be expressed and transferred in symbolic forms or using simple language (Alavi and Leidner 2001). An example of explicit knowledge is an owner’s manual of a product that explains how to operate it, where the knowledge is presented in a codified form. Transferring tacitknowledge is more complicated as compared to explicit knowledgetransfer (Dhanaraj et al. 2004). It is because tacitknowledge is progressively increased via interactions and observations whereas explicit knowledge is relatively easy to learn and code (Doz et al. 2001).
The know-what k-layer has been used to discover facts about problems and solutions in ERP knowledgetransfer with respect to ERP package knowledge and business process knowledge. The declarative knowledge on ERP package knowledge has been identified around 7 knowledge elements, they are: knowledge of ERP concept, system functions and features, best business practices, system configurations, customizations, vendor managed KM systems and knowledge of documentation templates. When transferring the knowledge of system functions and features to the client project team members, there was a concern according to the empirical findings, i.e. the knowledge absorption capacity of the recipient . The project team members should be carefully selected by considering their working capacity and competence on information technology through conducting internal interviews. A functional consultant describes the ability of project team members as: “The end users the people who were nominated for the project team, the project team members and those that participated in the design blueprint, were very willing and able and very knowledgeable in their particular processes…” Not only that, but also top management must ensure to keep users on the project without pulling them out, because that would massively disturb the knowledgetransfer activities. Therefore, it’s a must to plan and schedule their work in advance for them to involve in
We have also established that technologies for extracting tacitknowledge should be designed in the confines of individuals’ cognitive behaviour while human techniques should be formed around natural processes of individuals. In other words, extraction of soft knowledge should be considered in a dynamically real time environment where there is a continuous interaction among learners who harness user-friendly tools for learning. Evidence from this paper has revealed that Internet and Web 2.0 technologies have stunning prospects for creating learning communities for people and extracting tacitknowledge. However, the issues are: What happens if people refuse or stop sharing their ideas and experiences on these platforms? Should we use sanctions to enforce them or should we use more democratic working ethics to persuade these individuals? Can we still claim the possibilities of exploiting tacitknowledge through KM technologies in such circumstances? Thus, the effectiveness of these tools in tacitknowledge creation needs further empirical study, particularly in relation to human responses to emerging learning technologies.
Employee behaviour is a complex issue influenced by many factors. It involves trust as well as the capabilities and motivation that give rise to performance behaviour. Trust reduces risk and uncertainty through better communications. Communication and the ability to work in teams are seen as the basis for trust building. Trust forms part of relationships. When individuals work in trusting teams they will have the ability to be flexible and respond to changes in information. This is seen as a very valuable approach in construction, where information may be incomplete at the time of contract and changes often arise as a project progresses. A company that is going to work in trusting teams needs to have the organisation’s leadership support for this approach. Any policy that pursues trust in working relationships between employees has to come from the top. Sako (1992) defined trust as a mutual expectation that partners will not exploit the vulnerabilities created by cooperation, and that the decision over whether to trust or not depends on the interpretations of other parties’ intention and possible behaviour. It is essentially a state of mind; a belief or an explanation held by one trading partner about another that the other would behave in a mutually acceptable manner. Dasgupta (1988) suggests that trust will not evolve in circumstances where an individual does not know fully the motivation of the person with whom he is considering a transaction. Once trust is established, then knowledge sharing is part of every thing in the organisation’s culture (Egan, 1998). The absence of trust within project teams has been highlighted in both the Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) reports as a major factor leading to the failure of construction projects. Communication and the ability to work in teams are seen as the basis for trust building. Due to the project nature of construction, where people form temporary project-based teams, this is not always possible. However, when individuals work in trusting teams they have the ability to be flexible and respond to changes of information. Conflict can build trust if project teams can move away from a ‘blame culture’ to a ‘problem solving culture’. Some of the methods (work practices), as identified from the above discussion, that improve trust between individuals include: face to face interaction; external meeting places; long term relationships; experience (working together); problem solving; shared goals; and reciprocity. These attributes while improving trust also promote tacitknowledge sharing between individuals.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In conclusion this research has served its objective presented in the earlier section of this paper. This project’s objective is to introduce storytelling as the best and most effective mechanism of capturing tacitknowledge. Tacitknowledge is an experience- based knowledge which renders it difficult to capture. Our research focused on studying the improvement that storytelling could bring to companies by doing interview with the staff of the company. Unfortunately due to the restriction caused by insufficiency of time, the research could not conduct as deeply as one would wish to do. The participants of this research were chosen randomly as we were not able to conduct an interview with the primarily chosen staff as they were very busy with their work.
Polanyi argues that, in order to take account of the problem-solving and discovery process, we need to recognize sufficiently the important role of tacitknowledge and the relationship that this knowledge has with tacitknowledge. Polanyi locates this form of knowledge as an essential element of his science and epistemology.
An even more fundamental challenge arises when an individual is capable of articulating his or her knowledge, but resists requests by the organization to do so. At the heart of such resistance is usually a belief that an individual’s job security or position of influence in an organization depends on the tacitknowledge that he or she has and that the organization needs. Such beliefs result in fear that full revelation of an individual’s important knowledge would be followed by dismissal or loss of influence in an organization, because -- presumably -- the individual would no longer be as necessary or important to the organization. Overcoming such fears is likely to require a profound rethinking of the employment relationship in many organizations, especially with regard to key knowledge workers. New employment norms may have to be defined and institutionalized that both seek and reward ongoing learning by individuals and their continuing contributions of explicit knowledge to the organization. 7