We show here that adventure tourism leads to transfer of tacitknowledge between international visitors and local residents in developing destinations; and that motivations for the locals include money and employment, social capital, and individual enjoyment. Over the past half century, adventure tourism has grown from decentralised domestic outdoor recreation, to a large international commercial industry. Many tours bring urban clients from developed nations to rural areas in developing nations, where there are icon sites for specific adventure activities (Buckley, 2010).
Figure 2: Parameters of organisational culture that influence
Research on innovation in construction firms shows that innovation helps in introducing new products and services, creative ways of capturing, sharing and using individual experience and expertise within the company, managing people through new major organisational change, and encouraging and managing new partnering arrangements (Barrett and Sexton, 1999). Post project reviews effectively transferknowledge to subsequent projects. Construction organisation culture that supports experimentation (trial and error) will influence tacitknowledge. Autonomous individuals are likely to share more information than non-autonomous individuals. The speed of decision-making can also promote sharing of tacitknowledge. Tushman and O’Reilly (1997) claim that a cultural norm, which leads to quick decision-making also leads to fast work rate and promotes creativity. With the importance of teams, more attention is being directed at communication between team members, which may also be referred to as lateral communication. Lateral communication involves communication with persons who do not stand in hierarchical relation to one another (Baker, 2002). Such communication between people working in teams with equal authority and responsibility improves tacitknowledge. Construction characteristics, on the other hand, that inhibit tacitknowledge include rigid management that rules out experiment and trial and error, confrontational, litigious, and fragmented industry structure, low profit margins, lack of trust, adversarial and inflexible contractual arrangements, low level of education and training, reluctance to admit mistakes, and lack of research and development (Egbu and Botterill, 2001; Kurul et al., 2003). Based on the aforesaid discussion the organisational and cultural characteristics that promote and inhibit respectively the
Following the literature review on the factors affecting knowledgetransfer between different national cultures in general and cultural differences between Swedish and Finnish cultures, the most relevant elements which may influence knowledgetransfer in the Finnish and Swedish border context were identified. In addition, a pilot exploratory approach was also undertaken for identifying the final selection of the most relevant elements. Informal interviews were undertaken with several Swedish and Finnish actors from both border regions, including 3 shoppers, 5 shop managers, 2 academics from the local higher education institutes and 4 officers from local and regional authorities. The interviewees expressed their own cultural views on the topic in their own terms, which avoided potential problems of misinterpretation and loss of relevant data (Wilkesmann et al., 2009). Open questions (e.g. ‘what influences learning between people from both sides of the border’) help to reveal the relevance of national stereotypes in the perceptions of different types of proximity. Subsequently, a literature review on the impact of such stereotypes on cognitive and cultural proximity was undertaken (see previous section) and considered in both the theoretical discussion and data analysis. These interviews contributed to refining the methodology so as to focus on the most relevant elements of proximity.
Early second language acquisition (SLA) has focused on the accuracy of second language (L2) use. It was not until Hymes (1971) when he coined the term communicative competence. Due to the fact that idealized notion of linguistic competence proposed by Chomsky was considered inadequate, Hymes introduced a broader concept of communicative competence consisting of both linguistic competence and sociolinguistic knowledge of the rules of language use in context. It goes without saying that mastery over formal properties, however, does not guarantee the appropriate use of the language. They must have sociocultural knowledge of the L2 as well. L2 learners’ lack of sociocultural rules of the L2 makes them exploit their own sociocultural rules (pragmatic transfer) that may bring about intercultural misunderstanding and cause serious consequences. However, Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss-Weltz (1990) report that many researchers claim that transfer like interference does play an important role in shaping Interlanguage (IL).
The findings add further nuances to knowledge about family succession. The caveat here is that for the family member successors the formal succession process did not start in childhood, but the succession process in terms of socialisation occurred in the family context, in the cross-over space between the family and the family business. In fact, there was often a period during the successors young adulthood when they would seek employment elsewhere. It was clear though that on the return to the family business, the succession process was planned or contemplated. Through the lens of Garcia-Alverez, Lopez-Sintas and Gonzalvo’s (2002) socialisation model, the family socialisation process began with family socialisation when the successor was a child and was parallel to early business socialisation when the future successor worked in the firm, but the formal succession business process did not begin until the future successor had returned to the family business and was identified as the likely or defined successor. This study challenges the assumption that the two phases of succession are distinct and sequential. While the family and business socialisation stages are distinct in nature with the family socialisation focused on values and beliefs the contention that business socialisation begins when the founder identifies the child as successor is not supported by this study. This study contributes to our understanding of the model proposed by Garcia-Alverez, Lopez-Sintas and Gonzalvo (2002) by clarifying that early socialisation goes beyond embedding family values and beliefs and can include business specific knowledge specific to business relationships and processes.
This study established that the official language of communication at the universities is English. A common language is a prerequisite to knowledgetransfer (Lemos, 2010). Keglovits (2013) stated that knowledge sharing requires excellent communication skills which is an essential knowledgetransfer tool. Weak communication skills might lead to misunderstandings, less conversation and contact between the members in the universities, which prohibits TK flow. It was revealed that universities are using social media as way of transferring and sharing TK. This include Facebook, WhatsApp and short text messaging. Institutional repositories were also identified as a major database for TK transfer and sharing through the university websites. This implies that, technological tools and applications are used by universities to support TK sharing activities. This is supported by Laudon and Laudon (2012) who observe that social networking tools can support TK transfer in out of organizations. Workshops and conferences were also identified as platforms that facilitate TK sharing and transfer. Most universities organise for workshops and conferences to provide a chance to scholars and researchers to have academic discourse. In the process TK is exchanged and the participant are able to learn from the process. Mentorship in the four universities was said to be informal which would be best when structured: “providing a more equitable dispersion of mentoring opportunities and allowing organisational guidance in the information exchange process. Formalised mentoring also facilitates cross-unit mentoring, thus augmenting worker skill sets. However, the prerequisite for all successful mentor programmes includes participation, rewards and support for the worker and mentor” (Banacu et al., 2013, p. 495). Teamwork was found to be among the important strategies for TK creation and capture. During the data collection process, the researcher identified, meeting rooms, open spaces, resting shades, cafeteria and offices that allowed lecturers, students and other administrative staff to hold meetings (formal and informal) and discussions at different levels. However, it was also noted that the current system by the CUE in Kenya, discourages teamwork. This is because the members noted that, the reward scheme was mean, as indicated by the following quote:
According to the knowledge-based view of business performance, organizations function as devices that assist in the transfer of knowledge through the development of combinative and absorptive capabilities (Junni and Sarala, 2013; Reus, 2012). National culture distance between the acquiring and target firms create complementary capabilities that may result in performance variation (Morosini, Shane, & Singh, 1998). Absorptive capacity at the individual and organization levels determines the degree of knowledgetransfer (Zahra & George, 2002). As defined by Cohen and Levinthal (1990), absorptive capacity is the ability of a company to recognize valuable external information, assimilate it, and eventually apply it to commercial ends. Absorptive or learning capacity facilitates the absorption and use of external knowledge and enables organizations to identify strategic opportunities that can serve as a basis for innovation (Volberda, Foss, & Lyles, 2010). Organizational absorptive capacity depends not only on the sum of individual absorptive capacities but also on organizational aspects, such as organizational culture.
Cross-cultural research in knowledge management argues that collectivist societies engage more in knowledgetransfer (Chen et al., 2010; Michailova and Hutchings, 2006; Nafie, 2012). This means that individuals are more likely to engage in social interactions and transfer their knowledge to other members of their group. Such results indicate knowledgetransfer thrives when there is group affinity. The research findings support this view as the employees were willing to engage in knowledgetransfer both for themselves as well as their colleagues. Research exploring the role of national culture and knowledgetransfer have mainly been comparative of different countries (Chen et al., 2010; Cegarra-Navarro et al., 2011). However, the present research though conducted in one country – Nigeria had several tribal cultures making it a complex and multilingual society. This is evidenced by the results which are mainly mixed because in Nigeria, collectivism is portrayed by having a common goal with family, kin, friends and co-workers of the same tribe (Osunde et al., 2015). The findings also indicate that employees face not one but three cultures namely the organisational culture, tribal culture and national culture which they often find to be conflicting but accepted as the norm. The Nigerian government try to play down this conflict by treading a narrow path between loyalties to various tribes in order to minimise inter-tribal hostilities. These inter-tribal hostilities are downplayed by the Nigerian government focusing on a national message which portrays one national culture as opposed to several tribal cultures. The purpose of this message is to forge unity in diversity by imposing a uniformity of cultures despite obvious cultural diversities (Oyedele and Firat, 2018).
organization and viscosity, which is the richness and thickness of the delivered knowledge. The approach of knowledge visualization in learning environment can be explained using  theory who stated that students’ performance can be uplifted through guidance from a lecturer. The basic idea behind externalization process is the guidance from the expert that can improve students’ knowledge to a higher level from the current level through interaction and transaction process opting tacit and explicit knowledge. Knowledge visualization model explains expert’s guidance method that exercises  theory. The guidance method comes from direct relationship between the lecturer and students through the use of teaching materials in learning environment. The scaffolding introduced by  is the process of teaching new knowledge in which students gradually become more responsible in performing their task or applying new knowledge .
However, one major disadvantage of this tool is that people may not premeditate careful over their actions as simulated spaces are not reality (Chen et al, 2003).
5.2 Collective Cognitive Mapping System
This is an archetype system consisting four key functionalities for exploiting soft knowledge: An episodic memory representing a container of individual cognitive maps; organisational memory representing a reservoir of collective cognitive maps; a local cognitive map generator which translates individual mental models into graphical representations; and a central collective cognitive map generator which exploit cognitive maps of all members and use them for collective problem solving. Chen et al (2003) emphasised that collective cognitive mapping systems have capabilities to assist individual members in an organisation to articulate, share and synthesise their visions with their peers. In other words, collective cognitive mapping systems are tools for replicating the mental model discipline of Senge (1990), as it can support people to unearth their internal pictures of realities, bring them to surface and hold them thoroughly to examination. In this case, individuals’ tacitknowledge become authentic for organisational use thereby confirming the applicability of storytelling technique (Denning, 2000) and, socialisation and externalisation processes of knowledge creation (Nonaka, 1991).
nowledge management (KM) has become an important success factor for organizations. Knowledge which is new to an organization has to either be invented internally, or acquired from external sources. There are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge and tacitknowledge (Nonaka et al.2000) and other authors such as Hall and Andriani (2002) describe explicit knowledge as what can be embodied in a code or a language and as a consequence it can be communicated, processed, transmitted and stored relatively easily. It can be shared in the form of data, scientific formulae, manuals and such like. In contrast, tacitknowledge is personal and hard to formalise – it is rooted in action, procedures, commitment, values and emotions etc. Tacitknowledge is not codified, it is not communicated in a ‘language’, and it is acquired by sharing experiences, by observation and imitation (Hall & Andriani 2002). Knowledge is created through interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge and not from either tacit or explicit knowledge alone (Nonaka et al. 2000). Compared to the work on explicit knowledge, the management of tacitknowledge is relatively unexplored. Knowledge sharing between employees requires communicating tacitknowledge. Un- fortunately, it is difficult to be communicated in a formalized way like, for instance, through language. In well functioning teams sharing of tacitknowledge occurs through “the establishment of shared understanding” (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2001) and through practice itself (Brown & Duguid, 1999). Nonaka and Konno (1998) distinguish two dimensions of tacitknowledge: the technical dimension, i.e. the “know-how”, and the cognitive dimension, i.e. beliefs, ideals, values, mental models, schemata. “While difficult to articulate, this cognitive dimension of tacitknowledge shapes the way we perceive the world” (Nonaka & Konno, 1998). The cognitive dimension is termed mental models by Senge (1996). Knowledge creation and conversion lie between the tacit and explicit forms. Tacitknowledge is actionable, and therefore most valuable, and much recent attention has focused on the importance of tacitknowledge for sustaining competitiveness (Lam, 2000). It is also the most important basis for the generation of new knowledge. In their often-referenced work on innovation and knowledge creation, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) posit that organizational knowledge is created through a continuous and dynamic interpersonal interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge (Stenmark, 2000). They also emphasize in their work that there are four modes in which organizational knowledge is created through the interaction and conversion between tacit and explicit. These are socialization, externalization, combination, internalization (Weichoo, 1998).
specific, and is difficult to formalize and communicate or transfer from one person to another by the process of writing or verbal expression and is not captured by language or mathematics and also difficult to reduce to writing and is made up of mental models, values, beliefs, perceptions, insights and assumptions (Nonaka 1991, Polanyi 1966, Davenport and Prusak 2000, Nonaka and Nishiguchi 2001). Examples of tacitknowledge are, speaking our own language, manage to ride a bicycle, cook dishes without seeing a recipe, etc. (Polanyi 1966).
A striking result was that a negative correlation was found between power distance and effectiveness of knowledgetransfer at DHV-NL, while the same correlation was positive at DHV-India. This difference can be explained with the help of the theory of Weber’s Bureaucracy (Weber, 1947). According to Weber, the growth in space and population being administered, the growth in complexity of the administrative tasks being carried out, and the existence of a monetary economy results in a need for a more efficient administrative system. At this moment India is economically growing very fast, see appendix E. According to the theory of Weber, this leads to a need of a more efficient administrative system. DHV-India is more hierarchical than DHV-NL, which is ideal for bureaucracy. It has delineated lines of authority in a fixed area of activity; action are taken on the basis of, and recorded in, written rules; rules are implemented by neutral officials, career advancement depends on technical qualifications judged by organization, not by individuals. The Indian see the power distance as a rational, efficient method of organization.
The objectives of this paper are to elaborate the nature and attributes of the tacitknowledge. For the first objective, literature reviews from various scholars writing are analyzed to determine the nature and types of tacitknowledge. Twelve scholars’ writings are studied, representing various perspectives, such as organizational theorist, Nonaka, Baumard and Choo, philosophical views such as Polanyi and Collins, and behaviorist views such as Sternberg and Wagner, Aadne and Van Krogh. Besides the different perspective, these literature reviews are chosen based on the author’s contribution on the scholarly work on tacitknowledge. Polanyi is the first person who coined the word tacitknowledge. Collins and Wagner and Sternberg started the empirical research in tacitknowledge, Nonaka did an extensive research in knowledge creation, and popularized the SECI model. Baumard researched on knowledge in an organization context and introduce the concept of implicit knowledge. Choo, extends the work of Nonaka. Aadne started the research on social tacitknowledge, where as Van Krogh researched on tacitknowledge in relationship but maintains tacitknowledge is embedded in individual. Davenport and Prusak discusses knowledge in organizations.
Knowledge is regarded as a strategic factor in knowledge management implementation. It is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. Tacitknowledge is created in the human mind as individual know-how and can be expressed as innovation. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their peers in the organization. For the sustainable development of the modern global economy tacitknowledge can play an important role. Acquire and extract of tacitknowledge is not a very easy task, since it is very complex in its nature. The success and well-being of humankind is an essential issue in the twenty first century and use of tacitknowledge makes the job easier. Management of tacitknowledge effectively and efficiently is a key success factor for the organizations. The paper tries to discuss sharing of tacitknowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. It analyzes the importance and difficulties of sharing tacitknowledge. This paper also makes an effort to explore the properties and characteristic of tacitknowledge thinking for the new readers.
spreadsheets were categorized by the general subject of discussion. This allows a more precise form of analysis of the conversations which allowed a closer look at the narratives over time. Once again the spreadsheet had 9 columns consisting of general information such as the date and duration (at times there was more than one recording a day), this helps finding the right recording for future reference) and the environment (i.e. conference call, briefing, learning software). The fourth column was the person speaking, followed by the addressed subject and sub-subject (i.e. payroll - additions and deductions – pay by period) and the example / quote from the person. The final two columns were categorized in trigger points and internal and external (i.e. tacit to explicit or explicit to tacit). Spradley (1979) argues that the intent of text analysis is to find evidence of social conflict and information about problem solving. The two rounds of analysis support a developmental analysis of group and individual tacitknowledge augmentation within a specific topic and is aimed to help the analysis of how the problems were solved, where there was conflict and how people used their expert
An even more fundamental challenge arises when an individual is capable of articulating his or her knowledge, but resists requests by the organization to do so. At the heart of such resistance is usually a belief that an individual’s job security or position of influence in an organization depends on the tacitknowledge that he or she has and that the organization needs. Such beliefs result in fear that full revelation of an individual’s important knowledge would be followed by dismissal or loss of influence in an organization, because -- presumably -- the individual would no longer be as necessary or important to the organization. Overcoming such fears is likely to require a profound rethinking of the employment relationship in many organizations, especially with regard to key knowledge workers. New employment norms may have to be defined and institutionalized that both seek and reward ongoing learning by individuals and their continuing contributions of explicit knowledge to the organization. 7
2.4 KM Storytelling
Tacitknowledge should be delivered in a rather manageable and absorbable fashion. Storytelling allows a proper capture and sharing of knowledge (Sole & Wilson, 2003). Explicit knowledge may be easier to understand and lot easier to retrieve, but tacitknowledge is most knowledge that one has and it is considered as the most important knowledge which may not be specific to work but also on a daily needs (Denning, 2000). During a knowledge management conference in Singapore (Klein, 2011), He highlighted the importance of capturing tacitknowledge; he said “experts see patterns we do not see” he stressed on the importance of capturing the knowledge that experts have gained through years of experience. He suggested that storytelling is good method for capturing tacitknowledge.