Factors Affecting Pronunciation
First language How phonetically different are the 1 st & 2 nd language? Learners whose 1 st
language is more phonetically similar to English will not necessarily have the most ease in acquiring the sounds of the new language.
Writing is a skill, like reading, which has to be taught in L1 schools and, as Nunan (1999, p. 271) points out, producing coherent written discourse is an effort for many English mother- tongue speakers. He acknowledges that “for secondlanguage learners the challenges are enormous.” White and Arndt (1991, p. 3) agree, arguing that “proficiency in language does not, in itself, make writing easier.” They add that “people writing in their native language, though they may have a more extensive stock of language resources to call upon, frequently confront exactly the same kinds of writing problems as people writing in a foreign or secondlanguage.” Therefore, if writing coherently and clearly is a skill native-speakers find difficult, many L2 users, who have less control of English and its conventions of register and collocation, will inevitably find it a chore that takes time and considerable effort.
The role of translation in English as a ForeignLanguage ( EFL) or English as a SecondLanguage (ESL) classroom has been a controversial issue . Supporters of the bilingual approach suggest that the use of L1 in L2 classroom helps students to learn L2 more effectively , whereas supporters of the monolingual approach state that the use of the target language solely in L2 classroom facilitates the learning of the target language and stimulates the students' thinking as well as proficiency in L2 .This paper discusses the extent to which instructors at Ajloun and Irbid university colleges use Arabic in English classrooms . It also discusses the usefulness of using translation and the situations where it is useful in language learning and teaching . The study concludes that most instructors opt for using translation as it is effective in some situations ; mainly in clarifying new vocabulary , discussing grammatical issues , teaching idiomatic expressions , explaining reading passages , comparing and contrasting between L1 and L2 as well as checking the students' reading and listening comprehension .
The past decade has seen a monumental paradigmatic shift in foreign lan- guage teaching practices across the globe (Spodark, 2001). The impetus for this change is attributed primarily to three major factors. First, as mentioned earlier, there are inherent limitations associated with EFL teachers, learning resources, and learning environments, all of which are detrimental to student learning. Se- cond, the advancement in computer technologies, especially the Internet and all its facets, significantly impinges on how foreignlanguage skills are acquired and learned. Third, a shift in language learning theories places an increasingly strong emphasis on social interaction and a more open, rather than a highly guided learning environment. Two predominant theories prevail in the field – sociocultural constructivism and secondlanguage acquisition theories.
However, my analysis of the unit did not seem to reflect the writers‟ claim. There is one functional language section for expressing reason in lesson 4a, (pp. 36-37) while lessons 4b (pp. 38-39) and 4d (pp. 42-43) centre around grammar, comparing the past simple and present perfect in the former and the present perfect simple and continuous in the latter. Lesson 4c (pp.40-41) covers reading and speaking skills. Moreover, I was unable to see the link to the situational syllabus as the situations chosen were obscure and would be unlikely to reflect situations encountered by students, especially lesson 4b on a gladiator course and 4d a snake owner‟s convention. Based on my analysis, I would argue that the syllabus is integrated combining grammar, functions, skills and vocabulary elements.
Adnan, 2017; Alsowat, 2016; Hsieh et al., 2017; Li, 2016; Roth, 2016; Yudintseva, 2016). In the same way, a group of researchers (Engin & Donanci, 2016; Loucky, 2017b; Teng, 2018) hold the views that flipped learning motivates students and boosts their confidence in gaining skills of speaking and writing. One of the important factors determining students’ success in flipped learning could be attributed to their taking responsibilities for their own learning (Ahmed, 2016; Ayon, 2017; Ekmekci, 2017; El- Bassuony, 2016; Khadragy, 2016; Sung, 2015). Besides, flipped learning allows students to have control over when and where they could engage with the content in their learning process (Patterson, 2018). This also reinforces students’ understanding, success, and confidence in the course of their language learning (Lee & Wallace, 2018; Zainuddin, 2017). Furthermore, some researchers assert that ﬂipped learning fosters students’ use of diverse learning strategies, allowing them to rehearse materials several times before class, do a search on materials to learn, exercise time management, and polish their cognitive thinking skills (Alsowat, 2016; Li & Zhang, 2016; Oki, 2016; Sun, 2017; Wagner-Loera, 2018; Zainuddin, 2017). In-class time with the given activities provides students with the opportunities for deep discussion, practice, and deep thinking (Wagner-Loera, 2018).
This study made use of quantitative method of data collection. The data were collected through questionnaires, conducted with 13 Albanian teachers of English and 120 high school students. This study was undertaken in Shkoder, Tirane and Vlore. Two questionnaires were designed, one for teachers and the other for students. Both teachers and students were also asked about the importance of teaching culture in secondlanguage acquisition. The results of questionnaires revealed that both teachers and students considered teaching of culture an important tool in secondlanguage acquisition. This study revealed that, teaching culture should be an integral and systematic component of teaching in secondlanguage acquisition. According to results it is very important to incorporate culture in the classroom because language learners need to be aware of culturally appropriate ways of addressing people, expressing gratitude, making request, and agreeing or disagreeing with someone. They should know the intonation patterns that are appropriate in their own speech community but which may be perceived differently by the target speech community.
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104398 7 Open Access Library Journal example, an American host or hostess, when complimented on his or her cook- ing, is likely to respond, “Oh, I’m so glad you liked it. I cooked it especially for you.” In contrast, the Chinese host or hostess will apologize for not giving you delicious or even edible food and for not showing you enough honor. Such cul- ture difference can never be understood through the mere study of linguistic knowledge. So it is teachers’ responsibility to cultivate students’ sensitivity to- wards the culture divergence in Englishteaching, which will help the students to promote their pragmatic competence.
33 retention of the French phrases was higher in the experimental group students, who were enacting the gestures, compared to a control group who simply had the phrases repeated to them by the instructor. However, to a certain extent, Allen’s experiment proves disappointing. She detached the learner from contact with pronunciation and utterance of the French phrases. Students were not required to say the utterances in French at all - only to listen to them. One would assume such an omission reduces the bonding between phrase assimilation and retention. Allen justifies this by apparently referring to James Asher’s research (1969), which recommends a “silent period” for beginner students and Allen’s students were “first-semester” therefore beginners. If she had chosen a group a little more advanced (A2/B1) level, perhaps uttering the phrases could have been justified and therefore a link between spoken French and the gesture influence evaluated. In fact, as is made clear in the article: “The English meaning, not the French words, is most probably represented in memory for them” (Allen 1995:524). Furthermore, due to the low level in French, Allen then states that the students did not yet have the written skills in French orthography to represent the phrases in written form so allows them to write the English equivalent. This explains the results that a third “comparison group” (not the control “no gesture” group) which were provided with the gestures only on the final eliciting test, gave similar results as the experimental group who received gestures throughout.
As mentioned in the Introduction, while I did not set out initially to focus on the issue of differences between native English speaking teachers and non-native English- speaking teachers, it emerged in the document, interview and observation data and therefore forms part of my findings. As shown in Chapter 2, I have adopted the terms ‘Native English-Speaking Teacher’ (‘NNEST’) and ‘Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher’ (‘NNEST’) from Richards (1998) and from the Educational Statistical Year Book produced by the Omani Ministry of Higher Education (2005-2006) (Education, 2005-2006). In using these terms I am aware of the sensitivities in the usage of these categories, in particular the possible imputation of cultural or racial bias in relation to the more lowly paid NNESTs and the fact that many of those, especially from the Indian sub-continent who are classified by the Omani Government as NNEST, may in fact be first language speakers of English who may not speak any local languages. The linguistic and national backgrounds of EFL teachers in Oman, whether they are native English speakers or non-native English speakers, emerged as a significant factor in the comparison of the teaching styles and approaches of the teachers in this study. Native speakers have different linguistic capabilities from those of ‘non-native’ English speakers, even those with very highly developed Englishlanguage skills. They are also ‘culture carriers’ of western values and norms. The issues here are complex, as many officially designative ‘non-native’ speakers in fact may be ‘native’ speakers who speak with non-Western accents and are not ‘culture carriers’ of
This course will prepare prospective, novice, or experienced teachers with a foundation of writing skills in English. Students will be introduced into the discourse features which distinguish writing in English from the languages of the classroom participants so that they will understand the very different ways that English organizes information in the written form. Students in this course will learn ways to build writing instruction into their EFL classes. They will learn basic techniques of the process approach such as quickwriting, brainstorming, semantic mapping, drafting, peer review, and more that will help make writing instruction easier. Students will also learn a variety of writing assessment options.
teaching strategy would be facing. Testing measures to overcome this was another secondary objective of the pilot research.
The pilot research was conducted with two groups of students (a research group and a control group), the majority having been in the second year of their studies in the above mentioned programme. Altogether, there were approximately 120 students en- rolled in the courses where the pilot study was conducted. Approximately 55 students were regularly involved in the study. On average, 50% of the students enrolled in the courses opted out of in-person attendance, or only came for a small number of les- sons. The results of these were not considered relevant to the pilot research and their data is not included in the results. The ratio of females and males was approximately 3:2, and was equal in both the groups. The students’ age range was significantly more varied. The majority of the attendees was around 20 years old, however, 25% of the students were aged 27 years or more. A small number of students were aged signifi- cantly higher than the average being the oldest student 46 years old. According to the students’ own claim when questioned on the issue, the vast majority of the students did not speak any language besides Spanish, and were hoping to improve their level of English through taking the class. Spanish language was the native language, or one of the native languages, for all the students involved in the study. There was at least one student, a male, whose second native language was English. There was a small number of students who spoke more than two foreign languages, and a single student who was fluent in five languages. The research group had approximately 30 regular attendees; the control group had approximately 25 regular attendees.
Even if these goals are not pursued by participants themselves during the activity, preparation and feedback can concentrate on them. Beneke’s criticism of language simulations, that students’ language might deteriorate through using it in an uncontrolled way, (Beneke 1981) reflects the fear of making language mistakes which is emphasised in traditional language-teaching methods. Because students focus on the task, and the facilitator does not interrupt them to correct these mistakes but simply observes the simulation, they are considered to have been ignored. However, this is only true to a very limited extent. If the simulation has been structured to activate the participants’ knowledge of the language and
Firstly, the study has made pioneering contributions for educational policy makers in considering whether to continue the program or not since the cancellation of specialised education has been discussed recently. In addition, the findings have provided valuable insights to teachers involved in the TEAM program about how students perceived their teaching methodologies, which hopefully will inform them about existing practices that should be maintained and possible adjustments to accommodate new practices or rethink priorities. For example, one area that both sample groups indicated as needing more attention concerned the lack of opportunities for students to develop accurate pronunciation. Interestingly, the current students also indicated some dissatisfaction with the teaching of grammar. One possible interpretation of this finding is that the recent emphasis on communicative practices may have negatively influenced the effectiveness of teaching grammar. Since these issues were only suggested by the data, it is recommended that future research about the effectiveness and state of TEAM in Vietnam focuses specifically on the current methods of teachingEnglish and their relevancy to developing students’ competence in the four language skills, grammar and vocabulary.
effective in all levels due to the lack to appropriate methods, the goals, methods and materials for the lesson.
c) Teaching Learning Method and situation
The English curricula at higher education (undergraduate and graduate levels) do not mentioned specific teaching methods and learning activities. Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB), a new organization of intermediate college in the higher education of Nepal, adopted "the same curriculum for grades 11 and 12 borrowed from Tribhuvan University” (Khaniya, 2007 p. 54). Like in school level, the classroom environment did not permit instructors to give ample practice to the learners. The facilitators, in most cases, translate the texts in Nepali or lecture on the lesson and ask the students to do exercise themselves. Students in many public colleges did not form a class but a crow of uninterested youngsters (Khaniya, 2007, Felck, 1997, Shrestha, 2008).
c) Prototypicality (of meaning and function). A prototype as a central ide- al description of a particular (semantic or grammatical) category is the member of the category that best exemplifies and summarizes the repre- sentative features of the category it represents. For example, the present tense form denoting present or habitual action is a prototypical example of its meaning and function. Other instances of present simple tense in English (such as when referring to future actions or actions in the past) are compared and classified against this prototypical meaning and function. Generally, prototypes have high token frequency and are acquired more efficiently and accurately. It is a well-known fact among teachers that the most efficient and successful way to introduce a concept or a category is by providing prototypical examples. In the beginning, the prototypical ex- amples may be used to cover other meanings and functions but many for- eign language learners replace them by more specific and definite mean- ings and functions at later stages of interlanguage development.
The most popular course offered by specialised schools for Englishlanguage is General English. This course alone accounted for 53,811 students (71.3 per cent) attending during 2015. This was followed by the Intensive English course, with 15.2 per cent of total students (Table 5).
Another important segment of the language education process, directly re- lated to the overall embrace of the above-mentioned “philosophy of didactic be- havior” is to obtain fairly accurate information on the psychological portraits of students. This type of information will allow the teacher to construct a range of didactic activities that can be used in each of the periods of language learning, at the same time contributing to the customization of didactic conduct of the teacher. After all, the ways to work on the language with students who show no signs of dysfunctional behavior should be different than those designed by the teacher to help learn a language by the learners with diagnosed CAPD or other types of dysfunction. In no case does this mean that the teacher will be re- nounced from pupils considered linguistically less able, so as to let him/her focus on a group of pupils with whom it will not be necessary to implement so many time-and-effort-demanding teaching techniques. On the contrary, one can (and should) try to use specific forms of divergent activities that promote the natural creativity of students, as well as their other interests for the purpose of (mod- erate, at least) improvement of language communication of each of them.
This research project presents a fundamental opportunity for high school students in Bogotá and Chia, Colombia to strengthen and build their knowledge of their own culture in the classroom. Through this research project, students are given the opportunity to implement tools and academic learning strategies to improve their learning of English as a ForeignLanguage. The purpose of this project is to implement didactic units with Colombian cultural content in the teachingEnglish, and thus, to enrich Colombian culture among students who know little of it. The project takes an ethnographic approach to sociocultural analysis in the classroom, and uses topic-based teaching and learning as a methodological approach to the design and implementation of each didactic unit. Results showed the commitment of learners and the leadership of teachers allowed students to expand and