benchmarking methodology. Starting with the REF variable, its positive coefficient could be interpreted as evidence in support of the theory that excellent research fosters or facilitates excellent teaching, which then leads to better employmentoutcomes. If so, this would seem to rule REF score out as a potential benchmark factor because we must avoid controlling for any factor that is linked to teaching when considering applicability to TEF. Alternatively, it might be argued that while research rating does help to drive reputation, employers are focusing on this not because it has any reliable link to teaching quality, but because the information is more readily available. If this were true then there would
nevertheless be a different risk to including REF as a benchmark factor for TEF because it would create a tension between the two programmes. A provider that improved its REF score would be faced with a higher benchmark, and might therefore receive a lower TEF award even with no change to its teaching quality. This could create a disincentive for institutions to invest in research capacity, which would be an undesirable outcome. The era of institution variable is not a measure of the research ability of current staff, so does not suffer from the two issues described above. However there is a third issue which affects both the REF and era of institution variables. Reputation influences not only
There were also some views around data that has real potential to be useful, but would be more difficult to collect and assess. This included: student engagement data such as that collected by the NSSE in the United States, because relatively few institutions in the UK at present use this approach; teaching observations and peer reviews which are extremely valuable professional development activities and provide rich qualitative comments but would require analysis; and lastly, learning gain measures as there is currently not one agreed measure of learning gain in the UK. Workshop participants also considered whether capturing excellent practice through case studies that demonstrate impact, in a similar vein to the REF, might be a useful way forward. This links to ‘comparability’ which is our third theme.
The TEF will be introduced over a number of years. In Year 1, any institution with a positive Quality Assurance Agency Institutional Review is automatically qualified to increase its tuition fees from September 2017. From Year 2, institutions will need to opt into the TEF, which will examine a series of metrics: students’ views of teaching; assessment and academic support from the National Student Survey (NSS); student dropout rates; rates of employment, including a measure of highlyskilled
In addition to Table 7’s depiction, we calculated a variety of traits about patents to test whether the patents associated with Anglo-Saxon inventors di¤er substantially from those asso- ciated with non-Anglo-Saxon inventors. These traits included standard quality measures from the patent literature like citation counts and patent claims (normalized by technology class and year). They also include measures of the age of the technology class in which the patent was being made and the ages of technologies cited by patent in the USPTO …ling. Other measures considered how closely connected the patent was with the prior work of the …rm through self- citations and whether the patent was mainly intended for exploitation or exploration purposes (e.g., Akcigit and Kerr 2010). Across these dimensions and others, there appears to be very little di¤erence across the patents …led by di¤erent ethnicities. There is some evidence that ethnic inventors may build upon more recent technologies than Anglo-Saxon inventors, but given the null results on the many other dimensions analyzed, the most reasonable conclusion is that the patents are overall quite similar. This is important as it suggest claims about complementar- ity between citizens and skilled immigrants need to rely on a quantity argument rather than a quality dimension with respect to patenting.
Integrated Curriculum and Pedagogy Because team teaching emphasizes negotiating relationships and sharing power both among the teachers and with students, it facilitates the reform of classroom learning that Goodsell et al . speak about. At the same time, teaming supports integrated curriculum design, collaborative learning, and a collaborative pedagogy. In regard to the curriculum, multiple viewpoints and often different disciplinary perspectives presented by teaching partners broaden students’ understanding of knowledge. In addition the teaching team itself, especially
Besides the diversity measures as independent variables, I consider various control variables usually applied in economic growth regressions. Control variables for the employment size of the planning regions are added (variable log(EM P )). I use further a variable measuring whether the planning region (variable AGG) has in the initial years more than the 70th percentiles of the average total employment of all planning regions.. Since bohemians are assumed to be highly concentrated in agglomerated regions, I include the variable AGG in interaction with BOH (bohemians). Moreover, I add an interaction variable for AGG and DIV (AGG DIV ), AGG and CS (AGG CS), AGG and CC (AGG CC), as well as AGG and EDU (AGG EDU ). With this specification I control for regional differences, since it is expected that higher shares of creative professionals are concentrated in regions with high employment concentrations and agglomerative characteristics.
In terms of finding work, although students and migrants in aggregate were thought by employers to have certain desirable characteristics, there was no evidence that employers would prefer to employ a student or migrant worker over a lower skilled worker simply because an individual would be assumed to have these characteristics. Rather, what led to the employment of students and migrant workers was first the methods employers used to fill vacancies, and secondly the willingness of students and migrants to offer the kinds of flexibility employers were seeking. In keeping with the flexibility they sought, employers were increasingly offering temporary employment, particularly through agencies, and using informal recruitment methods to recruit for lower skilled jobs; albeit this might change in different economic circumstances. Both students and migrant workers were more willing to take temporary employment, even if, as in the case of migrant workers, this was not their preferred type of employment. Migrant workers, in particular, were likely to be working for, or to have found work through, an agency. Students and migrant workers were also found to have better social networks of family and friends to draw upon to help them find employment, or to be more aware of the value of using the networks they had to find employment. This disadvantaged the less well networked people amongst the lower skilled group. It also resulted in a self-perpetuation of segmentation in the lower skilled labour market, as similar kinds of people are recruited to those in existing low skilled roles.
The presence of social networks and access to them also play a role in mobility behaviour (Massey et al., 1993). Much of the movement of the skilled from the developed world goes through these networks. They can be considered as a form of social capital that people utilise to get access to information as well as other support for immigration and integration in the host country. Such networks can also be created or at least facilitated by fostering links with those who come from abroad. Supporting international cooperation of research institutes and encouraging student exchange programmes are just two more such examples. Since student exchange acts as an important determinant of later international labour market mobility (Parey and Waldinger (2008)), many countries attempt to attract highlyskilled workers through policies relating to student mobility programs.
This study also showed that availability of the vaccines was also an issue with the participants. Though the vaccinations are provided as routine from the government, there are participants according to whom there should be more vaccines available for certain viruses such as influenza virus and Rota virus. Highly-skilled migrant parents also need to get their children vaccinated for vaccines such as BCG before travelling as it is not in the NIP schedule. The country of birth of the child did not affect the highly-skilled migrant parents’ decision as they optimally managed the vaccination procedure by either being provided with the vaccine details along with the brand names and doses. The only reason their preference might be changed is that the number of vaccine available is too few in the Netherlands. Relevant outcome:
This article deals with the analysis of highly-skilled migration from Lithuania with particular focus on the social context. We test, what role social capital main- tained by the migrants with the higher skills plays in their migration abroad. Social capital seen as a whole of so- cial ties between migrants and people abroad, and be- tween migrants and non-migrants left in Lithuania may play important role in the migratory process. Social ties can exercise a sponsorship function in the migratory process and, in such a way, ease, accelerate, and multi- ply migration flows. The sponsorship of migration (in monetary and non-monetary sense) leads to the reduction of migration risk and maximization of future gains. Thus, social ties manifesting themselves in two dimensions: institutional and interpersonal and their role in the mi- gratory process are analyzed. We analyze the main chan- nels of migration, their manifestation between different migrant groups, and their relationship with the migration push and pull factors.
University leaders face increasing levels of pressure to produce evidence that their institution provides ‘world-class’ teaching, competing in a stratified field driven by aspirations for ‘excellence’ and to be ranked at the top of the global and national league tables. Part of the pressure is to demonstrate their contribution to widening participation through developing explicit equity agendas. Yet simultaneously, the process of widening participation to social groups who have been historically under-represented are often perceived as posing a direct threat to the quality and standards of teaching and learning (Shaw et al., 2007). These imperatives, pressures and expectations place considerable dilemmas for university leaders who are negotiating multiple demands, pressures and expectations, not least to demonstrate their ‘excellence’ through restrictive technologies of discipline and control. One of the few areas of consensus among commentators on this recent reconfiguration of the higher education landscape is that the current intensification of marketisation will lead to greater institutional stratification (Brown & Carasso, 2013). Our own research (Burke, 2012; Whelan 2013) indicates how such stratification has informed widening participation policy and practice, changed the student profile and impacted on the student experience. Within this stratified marketplace, and among an expanding diversity of higher education providers, little attention has, however, been paid to how processes of institutional stratification may intersect with teaching and equity practices. Through the concept of ‘pedagogic stratification’ we aimed to consider the diversity of teaching and learning approaches across the sector, while simultaneously exploring
Similarly, another strand of the LEGACY project focusses on students’ employability gain following international experience gained by students electing to participate in a “work abroad” or “study abroad” scheme. These are compared against a reference group of students that remain “on campus” and their exposure to the diverse student base that are reflected in the student populations. The strand will identify motivations and learning aims, record pre-conceptions of their proposed activity, and perceived benefits of participating in such schemes as well as document any risk averse behav- iour. It is anticipated that through this evidence, it will better inform the self-perceived employability gain(s) students achieve from participating in such an experience, improve such schemes for future participating cohorts as well as enhance any pre/post resources. Impact study and analysis of programmes such as ERASMUS (European Commission, 2016) have identified there are improvements to a number of perceived skills when participating in such schemes, these are not simply about living in another country, meeting new people, improve/widen career prospects or to learn and improve a foreign language. At a baseline, the scheme is known to improve student’s cultural awareness, but the tangible experiences identify skills such as communications, plan- ning and organisational skills, team working, ability to adapt to different situations and problem solving skills.
The US and EU are without doubt the most attractive areas for these talented migrants with the lure of the world’s best universities, very well developed technological, IT and pharmaceutical industries and a need to augment the domestic skills base through immigration. With negotiations taking place between them on a free trade agreement, the treatment of highlyskilled migrants could take on significant importance in order to establish a competition edge for future technological and economic advancement in the EU and US.
Abstract Skilled surgeons treat their patients by repair/removal/cutting/alteration/replacement of the diseased part/organ. So before starting to make an incision on a patient, the surgeon requires not only confidence, a sound knowledge of the organization of macro/micro forms and structures and their shapes, sizes and locations and the correct diagnosis of the disease, but also the anatomical relationship to the disease. The aim of this study is to explore the intimate involvement of anatomy with successful surgery in order to help reduce the failure rate and consequently the incidence of litigious claims. The role of anatomy in surgical procedures from diagnosis to completion is analyzed. The current failure rates in surgery due to lapses in the anatomical knowledge felt by many surgeons are revealed. Remedial measures to ensure safe medical practice have been proposed by senior surgeons and regulators involved in settling the increasing number of litigious claims, such as improving knowledge by inviting educationists to oppose the lowering standards of anatomy teaching among passing-out doctors. A balanced scheduling of medical curricula is required with emphasis on the synergistic vertically and horizontal integration of anatomy, besides mastering subject as it is taught at the outset of the course. Successful surgery and in-depth knowledge of anatomy are complementary to each other. Human anatomy can be practiced by surgeons on cadavers to help improve surgical success.
and Chacko (2007) argued that highlyskilled migrants would not return to their home countries until economic growth occurs and the necessary professional opportunities are available. In fact, Harvey (2009), basing on his study of British and Indian scientists in the USA, suggested that highlyskilled migrants from developing countries hold a greater desire to return to their home countries than those from developed countries because of potentially better professional opportunities (e.g., growing markets, governmental incentives, etc.). Actually, institutional conditions play a considerable role in shaping mobility flows—they may impede as well as facilitate migration and return migration in particular (Favell et al. 2008; King and Raghuram 2013; She and Wotherspoon 2013). In this research, labour market and legal system institutional conditions in both home and host countries have significantly influenced the return decision-making process of the majority of informants (see chapter 4 for further discussion). However, neither institutional factors are fixed and consistent across different types of activities nor the highlyskilled are homogeneous in terms of adaptability and flexibility. For instance, professional profiles such as health workers (both nurses and physicians), engineers, and IT-workers are highly demanded in the international labour market, and thus appear to be facilitated in their movements by various skilled migration programmes, simplified bureaucratic procedures, favourable contract and tax conditions, etc. In different professional fields such as arts or music only a small group of the most talented and famous people may benefit of advantageous mobility conditions. Many others, though highlyskilled, are not so privileged. In this research, I provide the evidence on how institutional conditions for knowledge intensive companies in Belarus have facilitated the return of some highlyskilled migrants 31 .
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Feenstra and Hanson applied the proposed two-step mandated regression on 450 US manufacturing industries for the period 1979-1990. They used the distinction production/ non- production to proxy low-skilled/ high-skilled workers, acknowledging the problem with this proxy but referring to evidence by Berman, Bound and Griliches (1993) and Sachs and Shatz (1994) that using this proxy results in similar trends as using skill groups. They considered high-tech capital, respectively computer equipment relative to total capital and computer investment relative to total investment as structural variables as well as variables reflecting the degree of foreign outsourcing, with outsourcing defined as imported intermediate inputs relative to total intermediates (see section 3.1.2). They distinguished foreign outsourcing in the narrow sense (intermediate inputs imported from the same two-digit industry) from foreign outsourcing in the broad sense (all imported non-energy intermediate inputs). They first estimated equation (3.39) and found a significant estimate of –1.01 for the TFP pass-through. They pointed out that as effective TFP is, by construction, correlated with value-added price changes the OLS will be biased toward –1. An instrumental variable estimation, which in principle could deal with the endogeneity problem, is hindered by a lack of valid instruments, as the best candidate instruments are the structural variables, which are however correlated with value-added price changes. A test of over-identifying restrictions indeed suggests that the