a. Questionnaires, surveys and quizzes
These are commonly found in young learner course books; after input on favourite foods, for example, children are asked to interview their friends to find out their favourite foods. Preparation and rehearsal of the questions is necessary to ensure accuracy, and the activity must be managed so that the questions are asked in full each time. Once the information from several people has been collected, group work on compiling results can offer further opportunities for internalizing or structuring the grammar patterns. Such structuring requires learners to manipulate the language so that they produce the form with attention and accurately.
Even though the flipped learning approach implemented to ESL learning has had an optimistic impact on the ESL students’ perceptions, attitudes, engagement, participation, and performances, the approach had few studies within the framework of teachers’ preferences on using the technology, where the elements that mark students’ acceptation level are still being unanswered (Lie & Yunus, 2019) as cited in Ifenthaler and Schweinbenz (2013). It may also due to lack or less of practical studies; the Malaysian teachers were not assured to use the flipped approach in lower primary school (Lie & Yunus, 2019). Students also need to change their habit or usual way of doing things in the new learning environment by studying the given contents before class which seems rather challenging for younger students (Hirsto et al., 2019). Nonetheless, there has yet any study conducted especially for lower primary students in rural area in this country after the implementation of CEFR that based on the perception and attitude in flipped approach towards grammar learning.
Given that the ESLclassroom is unique and complex, and, as Walsh (2006) points out, that classroom discourse is a problematic medium due to the differences in the backgrounds, expectations and perceptions of the language learners, together with the status of the teacher, the KBSR implementation calls for a transformation in pedagogical culture. It requires that students play a more active role than the teachers in the classroom. For example, to enhance students’ listening skills, teachers are required by the KBSR to introduce short stories, songs and poetry. Subsequently, students play their part by describing the information they have heard, retelling, and illustrating the details of the story, song or poem without teacher intervention (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 2003). This is to train the students to communicate, answer questions, think and ask questions in simple English (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 2001). Student-centred pedagogical practices are emphasised in fulfilling the requirements of the KBSR. All teaching related matters, be they teaching methods, discourse or instructional materials, need to be student-centred and appropriate to students’ abilities (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 2003). The teacher's role is to stimulate students to communicate in English as much as possible. Teachers need to provide more opportunities for students to speak up in class. This may boost students’ confidence in communicating in English. Such opportunities include participation in the staging of English drama. These group activities can encourage students to communicate among themselves in English. In addition, teachers should also encourage students to communicate in English with other teachers in the school (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 2003).
Also, each cycle of the intervention is structured around a picture and the corresponding target words and activities are designed intentionally to maximize pupil engagement as well as create multiple encounters with target vocabulary. Teachers strive to afford pupils a vibrant and responsive learning environment where newly learned skills of conceptualising words acquired inductively are further expanded. The learning environment in the intervention framework is suitably aligned to Ramey and Ramey’s (1998) Developmental Priming Mechanisms that advocate mentoring with exploration in learning on a recurring and predictable basis as a platform for positive cognitive and linguistic development in early childhood. Thus, the organization and interconnectedness of the activities are viewed as a major source of strength of the model. Recorded higher mean scores for both vocabulary knowledge recall and retention reiterate the effectiveness of this teaching model.
Grammar has always been viewed as playing an essential role in the success or failure of formal communication. This research will show that grammar education should be ‘descriptive’ rather than ‘prescriptive’ in order to offer students a set of choices to make them effective speakers and writers. The main objective of this study was twofold. First, it focused on students’ views about a new grammar model that includes four stages: confrontation, clarification, confirmation and consolidation (CCCC) and students’ perceptions regarding grammar learning in general. Second, it investigated the recurrent patterns of interaction during the process of learning grammar within the framework of the model. The subjects of this study were forty female students from three ESP for education classes in the UAE University. Three research instruments (a questionnaire, classroom observation notes and semi-structured interviews) were employed to establish data triangulation and to attain validity. The results from the collective data demonstrated that students had positive views about the use of the CCCC grammar model. Another crucial result highlighted the students’ beliefs about the positive influence of explicit grammarteaching on learning the conventions of sentences and utterances. Finally, the study concluded with recommendations to direct future research.
“Classroom tasks should consist of a blend of activities, sometimes focusing on language accuracy, and at other times focusing on expressivity” (Conrad, 1999).
“The picture that emerges from the data suggests a blend of two leading
considerations: using a structural approach involving corrective feedback and grammar, as well as a communicative approach where language is used for real communicative purpose” (Conrad, 1999). The findings from the above evaluation studies not only conform with the cognitive load theory that emphasizes more guided and structured instruction benefits for novice learners (Clark, 2006), but also show that learners place high value on activities to communicate information. For this reason, one of the major elements of the target program design is contextualized teaching of grammar and focus on an immediate use of the mastered grammar concept for communicating meaningful information.
CCL Program is implemented resulting from the implementation of the teaching and learning of Mathematics and Science in English language. At the same time, it is also an attempt to curb the declining levels of achievement in standard assessment of English proficiency in recent years in primary schools (Basree, 2009). Outlined with six learning objectives for the literature components, Cheng (2008) states that the study of literature aids in language acquisition by developing the children’s awareness on how language works in communication and experiencing the form of narratives. The MOE has given good support in the implementation of children’s literature into the school systems. Without the belief and support of the MOE in the importance of literature as a component in the syllabus, the death of literature is a sure thing (Cheng, 2008). Literature component was incorporated into the ESL syllabus with the main aim of enhancing students’ language proficiency. After ten years in the syllabus, teachers should be able to teach literature effectively. However, the incorporation of literature component is still argued and debated amongst teachers, students, researchers, parents as well as the policy makers (Radzuwan Abdul Rashid & Vethamani, 2010). In addition, Basree (2009) in her study states that the child-centered approaches and activities required by CCL were largely ignored as teachers continued in their usual teacher-centered patterns. There were limited opportunities for pupils to initiate talk due to the failure, on the part of teachers, to build upon pupil contributions. Teachers did not differentiate between more and less proficient students. The more proficient children complained about being bored by inappropriate activities.
There are a number of reasons that explain the pupils’ overwhelmingly positive reactions to the use of the graphic novel in the classroom. The first is the similarity between the formats of the graphic novel and those of comics, as most of the pupils have experienced reading comics in the Malay language. Secondly, the fact that reading materials that are commonly found in bookstores are now being used in formal classrooms has made the pupils excited to read in a format that they are familiar with. This notion backs the assertion made by Hines and Delinger (2011) when they say that the use of graphic novels have positively changed their students’ view towards reading because they were now eager to read. Besides being an effective element in enticing the pupils to read, the images were able to assist comprehension where pupils were able to make educated guesses about the storyline based on the images when they could not make sense of the dialogues in the speech balloons. According to Krashen (1989, p. 402), “visuals accompanying texts can provide clues that shed light on the meaning of unfamiliar word or grammatical structure”. Due to the positive reading influences that graphic novels have brought upon the pupils, the teacher trainees unanimously concurred that they too enjoyed their lessons using the graphic novels. The teacher trainees spent less time to explain the content of the graphic novels and were therefore able to carry out more language-based activities during the lesson.
The Malaysian ESL (English as a Second Language) curriculum has undergone several reforms since the implementation of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025. In 2016, the Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) or the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (SBCPS), first introduced in 2011, was revised to align with the Common European Framework of References (CEFR) for languages. This more action-oriented approach resulted in fundamental changes to teaching, learning, and assessment including the integration of an innovative school-based assessment (SBA). It witnessed a shift from the traditional stance of assessment of learning to assessment for learning that emphasizes both peer and self-assessment as necessary components for the development of autonomous language learners. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of the CEFR-aligned SBA in the primaryESLclassroom. Data were collected via a three-pronged procedure involving surveys, interviews, and document analysis from TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) teachers in five randomly-selected schools located in Damansara, Malaysia. The findings revealed that the implementation of SBA left much to be desired and was far from formative assessment. Though teachers expressed rather positive opinions on SBA, they lacked a full understanding of the method and admitted possessing a limited knowledge of the revised CEFR-aligned ESL curriculum altogether. Teachers provided little or no constructive feedback on assignments, and learners were not encouraged to reflect on assignments. There was little evidence of peer and self-assessment required for developing autonomous learners. Teachers cited time constraints, classroom enrolment, heavy workload, and lack of training as their main challenges against the effective implementation of the CEFR-aligned SBA.
A set of questionnaire designed by one of the researchers was used as the primary instruments to obtain the needed information. The questionnaire consists of 29 items which students answered in the form of Likert scale. The scales are valued and rated as strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. To enhance the findings, interviews were conducted with at least 10 selected learners in relation to their attitudes towards the approaches they experienced when learning literature. The questions were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Furthermore, through the interviews, qualitative data were collected and learners’ opinions and feelings towards TESL instructors’ approaches in teaching literature were revealed.
Our research shows a great deal of consistency of grammarteaching at the level of test preparation, but the teaching of grammar overall is far from standardised. Teachers use a range of DIY, internet and other published resources, and discussions with colleagues are an important source of support and information. Teachers use a variety of approaches, from decontextualized ‘grammar starters’ and stand-alone grammar lessons to language study embedded in the reading of literature and grammar applied in extended writing. Although teachers can and do embed meaningful grammar study and application in a context of reading literature and real texts, and in discussions about audiences and purposes, they do so with awareness that these kinds of applications and discussions are not a feature of the test. Contextualised grammar study is more likely to happen where teachers are confident about their own grammar knowledge and feel able to make time in the classroom for talk with pupils about texts and language. Less confident teachers may feel unwilling to spend time discussing grammar with pupils if this might put their achievement on the test at risk. Furthermore, all teachers must ensure that they and pupils cover the curriculum’s required grammar content. Based on their phonics support work, the role of teaching assistants now includes support for grammar learning, particularly for underachieving pupils and pupils with Special Educational Needs. TAs have variable grammar knowledge at their own level and variable access to the grammar training offered to teachers. The enlargement of the TA role indicates the need to ensure all
It is very much challenging still now in our country to provide all sorts of teaching tools and privileges to the language teachers to create an effective classroomteaching and learning. This paper draws some significant difference in the method of grammarteaching techniques between some Urban and Rural schools. Though there are some similarities noticed on the teaching method in both areas but these are very limited. Teachers’ should try to use new techniques for their students’ better understanding and using language to communicate with others. Most of the time teacher practices traditional teaching methods and do not encourage students to use language. These are very threatening issues for the students’ language learning progress. It is often seems that to make an interactive classroomteaching and learning teachers’ will need to use some teaching aids such as: the board, the overhead projector, the cassette recorder, computers and the photocopier etc. Although Language Teachers can make a effective classroomteaching with different types of fruitful questions and answer session where teacher will engage the students and help and guide them to enrich their knowledge on a particular topic or lesson.
Even though the results of Lyster and Ranta’s (1997) study were important in identifying the varieties of CF used in the classroom, further study was needed to determine the effects of different types of CF on the acquisition of various grammar structures. Following this study, other researchers investigated which type of CF is the most effective for learning certain grammatical principles. Yang and Lyster (2010) tested short-term and long-term retention of past tense regular and irregular English verbs. The researchers used three classes of university-level Chinese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. These students were English literature and language majors and were already well acquainted with English past tense verbs. The study focused on the effects of two types of corrective feedback and their impact on students’ use of the past tense. Each class received a different type of feedback: recasts or prompts. Students receiving only recasts were neither discouraged nor encouraged to produce student repair. Students receiving only prompts, however, were given feedback consisting of metalinguistic clues, repetition, clarification requests, and elicitation, which encouraged students to repair their errors. In the third class (the control group), all past-tense errors were ignored, and the teacher focused only on the meaning of student interactions.
One useful strategy to encourage learning a foreign language is using language games. When using games in the classroom, it is important for teachers to have a complete understanding of the definitions of games, which are usually defined as a form of play that takes into account rules, competition, and an element of fun. A teacher should consider following aspects while employing games in the classroom i) advantages of games, ii) the ability of games to capture students’ attention, iii) lowering students’ stress while playing games and iv) giving students chance for real communication during the play. Some teachers think that language games are a waste of time and prefer not to use them in the classroom since games sometimes have been considered only for its one element that is fun. In fact, games can provide English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as the second language (ESL) students more than that.
completely proficient in the language” (p. 2). The natural responses, such as laughter, first language use, and anger are some of the student behaviors that teachers reprimand students for, whose primary language is not English. Curran believed that a teacher’s request for silence may not allow English Language Learners (ELLs) the opportunity to support each other through quick translations of instructions. She believed that, when a teacher demonstrates his or her respect and understanding for the support that an ELL student needs, the student will behave respectfully. “It is when a teacher appears insensitive or uncompromising that students respond with anger” (p. 3). Similar to Curran, Olneck (1995, as cited in Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 1995) concluded that students’ resistance is provoked when their behavior and communication norms are ignored by teachers; however, the use of teaching that is responsive, will prompt student involvement. In Curran’s experiment with teachers, she was reminded that educators must recognize students’ behavior that, initially, may be interpreted as bored, inattentive, or lazy, may be a natural response to their inability to comprehend the language.
Perceiving from the Malaysian context, education in Malaysia has moved its way forward to the new development of teaching, assessment and learning. This is aligned with the hope of the Ministry of Education (MOE) to produce more competitive learners and at the same time to upgrade the quality of education in Malaysia (Hashim, Rusli, Hashim, & Hua, 2015). To better develop learners for the future, Malaysia‟s education system has been reformed in order to strengthen its quality mainly in the learning of English language. However, learning a second language does require a lot of efforts and crucial steps to be taken in teaching and learning as it is not a native language for Malaysians thus, learning English takes place with a great deal of challenges faced by English language learners. Nonetheless, such perceptions should not hinder the learners to gain knowledge of English as a second language (ESL) since various teaching and learning approaches have been introduced to cater to the problems. Therefore, the education institutions especially play important roles in executing the education system plans to enhance the teaching of English towards ESL learners. The teaching of English language in the Malaysian education curriculum comprises of different skills to be acquired namely listening, speaking, reading and writing that correlate together. Focusing on the productive skills namely the writing and speaking skills, Fareed and Bilal (2016) found that some major problems faced by ESL learners in writing skill involve insufficient linguistic proficiency, lack of vocabulary, lack of ideas, over reliance on L1 and weak structure organization. In terms of the speaking skill, learners inability to converse well in the target language hinders them from being a productive learner which could be due to learners‟ limited vocabulary and general knowledge as well as cultural factor of respecting teachers make them less interactive also contribute to challenges encountered by ESL teachers (Gunawardena, Sooriyampola, & Walisundara, 2017).
in school, teachers need to monitor how they are introduced. If students often use computers individually there are possibilities for reducing the interactions between the students of the classroom. There are certain features of the computer that can be overused and, as a result, learning does not take place at the maximum level. The computer features of graphics, colour, animation and sound effects can be overemployed by material writers with the result that their valuable pedagogical benefits are diminished and their effectiveness seriously impaired. Some students may favour this kind of software. However, attention needs to be paid to make the students aware of their real needs when dealing with the software. With proper guidance, learning can still take place.
One answer to this question is to gamify learning. Students respond well to this because it is fun; they can earn points while proceeding at their own pace and competing against themselves. An application such as Duolingo provides the gaming aspects mentioned above, but offers much more. With this one program, students get the opportunity to construct knowledge, to explore what they are really interested in learning. Communicating with other learners via discussion boards gives them a variety of answers and perspectives. They must then evaluate and synthesize all this information and choose what best fits their needs. Through this process, students are also making cultural connections with fellow posters, which will require a certain level of confidence. Students can then use the information gained to create products that serve a civic purpose. This takes learning beyond the classroom and beyond regurgitating information. Apps like Duolingo are available on computers, smart phones, and tablets. Students control how and where they use these apps.
• Sentence Structure and Syntax
Sentence Elements include verbs, subjects and objects, modifiers, function words, conventions (punctuation, capitalization, spelling), and word formation.
Sentence Structure and Syntax include word order, relationships between and among clauses, and agreement, as well as how grammar relates to communication beyond the sentence level. Some items in the Grammar/Usage test use a modified cloze format, with blanks in sentences and choices to fill in the blanks. When students click on an answer, the program places their selection into the blank so it can be read in context. Other items in this test offer a question with four options, based on a reading passage. These items test students' understanding of how words function within a text.
Although students often assess their peers leniently, we still can see the location of presenters’ abilities in the FACETS map. In fact, according to peer and teach- er’s assessments, P16 gave the best presentation in class, which was consistent to what the teacher felt. Moreover, the result that P1 gave the worst presentation was also consistent to the teacher’s reaction. Using the Multifaceted Rasch anal- ysis, teachers may confirm or modify their ratings, which is probably beneficial in classroom setting. Since only one teacher rating all the presenters could fall in danger, it may be necessary to use peer assessment as additional assessment. In this study, the teacher rater is lenient as well as peer raters, since her logit is be- low 0.00 logit. The presenters probably followed what the teacher explained in class and conducted good presentations. On the other hand, although in this study, using the three successive classes, students were taught what each domain is and how to rate peers’ presentations thoroughly, if they had had more time to practice rating, their ratings could have been improved more. Especially, in this