Reports on the implementation of TBL in engineering education are still scarce, despite its potential to be used as an effective instructional strategy for teaching problem-solving skills in large class formats. Furthermore, working in teams is an essential skill for undergraduate engineers. Thus, Van der Loos et al. 2009 reported about the TBL approach in design elements module, evidencing increased in-class discussion, peer-learning and attendance, as well as an improved course effectiveness based on student evaluation. The same group described an enhancement in the students' perception of the mechanical module and student performance on exams (Ostafichuk et al. 2012). Also, Price et al. 2010 from Monash University carefully engineered team-basedlearning exercises to develop team work, collaboration, lateral thinking and problem solving as well as, the often necessary, conflict resolution.
Abstract—In recent years, Clicker technology has been widely used at uni- versities to provide interactive learning environments. It is used with appropri- ate pedagogic approaches to achieve expected learning outcomes. This study aims to determine the views of students about learning environment developed based on the integration of Team-basedlearning strategy and clicker technology in education. The participants included 30 first-yearengineeringstudents taking Physics-I at Near East University. Data were collected with a semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher after a comprehensive analysis of the literature. Interviews were carried out at the voluntary base after a five-week application process. The data were analyzed through content analysis method. Results of the study showed that perceptions of students who received educa- tion in clicker supported Team-Basedlearning environment were positive. Stu- dents stated that this environment enhanced their learning and they also provid- ed recommendations. It is expected that this study would contribute educators in terms of integrating clicker technology in team-basedlearning strategy.
The phenomenological study on CPBL learning process for Chemical Engineeringstudents has defined types of changes on student perceptions and their level of acceptances towards the learning of CPBL by a lecturer who is new to this method. Although studies have shown that problem-basedlearning enhance positive attitude among students 6,7 , the key of these changes is on how the lecturer shapes the learning environment, understanding the students’ emotion and learning issues, motivate and facilitate them towards the right direction by not just being a constructivist facilitator but also by providing the necessary support to develop the required skills 8,9 needed to work in a team, solve problems and manage time. Therefore, the lecturer actually plays a very important role in shaping students' perceptions of the learning approach that in turn will deeply impact their learning 10 . As Woods 11 stated that it may not be the fault of the teaching method but the way it is introduced to the students which causes students to develop the negative perception.
engineering’s interaction with social issues. Specifically, students were asked to draw a schematic of what they thought the word “engineer” means and were also given the opportunity to elaborate on the meaning of the picture in writing. Therefore, the interpretation of the students’ perceptions of engineers was not solely based on the drawing. Students completed their first drawing at the beginning of the semester before the integrative learning module was used with the “Water Module” group (pre-test), and completed their second drawings at the end of the semester (post-test). Students were not given their first drawing when asked to prepare the second one. A Ph.D. candidate who was majoring in Social Foundations of Education, and who was not associated with teaching the courses, interpreted and analyzed the images and the accompanying text. Differences between the first and second drawings were noted and counted for four major themes: image, engineering process, humanities and social science integration, and types of knowledge. The overall question was whether or not students understood engineering generally and if they understood the integrated aspects of engineering with social elements. The images were analyzed for their use of detail and explanations that would indicate a working knowledge of an engineer’s daily work. Images were analyzed and coded for emerging themes by the Ph.D. candidate and then reviewed by other members of the research team to determine any additional codes that were missed. When the second drawings were completed, the first drawings were analyzed again to determine if any potential meanings were missed in the prior analysis. Comparison charts of each pair of drawings were composed by the Ph.D. candidate and reviewed by the research team. The Ph.D. candidate also obtained additional assessment from peers working in engineering as additional reviewers to gather any analytical points that may have been missed. The iterative review by several researchers was important for triangulation, a key component of trustworthiness in qualitative research (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). The major themes that resulted and that aligned with the study focus are described below.
Most current tertiary students are seen as ‘digital natives’ [1-2]. This term implies that, unlike any other previous generation of tertiary students, the current generation have spent their entire life surrounded by computers, mobile phones, video games and other technological devices . Higher education curriculum designers should make the most of the ‘web 2.0 tools’ that are now accessible because of their adaptability, accessibility, and varied content  through blended learning. A major challenge for modern tertiary education institutions is how to best design and integrate the e-learning environments and ‘web 2.0’ learning tools from which this digital generation of students are learning from . Higher education curriculum designers should make the most of these ‘web 2.0 tools’ that are now accessible because of their adaptability, accessibility, and varied content [3-4].
In this case, group arrangement has been done by lecturer/facilitator, purposely not to allow students bias by choosing their own team members. They were formed according to some factors that seem to be realistic for getting an ideal group. The group arrangement was based on gender, ethnicity and academic background (CPA and grade of Electric Circuit course) so that students can expose to inter and intra-cultural values (gender and ethnicity) and able to adapt and appreciate others with different learning styles, abilities, as well as attitudes.
Our study was limited by inclusion of students from a single medical school, and a single year group. Furthermore, not all students completed both questionnaires. This may have biased the questionnaire results, not re ﬂ ecting the opinions of the entire student body. It may be that TBR suits a certain cohort of students, and more work needs to be done to under- stand this further. Finally, another limitation of this study was the use of a scale to measure self-con ﬁ dence, which had not previously been validated in this setting. As students increas- ingly seek active learning methods, the utility of TBR to provide a high level of engagement should be further evalu- ated. The PSA has also been suggested to be relevant to pharmacy trainees 15 and thus TBR may also be of value in undergraduate pharmacy education.
Despite being well ahead of many other disciplines in establishing strong and evidence-based research and practice, engineering in many countries still experiences high rates of student and graduate attrition. One possible reason for this is that students enter engineering study without understanding the realities of either their degree program or engineering work, and without a sense of motivation and commitment. The research reported here aimed to extend understanding of firstyearengineeringstudents’ thinking about their competencies, identity, self-efficacy, motivation, and career. The study involved over 1,100 firstyearengineeringstudents enrolled in a common firstyear unit. Responses were coded using the Engineers Australia graduate competencies as a framework, and this paper reports findings from the most diverse cohort of students (n=260), of whom 49% were international students with English as their second language. The research identified differences between international and domestic students’ perceptions of self and of career competencies, possibly related to self- esteem. Implications include improved confidence and motivation to learn as students consider their strengths, interests and goals. Further, the research raises the need for analysis of international students’ cultural and educational background to determine how different cohorts of international students self-appraise and how they associate learning with their future careers.
This paper presented a systematic way to design an introductory engineering course using the HPL framework as a basis for creating an effective learning environment prepare the students to become future engineer. The findings of this study showed that the ITE course has managed to enhance students’ understanding of engineering, professional skills and positive attitude. This study also shows that there is a gradual enhancement of knowledge and professional skills development as they go through the course, which starts off with difficulties in facing the new learning environment before finally accepting and attaining success levels. It is found that the students have attained the desired level of professional skills aligned with the requirements of the Engineering Accreditation Council (2012). Therefore, it is possible to prepare students with the attributes of engineers to enable them to face the challenges in 21 st century through ITE course, even among those who were accustomed to the teacher-centered approach. Hence, the design of ITE course using the HPL framework as a basis for design were successful to prepare the firstyearengineeringstudents with engineering knowledge, attitude and professional skills.
As a continuation of our previous studies, we are now in- vestigating how the degree of preparation for each individ- ual TBL relates to student course performance in an ID course for medical students, the only course in our curricu- lum where students engage in one TBL exercise each week of the course, for a total of four TBL exercises. Our analysis seeks to evaluate how weekly, pre-class preparation, as assessed by iRAT scores, relates to final examination per- formance amongst strongly performing and struggling stu- dents. Specifically, we hypothesize that students with better performance on the course final examination will show weekly improvements in their iRAT performance. The re- sults of this study could provide key insights into the rela- tionship between iRAT-TBL performance and student success in undergraduate medical education.
In China, in order to increase the motivation of stu- dents, there are ideological education courses on the the- ory of Marxism and Leninism, special academic courses for freshmen, student communities on the basis of general interests and needs of students in personal development. Student communities are an important part of the educa- tion system. They are self-organizing formations based on real needs of students [ 19 ].
Sydney Medical School offers a 4-year graduate entry medical program. Firstyear medical students attend the university main campus 4 days per week, and their “parent” clinical school one day per week. Parent clinical schools are based at one of six metropolitan teaching hospitals. These schools provide invalu- able clinical experience in a variety of settings. There, from the first week of the program, on a weekly basis, students take part in small group, bedside clinical tutorials. Students attend 1.5 hours of physical examination teaching, and 1.5 hours of communications teaching. Groups consist of six to seven students, with one clinician who is either a senior specialist (consultant), registrar (house staff), or general practitioner.
Using the traits Lowe and Johnston (2008) identified as being relevant to professional engineers and predictive of academic success, the 31-item IMSE scale was produced by reformatting items to allow for online application across a number of institutions. While open-ended questions provide rich data, responses are expensive and time consuming to analyse. For this reason the items were rewritten as statements which could be endorsed or refuted using a Likert response scale. In order to obtain “best” responses to the Lowe and Johnston items, team members who were professional engineers were invited to provide their responses and these were then written in statement form. In order to avoid response bias, four items were designed to be negatively scored (“I believe that most problems require complex solutions”; “I would like to be an engineer because I like to work independently of others”; “If I find a solution to a problem, I like to stick with that solution”; and “If a solution to a problem does not emerge quickly, I prefer to move on to another task”). Additional items relating to self-efficacy and goal setting for studying in general were also included. The statements generated by this process were then trialled with postgraduate engineeringstudents and 31 items (23 interest items and 8 motivation items) that were highly endorsed were retained for use. Appendix B outlines measures in the non-cognitive component of the Get Set for Success Quiz.
Initially the test battery was offered to two groups of commencing students (a) those enrolled on-campus in any undergraduate program offered by the Faculty of Engineering and Surveying (FOES), and (b) those in the psychology major in the Bachelor of Science program offered by the Faculty of Sciences. These two cohorts provide contrasting samples, particularly in relation to gender and educational background. Engineering is a male dominated profession while psychology has become very female dominated. In the longer term, the research project involves tracking the academic performance of these students until they complete their degrees or leave the university. Additionally, the relationship between prior educational experiences of firstyearstudents and academic achievement will be examined. For example, it is expected that previous academic performance (e.g., the Queensland Tertiary Admission Centre [QTAC] rank) will be a significant predictor of academic performance in first-yearstudents (McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001).
In the newly introduced unit, Experimental Methods, we have sought to be creators of a culture of critical thinking among students rather than just presenters of information. The unit uses a number of different presentation styles and learning environments. Weekly tutorial sessions combine short laboratory exercises, library sessions, computer lab programming and spreadsheet exercises, and traditional problem solving tutorials. There are also different environments within this structure, using a variety of laboratory equipment and settings (in an attempt to go beyond the ‘staged’ firstyear experiment), as well as a number of software environments. We hope that this exposes the students to the environments of a modern engineer, where not only the laboratory is important but the computer as well, and indeed the interface between computer and experimental apparatus (for instance, the computer as a data acquisition and control device).
the study (Miles and Huberman, 1994; Svinicki, 2011). According to Maxwell (2005), it is most important to understand the conceptual framework as related to what is the research plan, what is going on with the issues and why the research is carried out. The framework of this study is followed by the work of John Biggs’ 3P Model of student deep learning (Biggs, 1989). Firstyearstudents were selected as a research population. According to Erickson et al.(2006), there are two main reason why the firstyear at university level is the most important year to make any changes; 1) this is the early stage that students will acquire as much information without any rejectionand 2) students’ assumption and expectations about teaching and learning change while they are in year one at college, as stated in Perry’s Research on student development. Therefore, firstyear stage at university levels are very crucial to introduce the new knowledge and learning environment. The conceptual framework of this study is shown in Figure 1.2. It consists of three phases, namely Phase 1, Phase II and Phase III. Each phase is designed to answer the research objectives and research questions.
At present, teachers of English around the world prefer some form of communicative teaching and learning, rather than the audio-lingual method and its derivatives. However, we must remember that a successful teacher is not necessarily biased in favour of one method or the other. He should be first of all competent in and comfortable with the methods he wants to use. He should be able to select from different teaching strategies and methods to suit the needs of the students and the classroom situation.
engineering curricula (Kavanagh et al., 2009). These firstyearstudents therefore experience difficulty in mastering the content and other fundamental knowledge hurdles and quickly become dissatisfied with their firstyearengineering studies (Kavanagh et al., 2009). They then often withdraw from their engineering programs, thus contributing to the growing attrition rate. Similarly, research evidence indicates that students of all disciplines enter university with expectations about the learning experience which influence their approach to study (Krause, Hartley, James, & McInnis, 2005) but that these students are often poorly informed about the nature of their coursework (Krause et al., 2005). This project aims to redress this imbalance by building on earlier works in the field (e.g., Godfrey & King, 2011). The focus is not on selecting students for engineering courses based on their prior knowledge per se, but on the relationships between the interests, experiences, knowledge and skills of commencing students that influence their career decisions. Empowering firstyearstudents to identify their knowledge gaps, and giving them some idea of the learning experience at university, is an important first step in
The main aim of learning a second language is to be able to use the language accurately, fluently and confidently whether in its spoken or written forms. That is also the main aim of many English for Second Language (ESL) learners in Malaysia. Although results from many major examinations such as Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) show that many students can get good grades for the English language papers, their performance in oral communication is questionable. Numerous complaints from employers, for example, indicate that many Malaysian ESL users are poor communicators. Lack of communication skills especially in the English language has been cited as one of the reasons why there are so many unemployed graduates (Sibat, 2005; Jacob, Huui, and Ing, 2006).
The learning process is sensitive to the demands from the learning task and the specific subject of study. This study provides a characterization of the motivational and cognitive learning strategies used by stu- dents in their firstyear of an undergraduate Civil Engineering degree course at a prestigious Chilean uni- versity. The module considered for this study was “Introduction to Calculus”, the first course in Mathe- matics that these students took at the beginning of their career. A sample of 339 students (73% of the total students enrolled) attended the last lecture and consented to participate in this study lecture (no student rejected to participate). They answered the Motivated Strategies Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The MSLQ asked the students about the motivational and cognitive learning strategies that they applied in the selected module. Mean scores for motivational and cognitive items were categorized into low, medium or high values. Students reported high motivational strategies, particularly regarding their value of the task and their control of learning beliefs. These were ranked as “high” level. As for the cognitive learning strategies, they were also high but slightly lower than the motivational dimensions of the learning experi- ence. Hence, they were ranked in an upper-middle range, excelling in meta-cognitive self-regulation and effort regulation. Moreover, motivational and cognitive strategies were interrelated components affecting the learning outcomes. This study explored self-reported motivational and cognitive learning strategies applied by first-year undergraduate students of a Civil Engineering degree course in one of the largest universities in Chile. Our findings suggest that both motivational and cognitive components of learning process are relevant and interact with each other. These results contribute to a better understanding of the learning process of engineeringstudents in an early curricular stage. Hence, they provide relevant knowl- edge that could be applied in teaching and learning practices in higher education.