The comparison of the average scores for the statements in the readiness assurance process category (Fig. 2) comprising four elements (pre-session readings, iRATs, tRATs and application exercises suggests that high percentage of the students agreed or strongly agreed that these activities allowed them to prepare and apply acquired concepts, ranging from 63% for S1 to 89% for S4. It also seems that the pre-session readings were the least useful activities compared to iRATs, tRATs and application exercises. The scores on the perception of TBL vs. traditional teaching category (Fig. 3) suggest that almost half of students agree or strongly agree that their preferred lecturing style is team-basedlearning for an engineering module and for Process Engineering Fundamentals. However, it should be noted that high percentage of students exhibited a neutral statement – 37% and 31% for statements S5 and S6, respectively. Agree and strongly agree statements dominated in the perception of significance of team work category, demonstrating students’ awareness that team work is important for their professional development. Furthermore, 86% of students agree or strongly agree the team discussions allowed them to correct mistakes and improve understanding of concepts while 80% agree or strongly agree that their learning was enhanced due to interactions with teammates. Interestingly, comparison of three categories shows that students are very positive in respect to all TBL activities and their learning is enhanced but they are somewhat hesitant to prefer TBL format over traditional teaching – 23% would prefer traditional and while 31% are neutral. This might be due to the fact that students encountered TBL for the first time and it takes some time to adapt.
subject: reviewing the subjects in the class, asking several questions to motivate the students (not just giving an answer or solving a problem), strengthening the problem-solving skills, understanding and hearing the opinions of others, active listening, enhancing interpersonal and social communication skills and getting feedback and support from colleagues under the supervision of the professor. TBL is suggested for students who are not interested in a particular field of activity, who do not carry out their homework assignments, and who have difficulty learning a particular subject (5). TBL has been reported to improve learning and to provide better performance in the written exams as well as in Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) (6-8). According to recent studies, TBL can be considered an alternative approach to conventional lecture methods in improving test performance and durability of learning. Ultimately, the improved quality of educating students can augment the quality of the service they provide in the clinic (9). Tachycardia and bradycardia are among the important topics that clinical students (interns) should learn during their emergency medicine course. Given that medical interns may be exposed to various patients with cardiac complaints, they need sufficient knowledge to interpret cardiac pathologies, which mandates an effective teaching method. As few studies have investigated the impact of new teaching methods on this issue and that medical interns have limited time for learning, new teaching methods with higher quality should be investigated and implemented. Therefore, this study examined TBL and compared it with conventional lecture method (LM) in an educational approach to tachycardia and bradycardia in adult patients.
Reports on the implementation of TBL in engineering education are still scarce, despite its potential to be used as an effective instructional strategy for teaching problem-solving skills in large class formats. Furthermore, working in teams is an essential skill for undergraduate engineers. Thus, Van der Loos et al. 2009 reported about the TBL approach in design elements module, evidencing increased in-class discussion, peer-learning and attendance, as well as an improved course effectiveness based on student evaluation. The same group described an enhancement in the students' perception of the mechanical module and student performance on exams (Ostafichuk et al. 2012). Also, Price et al. 2010 from Monash University carefully engineered team-basedlearning exercises to develop team work, collaboration, lateral thinking and problem solving as well as, the often necessary, conflict resolution.
The process is “not perfect” but the team teachers interviewed felt that with minor, but continued, alterations to the materials and the methodologies for the delivery of those materials, the approach will further improved the quality of capstone Technical Theses. The courses are demanding for students and instructors in terms of the amount of material to be covered, the pace at which that material is covered, and the expectations for high quality. Admittedly, our teamteaching initiative is rather product oriented towards a successful final document – the technical thesis – perhaps at the expense of the process (es) needed. But changes are taking place that indicate an evolution away from product towards process oriented learning and writing. Students and instructors now comment on how the initial templates are constraining in scope or do not accommodate particular technical projects (such as projects involving complex and time consuming programming.) Additionally, students deviate from suggested organizational and formatting norms by including, for example, elaborate video components to their theses. Furthermore, in the past, topics for technical theses were often provided to students by faculty members, but increasingly we are seeing student projects of their own devising on particularly local subjects (i.e. solar generators for desert camping, green air-conditioning and real ecological concerns as reflected in the Qatar 2030 National Vision document.) The courses will continue to pose challenges, but with a supportive and collaborative approach, success for all involved is much more likely.
The third text participants analysed confirmed that, as in the case of Student A, Student C showed awareness of self-management skills, especially time management. Although the greater part of the text shows a motivated student, this excerpt shows admission of failure in time management: “I did not utilize my time very effectively as I had trouble meeting all the deadlines”. This admission is a step in the direction of seeking alternatives. This is further confirmed in the text as Student C reflects, “I find circuit theory the most challenging. I find it difficult to comprehend…I had never done similar subjects…I am planning catch up during the forthcoming break.” The participants were able to see that Student C clearly showed planning in his self-management skills. An insight here was that students may need more support to enable them to get to higher levels of self-directed learning, to avert failure and attrition. Dependence can occur if the learner is learning very new topics or subjects. This is what Student C exemplified in this reflective piece.
The Medline database was searched using the terms “intrathe- cal” AND “chronic” AND “pain” in the article title/abstract. Results were refined by adding search terms relevant to the clinical practice of IT therapy including “patient selection, trialing, dosing, morphine, ziconotide, safety, complication, and guidelines”. Searches were limited to English-language publications. Abstracts were reviewed to identify publications relevant to the use of an intraprofessional approach to IT therapy for chronic pain management. Treatment guidelines based on review/analysis of research evidence were selected for further consideration.
The hierarchy of affective domain objectives by Anderson and Kraftwohl (2001) explains that each object is interrelated with each other. Receiving refers to conscious state of mind in which the learner is eager to learn, willing to hear, and receive information. After receiving the second stage is responding; responding is active participation of students and their contribution in responses and this observable behaviour indicates student’s motivation in learning. Third aspect is valuing. Valuing is the ability of a learner to see worth or value in a particular object/ideas according to their way of perception. This phenomenon is ranging from simpler accepting form to complex state of commitment. Thus, valuing is the value of a person attaches to something (Jones, 2007). Organisation is the fourth stage in hierarchy. Organization refers to the ability of a learner to see contrast in different values, to resolve conflicts and discrepancies among different values or to be innovative in creating a new and unique organisation of value system. In a simple way organization is organising or values into order of priority (Krathwohl., Bloom & Masia, 1964; Aronbolin, 2006). Last element in the affective domain is characterization by value which is a coherent value system that determines the persistent, consistent, and predictable characteristics of a learner (Griffith, 2006; Annesley & Putt, 2009; Campbell, Ryan & Wilson, 2009; Huitt, 2009; Chyung et al., 2010; Gordon, 2011). It determines a behaviour which is controlled by a value system (Boyle, 2007).
Students get in touch with content directly using websites, without the need of a teacher or an instructor. Web basedlearning (WBL) is the use of websites considering active learning aspects, enabling students of self learn- ing, distance learning and flexible schedules . It can be used to support traditional methods or as the only mean . The teacher, acting here as web designer , can use photos, links to related subjects, questions with answers  and animations  along the web site in order to retain student attention. As example, Sinav and Ambron developed a program accessible by the internet where students can explore the anatomy of small and complex human structures, becoming much easier to understand them. In the literature researchers already suggested guidelines for site structure  and implementation .
Reflection on identity issues came across particularly strongly during session discussions. In the initial two sessions where the group established itself and became acclimatized to the learning and teachingapproach, students engaged in a number of teasing exchanges with each other. In a protracted piece of conversation in ses- sion two, in between drawing exercises and the more structured group discussion, students mock-argued about the relative qualities and benefits of being in their respective disciplines: ‘Doctors against artists’. This was humorous, even darkly humorous, in nature: “Who would win?”, “We’ve got scalpels”, “We’ve got saws as well” ( HBF session 2, unpublished transcript 20.1.12 ). It was clear in this exchange that the students’ mutual interest in and respect for each other’s discipline had already been firmly established and that they were enjoying this process of verbal play fighting. There was no evidence of malice, rather an amusement in the con- trasts and similarities between the two disciplines and an establishment of boundaries for social interaction. Humour was often used in this way to express and assert identity and also, occasionally, to explore and justify be- havior, knowledge and their approach to learning. Whilst at times students made it clear they did not welcome be- ing stereotyped according to their discipline, or were keen to qualify the impressions that those from other disciplines had of them, the overall pattern was towards students finding a way that suited them of ‘wearing’ their disciplinary identities overtly. The research team was extremely conscious throughout of their potential influence in emphasizing or reinforcing disciplinary dis- tinctions and differences. Part of the research team’s on- going reflective consideration of the drawing sessions concerned the need to avoid giving any sense of forcing students to identify themselves by their discipline. Whilst regular references were made to ‘Craft’ and
on Input image. First step in algorithm implementation is converting color image into grey images. Gray scale image used for the gradient magnitude calculation of the image. See Figure 2 and 3. Segmentation function calculation on the gray scale image provides the objects that need to be calculated. Dark pixels regions are mapped based on the segmentation function and mark as the objects inside the image.
The Needham's Five Phase Constructivist Model (NFPCM) is selected as the teaching model in this study. This model consists of five phases namely, orientation, generating ideas, restructuring the ideas, applying the ideas and finally reflection. In this model, each phase is explained and suggestions are given on the activities which are suitable to be conducted in class. The NFPCM is chosen for this study due to several reasons. The first is that this model has five phases that are helpful and easily conducted by teachers especially those who are inexperience in conducting lessons using the constructivist approach. The second reason is based on the literature review conducted, this model receives the most positive responses among researchers. The findings of their work show that this model works well in classroom (refer Table 2.9). The third reason is that this model is adaptable to other programs and the suggested activities can be adjusted to o levels of difficulty and thinking. Finally, this model offers room for students to participate more actively since it is student- centered. It can provide students to gain more experience and knowledge so that learning can be meaningful to them. All these are illustrated in Table 2.9. Therefore, this study will employ the Needham’s Five Phase Constructivist Model (NFPCM).
provides nearly 1,640,000 results in 0.49 seconds about the incredible edible cell project but none of these results discusses the genius behind its invention. An interesting point however is attributed to its use as an effective teaching strategy in basic education particularly in the K to 12 when teaching plant or animal biology. Most effective teaching strategies, on the other hand, can be viewed as effective once adequately and accurately implemented, and meticulously evaluated. In this study, the researcher employed the IECP to teach his Anatomy and Physiology class about the human cell. To make it more authentic experiential learning for students, the researcher also explored on the soft skills acquired by the first year nursing students from the said project. To make the study even more meaningful, the researcher also explored on the issues, concerns and problems encountered by the first year nursing students when the IECP was employed.
Wegner (1987) first introduced the concept of TMS as a way to understand how couples coordinate to solve information problems. He argued that TMS is a combination of the knowledge possessed by each individual and a collective awareness of who knows what (Wenger, 1987). It provides individuals with access to a level of knowledge that no member could hope to remember (Austin, 2003). Thus, it is a collective memory system for encoding, storing, retrieving, and communicating group knowledge, which can significantly improve team’s knowledge processing capability by recognizing each member’s specific expertise (Zhang and Xiong, 2007). Based on a comprehensive review and a series of empirical studies, Lewis (2003, 2004) suggested that the TMS construct with three dimensions, reflect the specialization, credibility, and coordination manifestations.
Abstract. Some blended methods of teaching-learning were successfully used in teaching the astronomy and astrometry of asteroids to students in Computer Sciences at the University of Craiova, using real astronomical data about celestial objects from our Solar System, obtained from the Astronomical Observatory Isaac Newton (La Palma, Spain). The students were asked to develop some small scripts in order to facilitate the detection and the analysis of data for new discovered asteroids, a request that improved their capacities to understand and apply various modern concepts of Computer Graphics, Data Base and Web design. This approach to learning brings new challenges for the students, new opportunities for the process of professional training in Computer Sciences and provided good result in very short term, the students acquiring very fast the necessary skills to approach both the professional level of Web programming and the modern research area of Computational Astronomy.
Interactive seminars are useful in teaching core lesson objectives to a large group of students and at the same time, engaging through carefully planned learning activities. However, challenges persist. Educational literature put forward other considerations in how student learning can be enhanced. For example, the importance of collaborative learning (Shimazoe & Aldrich, 2010), the benefits of reflection during learning (Sawyer, 2006) and finding ways to engage students with mixed abilities (Nelson, 1996). Van Dijk and Jochems (2002) noted these challenges and argued that learners were not likely to become active in this direct instruction approach. This is especially poignant for inexperienced learners or those with low self-efficacy. They suggested adopting a constructivist view of learning which involves student in the active construction and accumulation of knowledge rather than passive participation. This view that new information cannot be imparted as personally meaningful by the actions of a teacher alone stemmed from John Dewy’s and Jean Piaget’s idea of active learning. More educational researchers are echoing this view as evident in the current shift toward interactive approaches and small group learning.
IJIRMPS1802001 Website : www.ijirmps.org Email : firstname.lastname@example.org 2 The submissions of numerous data mining techniques which is adopted as a methodology to analyse and predict the E-Learning ability of the students. The most predictive data models applied are artificial neural networks, Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Support Vector Machine, logistic regression, classification trees, classification and regression trees and discriminant analysis. The following section describes the popular models which are used to analyse the learning behaviour and characteristics of Students’. The steps involved in for analyzing the learning behaviour of Student’s is explained in Figure 1.
In “orchestrated immersion”, the teacher plays a role of an orchestrator/architect, designing experiences that will lead the students to make meaningful connections. The focal point of orchestrated immersion is to make the essence of the subject meaningful and bright in the minds of students. If a student grasps the gist of subject via various sense organs, the retention level of the new input is increased. This phase helps the students to establish patterns and associations in their brains, providing them with rich and complex experiences, so as to make learning more permanent.
A PBL/EL approach has been applied to a short course on maintenance for mechanical engineering undergraduates. The teaching method applied facilitated the compilation of the required routine maintenance schedule by canvassing a range of considerations. This resulted in an apparent improvement of student learning as indicated by summative assessments and anecdotal evidence via student study surveys. This success has been attributed to the students’ experiences in planning maintenance activities and generalizing those activities through the theory given during formal lectures. While the exercise was very time demanding on teaching staff, the benefits accruing to students through development of new learning styles and skills mean that the approach will very likely be continued into the future.