According to the descriptions of the students, the planning of classes should be judicious. Sessions at reduced TBL intervals may bring content accumulation to students because of the need for prior study. This can lead to unwanted performance in activities and bring about physical and mental fatigue. According to Masseto (2001), the classroom is space and time in which teachers and students meet for a process of learning through actions such as reading, studying, discussing, debating, listening to the teacher, asking questions, solving doubts, and finally interacting. In fact, the teaching practice aims at student learning and the activities must be organized and worked out to be apprehended by the students (Libâneo, 2014). For its accomplishment the TBL demands the fulfillment of its principles and stages. According to Bollela et al. (2014), the formation of heterogeneous groups (five to seven members) maintained throughout the course, the student's responsibility for individual and team work facilitates their learning due to frequent feedbacks.
The "halo effect" may be the reluctance of students to eventually make their peers fail the subject, as reported by Epstein (Epstein, 2007). Thus, using PA to provide feedback on professional behaviors such as work habits, interpersonal behavior, and team skills is preferable. This limitation is well known and expected, which limits the use of PA to formative and summative assessment. In the TBL, the peer scoring rubric and the method used reduce this effect, but without eliminating it. Although many studies corroborate the idea that using PA in the formative assessment is appropriate, advancing in its use in the summative assessment is necessary, an issue also pointed out in the literature (Tayem et al., 2015). This is because PA can be feasible and useful, when the steps that ensure its success and reliability are taken, including the training of teachers and students on its methods and purposes and the creation of a collaborative learning environment. In a collaborative learning environment where students are likely to teach one another and explore issues of professionalism, PA contributes to a collaborative and productive criticism of peer performance, in contrast to groups in which the competition, protectionism and trench mindset discourage honest assessment (Arnold et al., 2005).
Opportunities for critical reflection are needed to allow students to make judgements on required modification to their existing knowledge . In TBL, the sequence of the Readiness Assurance Process ensured that students had several opportunities to engage with the content and gauge their own understanding . The tests encouraged self-reflection on knowledge, and also self-reflection on students’ own interactions between group members. Reflection occurred when students compared their understanding to that of their team members during the Team Readiness Assurance process. Students reflected on their own understanding when inconsistencies were exposed. Through discussion to agree on an answer, students were able “to see the thought process of other people”, and build one their own under- standing. Although reflective practices also occurred through student interaction during PBL sessions, the formal testing procedures in TBLs promoted reflection. Limitations
The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically‖ . The functional members of the society comprises of educated individuals . Students develop personal attributes and cognitive skills through education and education is at its best when it is accomplished as a team sport . One of the objectives of educational system is to impart knowledge through teaching and learning methods. The traditional style of teaching is one way interaction and is teacher centric whereas the active learning methods are student centric. In a traditional teaching strategy, teacher imparts knowledge to students while in an active method, teacher facilitate learning as well as inculcate soft skills. Teaching and learning go hand in hand that, conventionally, the teaching was evaluated based on the knowledge gained by students than by assessing the methods of teaching. Lecturing methods do not ensure participation of students in learning rather learn the concepts superficially . It is not developing confidence or passion in students . Active learning has shown to impart attitude ,  and also attain the learning outcomes . In active learning, students perform meaningful activities and reflection on their activities leads to learning . Active learning stimulates curiosity and commitment towards learning. TeambasedLearning (TBL) is an approach in teaching and learning and it encourages learning through peer to peer interaction in small groups within a large class .The features that are necessary for effectiveness of cooperative learning are positive interdependence, direct verbal communication, responsibility as individual, social skills, participation in group and proper grouping , . Cooperative learning techniques largely appreciated in college education as best practice however is not implemented extensively .
response to the use of drug charts, this implies that this method of interactive revision is considered helpful for exam preparation and readiness to practice. The students ’ response to the usefulness of TBR for learning pharmacol- ogy was more variable. This was in keeping with the primary objective of the TBR to draw on the prescribing knowledge and skills learned across a broad range of topics by ﬁ nal year students rather than introducing a new topic in pharmacology. In future, it would be useful to compare how students would feel about the utility of TBL in learning pharmacology and other subjects, if they were exposed to new material through this learning method rather than using it as a tool to consolidate learning.
The comparison of the average scores for the statements in the readiness assurance process category (Fig. 2) comprising four elements (pre-session readings, iRATs, tRATs and application exercises suggests that high percentage of the students agreed or strongly agreed that these activities allowed them to prepare and apply acquired concepts, ranging from 63% for S1 to 89% for S4. It also seems that the pre-session readings were the least useful activities compared to iRATs, tRATs and application exercises. The scores on the perception of TBL vs. traditional teaching category (Fig. 3) suggest that almost half of students agree or strongly agree that their preferred lecturing style is team-basedlearning for an engineering module and for Process Engineering Fundamentals. However, it should be noted that high percentage of students exhibited a neutral statement – 37% and 31% for statements S5 and S6, respectively. Agree and strongly agree statements dominated in the perception of significance of team work category, demonstrating students’ awareness that team work is important for their professional development. Furthermore, 86% of students agree or strongly agree the team discussions allowed them to correct mistakes and improve understanding of concepts while 80% agree or strongly agree that their learning was enhanced due to interactions with teammates. Interestingly, comparison of three categories shows that students are very positive in respect to all TBL activities and their learning is enhanced but they are somewhat hesitant to prefer TBL format over traditional teaching – 23% would prefer traditional and while 31% are neutral. This might be due to the fact that students encountered TBL for the first time and it takes some time to adapt.
One drawback of our TBL experience was the time- intensive nature of the course. Many students felt that the TBL course may have taken them away from study- ing other general medicine topics during their medicine rotation. Our course was intensive in its comprehensive overview of HIV in a setting where the subject matter is of particularly high importance. Despite the demands of the TBL course, the vast majority of students supported the incorporation of TBL into other parts of their me- dical curriculum. Theoretically, the amount of assigned reading in a TBL course need be no more than a stan- dard lecture course and students should adapt to prepa- ring prior to the course rather than following. Assurance of student preparedness in TBL courses has been pre- viously described as an obstacle for the successful imple- mentation of TBL . Another major obstacle is the need for ongoing faculty development . Our MEPI
Results: All students (n = 20) participated in the test in week 1, and 18/20 students participated in week 2. In total, 19/ 20 (95 %) of students completed the questionnaires regarding their PBL and TBL experiences. The use of small groups, the readiness assurance tests, immediate feedback from an expert clinician, as well as time efficiency were all aspects of the TBL experience that students found positive. The clinical problem-solving activity, however, was considered to be less effective with TBL. There was a significant improvement (p = 0.004) in students ’ score from the week 1 assessment (median = 2) to the week 2 (median = 3.5) assessment. Interestingly, all teams but one (Team 1) achieved a lower score on their second week assessment than on their first. However, the lowest performing team in week 1 outperformed all other teams in week 2.
The learning needs of medical students are also thought to have changed over time. Today’s medical students are highly interconnected, enjoying teamwork and collaborative practice, and the use of social media for learning . They are also reported to have a unique outlook on assessment, desiring continuous, explicit feedback. They want structured learning activ- ities, with clear expectations, and enjoy a sense of ac- complishment on their achievements. In addition to modifications in teaching methods, educators have embraced technological advancement in the delivery of medical education. Adopting blended learning models has the potential to enhance student engage- ment both inside and outside of the class room . In particular, the ‘flipped’ classroom approach has the capacity to maintain the collaborative nature of learn- ing within large class structures , and is being in- creasingly adopted in health professional education . The conflation of these issues has seen many medical schools adopt the model of Team-basedlearning in place of Problem-basedlearning [7, 8].
An alternative to PBL that adopts a blended learn- ing approach, is Team-basedlearning (TBL), which has gained recent popularity in medical education . TBL allows medical educators to provide stu- dents with resource effective, authentic experience of working in teams to solve real life clinical problems . Our 2014 pilot study (n = 20) of TBL , indi- cated that students favoured many aspects of the TBL process, including the pre-class work, the in- class initial tests with immediate feedback, and the problem-solving activities. Students found the advan- tages of TBL over PBL included better engagement in learning, deeper understanding of concepts, and a sense of responsibility towards teammates . How- ever, negative aspects of the students’ TBL experi- ence included limited time to complete problem- solving activities, and a de-emphasis on the student- centred approach involving clinical reasoning among student groups. In 2016, based on our previous TBL pilot experience, as well as wider literature eviden- cing the effectiveness of TBL in health education, we sought to incorporate a sustainable and standardised TBL model across the Musculoskeletal sciences, Re- spiratory sciences, and Cardiovascular sciences blocks of the Year 1 medical program. Key features of TBL principles were adopted, including appropriate alloca- tion of individuals to groups, prescribed out-of-class preparation, pre-class individual and team tests, im- mediate feedback, and problem-solving activities with all team work within a single session .
The comparison of the average scores for the statements in the Perception on the TBL category (Fig. 8 (A)) suggests that students’ attitudes were reasonably good. With regard to how attitudes changed within a period of few weeks, average score increases were observed on “I learn better from TBL than from lectures” and on “I learned useful additional information during TBL sessions”. After two weeks 50% of the students strongly disagreed or disagreed with the statement that they learned better from TBL then from traditional lectures. However, this percentage dropped to 38% after five weeks. An even bigger shift, from 44% to 18% of students who strongly disagreed or disagreed, was observed for Q10. It is possible that students’ perception of the TBL increased due their adaption to working in teams. But, these results may also suggest that the way TBL is introduced and presented during the first session is of crucial importance as well.
This study demonstrates that a team-based model of assessment is a valuable form of assessment for medical studentslearning in a clinical clerkship. By engaging assessors and students in development of the assessment tool, and by providing instruction and advice on how the tool should be used, we designed an acceptable assessment form based on the opinion on multiple groups of assessors and students working in complex clinical environments at multiple sites. We also succeeded in engaging members of the healthcare team who have not traditionally been involved in the assessment of medical students. This method of assessment gives a voice to non-physician team Table 1. Assessment form for professional behavior of last year medical students
The curriculum, before the change, was non-integrated, discipline based and teacher centered using didactic lec- tures as the main teaching strategy. The grading system was largely based on summative assessment system i.e. the grade A + being the highest, followed by B, C, and D for pass and F for fail. The new SBC is integrated horizontally with a move towards vertical integration. The first two years of the new curriculum consist of ten organ systems taught using problem-basedlearning (PBL) strategy. A student support system was established. The number of elective courses was increased. Students were introduced to ambulatory care early in the program and the duration of ambulatory care training was increased. The teaching strategies include small-group discussions, interactive lec- tures and self-directed learning. Teaching resources in- clude study guides, an electronic learning management system, skills lab and virtual patients. The assessment is balanced between formative and summative assessment and the grading system is similar to the traditional cur- riculum grading system mentioned earlier.
JAN-FEBRUARY , 2015, VOL-III/XVI www.srjis.com Page 2769 convey information. 2) Emotive function where language is used to express feelings. 3) Connotative function where language is used to influence the actions of another person. 4) Phatic function where language is used to establish, discontinue or prolong communication or check whether it took place or not. 5) Meta-lingual function where language is used to communicate about the language code. 6) Poetic function where language is used to draw attention to the form (Jacobson, 1960 as cited in Ellis, 2009). Ellis argues that most of the tasks are referential in nature, Role-play tasks can be designed to impart the emotive function and tasks like describing a picture perform the connotative function. Consciousness-raising tasks are based on the meta-lingual function. All the tasks include phatic function to some extent. But the poetic function is totally neglected. It is pointed out that though tasks try to bring out communication strategies there are inherent limitations like it focuses only on rational and transactional and neglects the imaginative and playful aspects of communication. It is felt that the playful aspects should also be taken into consideration not that they should be central (Cook, 2000 as cited in Ellis 2009).
Cases in the scenarios of the PBL modules were selected among common and important health problems, for which early diagnosis or prevention is possible. Lectures and small group studies with students were also organized to contribute to the educational effectiveness of the mod- ules. Public Health topics of the medical education may be achieved more easily when theoretical knowledge and practical skills are complemented by field studies . It is recommended to start such activities as early as possible and to continue them during medical education. In DEUSM Public Health perspective, objectives of each aca- demic year were determined and relevant field study pro- grams were developed to contribute these objectives. These programs were put into practice beginning from the beginning of the medical education.
In August 2011, all high school teachers in a large suburban school district in South Carolina were issued iPads and were instructed to use these personal computing devices (PCDs) as tools to augment instruction and increase student engagement in the classroom. District and building administrators emphasized the need to utilize the PCDs as more than a replacement for the traditional notebook or as a rewarded game after a period of learning. The iPads (the PCDs chosen by the district) were distributed to all high school students in order to help them become independent and self-sufficient “21 st century learners.” Minimal professional development (one hour per month) was provided to help faculty members learn how to use the devices to meet district expectations. As a result, many faculty members, including the researcher-practitioner of this dissertation in practice (DiP), utilized the iPads as devices for student note-taking or basic research. The term “use of technology for the sake of the use of technology” was often heard in
Clicker supported team-basedlearning environment was developed in this study. Physics-I course was carried out in this environment for five weeks and student per- ceptions related to this environment were examined. The interviews with the students indicated that this environment enhanced learning. Receiving instant feedback after sending problem solving results on clickers could be effective in discussing any wrong answers reach the correct answer. It was also found out that this application increased student concentration and motivation, resulted in active participation and created an entertaining environment. In parallel with the findings in this study,  stated that using clicker in classrooms provided instant feedback for better learning and motivated students with low self-confidence and shyness. In addition, this envi- ronment developed students’ feeling of work and working together. This finding of the present study is similar with  which stated that clicker activities in groups contributed significantly to learning, developed relationships and formed team-spirit as well as positive competition. Similarly,  stated that group-based interactive response system resulted in more student participation, raised motivation and created positive approaches. It is assumed that students’ satisfaction with the clicker support- ed team-basedlearning environment was related with sound integration of team-basedlearning strategy into clicker technology.
The majority of research on dynamic assessment has been conducted abroad (e.g. the USA, Israel, the Netherlands, and Switzerland; see Educational and Child Psychology, 14(4)). However, more recently, due to increasing interest in the approach, some research on dynamic assessment has emerged in the UK. Lauchlan and Elliott (2001) explored the value of an assisted performance measurement (or, learning potential) in nine-year-old children with learning difficulties. Mixed results were obtained, however, the general outcome appeared to be that a measurement of high learning potential was valuable if accompanied by a programme of cognitive intervention designed to foster such potential. A group of trainee educational psychologists explored teachers’ views on dynamic assessment reports (Short, Greatrex, Bham, Hayes, Cottam, Hurni, Robertson & Wood, 1999). Teachers found the reports extremely valuable for planning work for children. For example, one teacher commented “Normal reports do not inform teachers. Dynamic assessment is a move that way”. Similar positive feedback from teachers on the usefulness of dynamic assessment reports was found by Lauchlan (1999) and Elliott and Lauchlan (2000).
Every country and institution has its own unique tradi- tions and culture of educating health care professionals. Hierarchical teaching styles, stagnant pedagogy, and profes- sional silos have a negative impact on student learning gener- ally, but specifically for patient safety. The Curriculum Guide encourages supportive teaching and learning, emphasizing the importance of establishing an environment in which students feel comfortable to learn and practice patient safety. The chapters emphasize that educators are role models for students; their clinical knowledge and patient safety skills are explicit within training the next generation of health care providers. At the same time, WHO Curriculum Guide empowers students to recognize their educators as embodying an open safety culture and instilling the professional ethos of open reporting and safety consciousness in them.
Motiwalla’s (2007) explain that the utilization of mobile phone for learning cannot be underestimated because the study on its use revealed that students found it to be a complementary tool in learning. Also, it uses enable continuous learning outside the four wall of the classroom. Al‐Fahad (2009) study on student attitude and perception toward mobile learning at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia reveal the advantage of mobile learning and that it would enhance student communication and enrich learning experience of the learners. Keegan (2002) reported that the quality and capability of handheld mobile device is increasing steadily, because of the advancement in technology, which enable miniaturization as well as breakthrough in wireless technology. Roschelle’s (2003), and BenMoussa (2003) study on mobile device for learning enumerated the following advantage of using wireless devices in learning environment. These include the following: