Top PDF Textile Conservation: Deterioration of Materials

Textile Conservation: Deterioration of Materials

Textile Conservation: Deterioration of Materials

Fiber warp: 5/2 white Chalfin cotton; dyed weft: 5/2 white Chalfin cotton; dyed Direction of Spun Threads S twist 3.. Type of Weave tabby weft 4.[r]

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Volatile organic compounds from wood and their influences on museum artifact materials I. Differences in wood species and analyses of causal substances of deterioration

Volatile organic compounds from wood and their influences on museum artifact materials I. Differences in wood species and analyses of causal substances of deterioration

The fact that hinokitiol, contained in western red cedar in large amounts, discolored enpaku and rokushou is a very serious problem. The influence on artifact materials will not be as extreme as in these experiments, because the concen- tration of wood VOCs under the practical conservation conditions is not as high as in these experiments, and pigments are used after mixing with glue and are not di- rectly exposed. However, full consideration of VOC charac- teristics, not only the amount of TVOC from wood, may be very important when selecting the interior material for museum storage rooms or studying methods of preventing deterioration.
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PAVEMENT DETERIORATION AND ITS CAUSES

PAVEMENT DETERIORATION AND ITS CAUSES

In the event that there is any deviation happens in any of the previously mentioned variables, it will prompt disappointment of asphalt. Inadequate wearing course: If the thickness of wearing course is less, then water will discover its way to the base course making harm it. Along these lines it is key to consider sort, force and volume of activity before choosing thickness of wearing course. Use of second rate material: The materials to be utilized for development of base course ought to be so picked in a way with the goal that it can oppose the wheel stack and weathering activities. Substandard nature of material ought not be utilized.
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Mechanisms of the Deterioration of the Wall Reliefs at Shenhur Temple, Upper Egypt and Concepts for Conservation

Mechanisms of the Deterioration of the Wall Reliefs at Shenhur Temple, Upper Egypt and Concepts for Conservation

The degradation of wall reliefs at Shenhur temple attributed to the presence of soluble salts that have precipi- tated on the external surface (efflorescences) and proximity of the surface (sub-efflorescences). The deteriora- tion of stone in Egypt is primarily due to several types of water soluble salts such as halite. This problem represents aggressive deterioration forms that take place on all stone surfaces and mortars through salinity solu- tions that are transferred to the stone pores. A usually complex saline solution can migrate for capillarity and can deposit salts in internal micro-pores or on preferential areas of the surface. Damages are caused by internal ten- sions, due to the expansion of crystals induced by humidity and temperature changes, and/or by aesthetical alte- ration of the surface [15]. The formation of salt crusts on calcareous stone is the most important chemical reac- tion involving salinity ground water to cause stone degradation. When these crusts are formed on a porous stone, it disintegrates to a powdered material, while limestone develops thick crusts instead [16]. Destructive salts are present 1.0 to 1.5 m above the ground on the outer northern wall, the inner of wabet (rear) and New Year’s court (front) in the temple of Shenhur and salts are present also under celling directly to 1m of the temple which ex- posed to the sun and subjected to the aggressive action of the rain coming from the roof. The degradation in- duced by soluble salts on stone materials in the Shenhur temple was studied by sampling efflorescences from infected places.
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Recommended Conservation Practices for Archival Audiovisual Materials Held in General Special Collections

Recommended Conservation Practices for Archival Audiovisual Materials Held in General Special Collections

Acetate film originals should not be discarded, even if a film is thought to be extremely warped or deteriorated (an exception is nitrate deterioration, which is a more complex issue with laws regulating its disposal). Warped or shrunken films can be re-shot on optical printers. In addition, future advances in film restoration could produce better copies from the original film.

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Slaking Lime for Restoration and Conservation of Historical Buildings and Materials, Criticism of an Arabic Historical Manuscripts

Slaking Lime for Restoration and Conservation of Historical Buildings and Materials, Criticism of an Arabic Historical Manuscripts

Abstract: Slaking lime is an important and effective process for preparing mortars in conservation of historical buildings and archaeological artifacts based on lime. The lime mortars have been widely used since the Roman era, and lime became one of the important materials for conservation and restoration process to keep the authenticity of the historical materials and sustainability. In many cases, some conservators use black and white cement separately or mix with lime in conservation and restoration, or mix gypsum with lime. They think that will improve the strength of mortars, but all those procedures give bad results on the properties of the mortars, and cause irreversible deterioration for historical materials in both layers and surfaces. Through the mentioned problems, we should go back to historical documents to identify the best method for slaking process to get best results in any intervention needs lime mortars. So we depend on three historical resources from 13th A. H century the first historical manuscript entitled "message in architecture) preserved in king Saud university No.3392 without any previous criticism, the second European historical book entitled" all kinds of Roman cement) translated to Arabic in 1829 AD, the third Arabic book entitled" Summary of ideas in architecture), those resources presented all methods of slaking to give information for researchers to evaluate slaking process after experimental studies which depend on several factors, the main target of the research is to provide conservators with information about slaking process for preparing mortars with good properties in all conservation interventions in artefacts and historical buildings.
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Deterioration of Concrete in Aggressive Environment

Deterioration of Concrete in Aggressive Environment

concrete the bitumen will act as binding material instead of cement. “After mixture is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture types a fluid slurry i.e. without problems poured and molded into any shape. In the strategies of Heat of hydration the cement responds chemically with water and other substances to shape a tough matrix that binds the substances together into a robust stone-like fabric that has various usages. Frequent, additives (for instance pozzolans or gorgeous plasticizers) are blanketed in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the moist combine or the finished material. Maximum concrete is poured by reinforcing materials (for example rebar) embedded to furnish tensile strength, yielding strengthened concrete.”
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Influence of multilayer textile biopolymer foam doped with titanium dioxide for sound absorption materials

Influence of multilayer textile biopolymer foam doped with titanium dioxide for sound absorption materials

sound absorbing material [6]. The property of textile is lightweight and less expensive as compared to steel like material and additionally environmental-friendly materials was enhances highest consumption in interior part of automotive industry. The cotton and polyester fabric were characterized as a nonwoven fabric with less aesthetic appearances as compared to single knitted jersey. Knitted fabrics are mostly used for noise reduction in automotive area due to their superior drapability properties [7].

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Remediation of textile effluent using siliceous materials A review with a proposed alternative

Remediation of textile effluent using siliceous materials A review with a proposed alternative

Treatment of the colored effluent from the textile industries is a major challenge. Many treatment techniques have been reported in the recent past. However, adsorption on low cost adsorbents has received a worthy attention. A number of low cost adsorbents have been researched. This paper discusses the potential of the siliceous materials in dye removal. A new low cost adsorbent, soil from Rajasthan, India, has also been reported. Keywords: Dyes, low cost adsorbents, siliceous adsorbents, direct red 81, soil

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Impact of Personality Factors on Consumer Buying Behaviour Towards Textile Materials in South Eastern Nigeria

Impact of Personality Factors on Consumer Buying Behaviour Towards Textile Materials in South Eastern Nigeria

The study reviewed some related theories of personality and consumer behavior in order to establish a linkage between them and buying behavior of Igbos towards textile materials. They include psychoanalytic theory of personality, Neo-freudian theory of personality, Trait theory of personality, Economic Man theory of consumer behavior, Psychodynamic theory of consumer behavior, and Behaviourist theory. But, we emphasize here that the theoretical framework upon which the study was based are Neo-Freudian theory and Trait theory [8]. Neo-Freudian theory believes that social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality. For instance, Alfred Adler viewed human beings as seeking to attain various rational goals which he called style of life. He also placed much emphasis on the individual efforts to overcome feelings of inferiority e.g. by striving for superiority. The term Neo- Freudian has both been used to describe those who left the psychoanalytic society and formed their own schools of thought. These new theories, however, hold many of the same underlying beliefs of psychoanalysis, most importantly the view of the unconscious as an important drive in human emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. According to Sullivan in Murat [11] and Sarker et al [8], people continuously attempt to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others. He was particularly concerned with the individual effort to reduce tensions, such as anxiety. Many marketers use some of these neo-Freudian theories intuitively. For example, marketers who position their products or services as providing an opportunity to belong or to be appreciated by others in a group or social setting would seem to be guided by characterization of the detached
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Gold Nanoparticle Treated Textile-Based Materials for Potential use as Wearable Sensors

Gold Nanoparticle Treated Textile-Based Materials for Potential use as Wearable Sensors

Today chemical sensors are widely used either singly to detect a specific chemical or collectively in arrays to sense or analyse complex mixtures of chemicals. A wide variety of materials including polymers, ferroelectric ceramics, piezoelectric semiconductors and shape memory films have been studied and used to manufacture an assortment of chemical sensors [1- 3]. These sensors have been used in a wide variety of applications such as gas detection, food processing, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals [4-8]. In recent years, textiles have also been considered as a possible avenue for developing personal sensing and monitoring systems for medical, health & safety and military applications [9-11]. Historically, various forms of textile materials have been universally worn by humanity for thousands of years. Accordingly, over time, changing requirements and fashions, individuals have readily changed their clothing styles to meet the challenges of the day. Thus, textiles are easily available, widely used and offer a unique platform that can be incorporated into the design of wearable sensors and personal monitoring systems. Currently, wearable sensors have been used in a variety of healthcare monitoring and diagnostic applications. In particular, physiological monitoring can significantly contribute to diagnosis, promote ongoing treatment and assist in patient rehabilitation
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Factors Affecting the Performance of the Radar Absorbant Textile Materials of Different Types and Structus

Factors Affecting the Performance of the Radar Absorbant Textile Materials of Different Types and Structus

Over the past few years, there has been an emphasis on reducing the radar cross section (RCS) of military weapons using different techniques [1–6]. These techniques can now be applied to the civilian market to solve many problems. The most common and simple structure to reduce the level of the reflected power from a metallic surface is the single layer structure known as Salisbury screen [7–10] which is a sheet of porous material (resistive sheet) impregnated with graphite and spaced a quarter-wavelength of a metallic backing plate. This resistive sheet can also be used as an interference suppression with microstrip planar antennas [11, 12] when a half-wavelength spacer is used. Exploring the most suitable resistive sheet in terms of uniformity and resistivity is a particularly important issue [13, 14]. Fabric parameters, properties, structures and chemical materials have been considered to achieve our goal.
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The role of the textile materials library: Providing access to multimodal knowledge in design research

The role of the textile materials library: Providing access to multimodal knowledge in design research

The TechnoTextiles Library is at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). This is an experimental resource specifically aimed at tertiary researchers through user generated content.. It was set up by one of the paper’s authors (O’Mahony) and is based on her own textile library built up over a period of fifteen years while she worked as a consultant in London. There are around one thousand advanced textiles in the library. The aim of the library is to provide first clients, and subsequently students, with materials that they could handle and gain a better understanding of weight, tactility, drape and visual characteristics. Specification sheets on the materials and other literature is available in the library with an online wiki site restricted to recording exhibitions and other events held at the library.
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HermanMiller Materials. Alexander Girard Textile Re-editions for the Herman Miller Collection

HermanMiller Materials. Alexander Girard Textile Re-editions for the Herman Miller Collection

Our first re-edition of textiles by Alexander Girard for the Herman Miller Collection focuses on quintessential textures. Though often heralded for his patterns, Girard produced a body of woven textures for Herman Miller that are timeless and versatile. We have reproduced each textile as faithfully in weave and color as is possible with one enhancement: they now utilize the most advanced environmental constructions and materials available.

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Biocomposite Materials of Eleocharis dulcis Fibers with Iron (III) Nanoparticles and Its Potential for Sasirangan Textile Wastewater Treatment

Biocomposite Materials of Eleocharis dulcis Fibers with Iron (III) Nanoparticles and Its Potential for Sasirangan Textile Wastewater Treatment

Abstract— Eleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut), locally Kalimantan named Purun Tikus, is a plant that grows in highly acidic swamps areas in South Kalimantan. Eleocharis dulcis(ED),was usually used as a material for traditional handicrafts. Therefore it is necessary for develop and innovate to convert the material becomes valuables. This research focuses on the study of biocomposite nanoparticles of ED and its potentials as an adsorbent to reduce the concentration of Pb 2+ ions, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and color from Sasirangan textile industry wastewater. The synthesis of the biocomposite nanocomposite was made by solvothermal synthesis. Firstly, ED stems dried was cut to small size (250 microns), then through the de-lignification process to eliminate lignin by 1% w/v NaOH solution. ED de-lignification put into a hydrothermal reactor, right afterward was carried out by one-pot solvothermal reaction of 1,6-diaminohexane, iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, and ethylene glycol at 200 o C for 6 h.The process was produced two types of biocomposites, without the amino group (EDB-M) and the amino group (EDB-MH). The characterization results shown by SEM, magnetic nanoparticles have been formed on the surface of ED fiber.The ED biocomposite nanoparticles (EDB) with diameter size around 30–50 nm could be obtained. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed treatment of EDdelignification was increased the porosity of the fiber, shown by increased Crystallinity Index (CrI) about 72.75%. The biocomposites adsorbent, EDB-M, and EDB- MH had adsorption capacity for Pb 2+ ions about 44.21 mg/g and 55.62 mg/g at equilibrium pH (pH
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Textile Antenna

Textile Antenna

Previous work was primarily focused on dual band frequency operation of wearable textile antennas. The fleece fabric and copper tape used for conducting elements enable the antenna to be flexible, low profile and lightweight. Hence, the proposed antenna structure is easy to attach to clothing and the structure does not limit the possible antenna placements. Conventionally, antennas that are inflexible and high profile have limited amount of places they can be attached to without being uncomfortable to the user. In addition, these materials are inexpensive and therefore the proposed antenna can also be considered suitable for commercial products. In this paper, details of the proposed antenna design are described, and the experimental results of a prototype are presented.
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Textile technologies for the manufacture of three-dimensional textile preforms

Textile technologies for the manufacture of three-dimensional textile preforms

3D contoured preforms can be de fi ned as “ fully integrated continuous fi bre assemblies having multi-axial in-plane and out-of-plane fi bre orientation ” (Hu, 2008). Mechanical properties can be tailored by orientating fi bres in optimal directions to provide through-the-thickness reinforcement, which improves interlaminar shear and prevents delamination; a characteristic that traditional composites lack (Bannister, 2001; Hufenbach et al., 2006). Textile preforms can be injected with resin and subjected to heat and pressure for consolidation into a hard or soft ( fl exible) textile composite; alternatively, they can remain in their soft state for a range of applications, i.e. padding for sportswear or materials for fi ltration. The resin contributes only a minor role in the load bearing capacity of the composite (Heenkenda, 1999); instead, it is the reinforcement materials that provide the strength and load bearing capacity. In a soft composite, the textile structure is the major component to the composite (Annis and Quigley, 1998).
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Division of Materials Management New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, New York

Division of Materials Management New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, New York

Reporting of the information indicated on this Regulated Medical Waste Annual Report form is required pursuant to 6 NYCRR 360-1.4(c); 360-1.8(e)(1)(ii), (h)(8); 360-1.14(e)(2), (i)(1); 360-11.1(a), (b)(1)(viii); 360-11.4(h) and (j); 360- 17.4(e)(2),(e)(3);. Failure to provide the required information requested is a violation of Environmental Conservation Law. Timely submission of a properly completed form to the Department’s Regional Office that has jurisdiction over your facility and to the Department's Central Office is required to meet the Annual/Quarterly Report requirements of 6 NYCRR Part 360.
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Textile Trade With China - The Challenge of Textile Safeguards

Textile Trade With China - The Challenge of Textile Safeguards

CITA itself had previously determined that the Textile Safeguard supported requests for consultations based upon a threat of market disruption and a threat to the orderly development of[r]

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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF MELIA AZEDARACH BARK EXTRACTS FOR DEVELOPING HEALTH CARE TEXTILE MATERIALS

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF MELIA AZEDARACH BARK EXTRACTS FOR DEVELOPING HEALTH CARE TEXTILE MATERIALS

The table 5, fig 9 & 10 shows the results of antifungal activity of cotton linen knitted fabric finished with direct solvent extract. The zone of Inhibition in the direct solvent extract treated fabric is 57mm and 55mm, against the two test organisms Aspergillusniger and Malassezia furfur respectively. The two test organisms was selected based on the required end use of the product. A.niger is an organism which affects textile materials; M.furfur is an organism which is a cause of creating dandruff in human scalp.

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