where the history parameters may be the parameters of the posterior distribution (in fact, three would be adequate) or recently experienced travel times (in the case of Model B formulation). In order to ease the burden on storage space (and possibly save some time in retrieving the relevant array elements), an individual-independent `typical' range for each of the history parameters could be stored, with the parameters relating to a particular individual only saved if they fall outside the typical range. Equally, the history parameters could be stored only approximately, according to a grouped data approach. In addition, computer memory compression techniques may be adopted to make best use of the resources. The quality of these approximations need, of course, to be investigated. If the storing of all such experiences proves infeasible, then the use of some kind of weighting scheme (à la Horowitz) may be the only alternative, despite the problem of calibrating the weights. It is notable that Cascetta (1989) appears to have found it feasible to implement an averaging process of the type described in Model B in the current paper, based on seven previous days. This was achieved using the within-day static model STODYN, applied to a realistic size network. Later, however, in thw within- day dynamic (yet still macroscopic) STODYN2, experiences were formed using weighting schemes. It is not clear to what extent this change of methodology was due to computational/storage considerations.
The data that is used in this research is collected by Tawfik. He collected data through a real-world routechoice experiment which took place in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. A total of 20 participants were involved in this study. They were asked to complete 20 experimental runs over 20 days during peak hours on regular school week days in 2011 using specially equipped research vehicles. There were three peak hours; morning (7-8 am), noon (12-1 pm) and evening (5-6 pm) and all runs for a driver were done at the same time each day. Participants were provided with five Google Maps print outs (see figure 11), each presenting one trip with one point of origin , one point of destination and two alternative routes. For each experimental run, participants had to make these five trips assuming that the provided route alternatives were the only available routes between that particular origin and destination . The OD-pairs and the route alternatives were selected in such a way that the five choice situations would differ from each other. All driver choices as well as the experienced travel conditions were recorded through a GPS device located in the research vehicles and a research escort in the back seat. The participants were instructed to behave as if they would in real life. To ensure that participants will not consider the experiment as leisure, their compensation was not a function of the time spent in the experiment; they just received a flat monetary amount per run. Furthermore, the experiment was not entertaining as the participants were not allowed to listen to entertainment, use their cell phone or chat with the research escort. Besides, the provided route alternatives were not scenic.
It is also well established that expression of pERK and pp38 is increased in the dorsal horn and trigeminal nucleus following peripheral nerve injury, where persistent expression has been reported in many studies. Zhuang and colleagues investigated the time course of pERK expression following a spinal nerve ligation injury (Zhuang et al., 2005). Their study showed that following this injury, pERK levels are rapidly elevated (within 10 min) and are still raised 3 weeks post injury. However, in the trigeminal system, ERK activation follow- ing nerve injury appears less persistent with reports of maximal expression ranging from 1 day (Terayama et al., 2011) to 3 days (Shibuta et al., 2012) following injury. Persistent activation of p38 (detectable at day 1, maintained for 3 weeks) is known to occur in the spinal cord following nerve injury (Jin et al., 2003), and in the tri- geminal nucleus, raised levels of pp38 have also been reported to be present and to persist for 3–14 days post nerve injury (Piao et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2011; Terayama et al., 2011; Daigo et al., 2012).
of decades, largely from the economics of predicting equilibria across route travel choices, in consideration of the congestion levels on those routes. More recently, there has been a growing inuence from the psychological and social science elds, leading to a greater interest in understanding behavioural mechanisms that under- lie such travel choice decisions. The purpose of the present paper is to describe mathematical models which aim to reect day-to-day dynamic adjustments in routechoice behaviour in response to previous travel experiences. Particularly, the aim is to set these approaches in a common framework with the conventional economic equilibrium models. Starting from the analysis of economic equilibria under pertur- bations, the presentation moves onto deterministic dynamical system models and stochastic processes. Simple illustrative examples are used to introduce the mod- elling approaches. It is argued that while such dynamical approaches have appeal, in terms of the range of adaptive behavioural processes that can be incorporated, their estimation may not be trivial. In particular, the obvious solution technique (namely, explicit simulation of the dynamics) can lead to a rather complex prob- lem of interpretation for the model-user, and that more \analytical" approximation techniques may be a better way forward.
The chemical reactivity of alkenes makes them a popular choice among chemical engineers. For example, nearly half of the ethene used industrially is in the plastics industry. Beverage containers, boil-in-the-bag food pouches, milk bottles, motor oil bottles, many toys, shrink-wrap, and plastic bags are all based on the small ethene molecule. (See Figure 13.19.) The ethene in these products undergoes a process called polymerization. In polymerization, hundreds of ethene molecules are reacted and strung together to make long chains of molecules. Another alkene, propene, undergoes a similar process and thus increases the variety of possible polymers.
3. The base that is often used in oven cleaners is sodium hydroxide. This base is very corrosive, and it can burn skin easily. A corrosive acid, such as hydrochloric acid, could also remove baked-on grease and grime from ovens. Why are bases a better choice for oven cleaners?
Using logarithms is a conven- ient way to count a wide range of values by powers of 10. Chemists are not the only scientists who use such loga- rithms, however. Audiologists (scientists who study human hearing) use logarithms, too. Research the decibel scale to find out how it works. Present your findings in the medium of your choice.