Top PDF The Day-to-Day Dynamics of Route Choice

The Day-to-Day Dynamics of Route Choice

The Day-to-Day Dynamics of Route Choice

where the history parameters may be the parameters of the posterior distribution (in fact, three would be adequate) or recently experienced travel times (in the case of Model B formulation). In order to ease the burden on storage space (and possibly save some time in retrieving the relevant array elements), an individual-independent `typical' range for each of the history parameters could be stored, with the parameters relating to a particular individual only saved if they fall outside the typical range. Equally, the history parameters could be stored only approximately, according to a grouped data approach. In addition, computer memory compression techniques may be adopted to make best use of the resources. The quality of these approximations need, of course, to be investigated. If the storing of all such experiences proves infeasible, then the use of some kind of weighting scheme (à la Horowitz) may be the only alternative, despite the problem of calibrating the weights. It is notable that Cascetta (1989) appears to have found it feasible to implement an averaging process of the type described in Model B in the current paper, based on seven previous days. This was achieved using the within-day static model STODYN, applied to a realistic size network. Later, however, in thw within- day dynamic (yet still macroscopic) STODYN2, experiences were formed using weighting schemes. It is not clear to what extent this change of methodology was due to computational/storage considerations.
Show more

39 Read more

One route or the other? : development and evaluation of a day to day route choice model incorporating the principljes of inertial behavior and quantification of the indifference band based on a real world experiment

One route or the other? : development and evaluation of a day to day route choice model incorporating the principljes of inertial behavior and quantification of the indifference band based on a real world experiment

The data that is used in this research is collected by Tawfik. He collected data through a real-world route choice experiment which took place in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. A total of 20 participants were involved in this study. They were asked to complete 20 experimental runs over 20 days during peak hours on regular school week days in 2011 using specially equipped research vehicles. There were three peak hours; morning (7-8 am), noon (12-1 pm) and evening (5-6 pm) and all runs for a driver were done at the same time each day. Participants were provided with five Google Maps print outs (see figure 11), each presenting one trip with one point of origin , one point of destination and two alternative routes. For each experimental run, participants had to make these five trips assuming that the provided route alternatives were the only available routes between that particular origin and destination . The OD-pairs and the route alternatives were selected in such a way that the five choice situations would differ from each other. All driver choices as well as the experienced travel conditions were recorded through a GPS device located in the research vehicles and a research escort in the back seat. The participants were instructed to behave as if they would in real life. To ensure that participants will not consider the experiment as leisure, their compensation was not a function of the time spent in the experiment; they just received a flat monetary amount per run. Furthermore, the experiment was not entertaining as the participants were not allowed to listen to entertainment, use their cell phone or chat with the research escort. Besides, the provided route alternatives were not scenic.
Show more

143 Read more

Influence of Experience on Users’ Behaviour: A Day-to-Day Model for Route Choice Updating

Influence of Experience on Users’ Behaviour: A Day-to-Day Model for Route Choice Updating

It is also well established that expression of pERK and pp38 is increased in the dorsal horn and trigeminal nucleus following peripheral nerve injury, where persistent expression has been reported in many studies. Zhuang and colleagues investigated the time course of pERK expression following a spinal nerve ligation injury (Zhuang et al., 2005). Their study showed that following this injury, pERK levels are rapidly elevated (within 10 min) and are still raised 3 weeks post injury. However, in the trigeminal system, ERK activation follow- ing nerve injury appears less persistent with reports of maximal expression ranging from 1 day (Terayama et al., 2011) to 3 days (Shibuta et al., 2012) following injury. Persistent activation of p38 (detectable at day 1, maintained for 3 weeks) is known to occur in the spinal cord following nerve injury (Jin et al., 2003), and in the tri- geminal nucleus, raised levels of pp38 have also been reported to be present and to persist for 3–14 days post nerve injury (Piao et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2011; Terayama et al., 2011; Daigo et al., 2012).
Show more

14 Read more

The Dynamics and equilibria of day-to-day traffic assignment models

The Dynamics and equilibria of day-to-day traffic assignment models

of decades, largely from the economics of predicting equilibria across route travel choices, in consideration of the congestion levels on those routes. More recently, there has been a growing inuence from the psychological and social science elds, leading to a greater interest in understanding behavioural mechanisms that under- lie such travel choice decisions. The purpose of the present paper is to describe mathematical models which aim to reect day-to-day dynamic adjustments in route choice behaviour in response to previous travel experiences. Particularly, the aim is to set these approaches in a common framework with the conventional economic equilibrium models. Starting from the analysis of economic equilibria under pertur- bations, the presentation moves onto deterministic dynamical system models and stochastic processes. Simple illustrative examples are used to introduce the mod- elling approaches. It is argued that while such dynamical approaches have appeal, in terms of the range of adaptive behavioural processes that can be incorporated, their estimation may not be trivial. In particular, the obvious solution technique (namely, explicit simulation of the dynamics) can lead to a rather complex prob- lem of interpretation for the model-user, and that more \analytical" approximation techniques may be a better way forward.
Show more

36 Read more

23 Gas Laws

23 Gas Laws

You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:.. Pressure Volume?[r]

67 Read more

16 Combustion analysis and hydrate formulas

16 Combustion analysis and hydrate formulas

Sample Problem Carbon-Hydrogen Combustion Analyzer Calculations If you have a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, what two instruments would you need to determine its molec[r]

10 Read more

13.3 Naming Hydrocarbons

13.3 Naming Hydrocarbons

The chemical reactivity of alkenes makes them a popular choice among chemical engineers. For example, nearly half of the ethene used industrially is in the plastics industry. Beverage containers, boil-in-the-bag food pouches, milk bottles, motor oil bottles, many toys, shrink-wrap, and plastic bags are all based on the small ethene molecule. (See Figure 13.19.) The ethene in these products undergoes a process called polymerization. In polymerization, hundreds of ethene molecules are reacted and strung together to make long chains of molecules. Another alkene, propene, undergoes a similar process and thus increases the variety of possible polymers.
Show more

24 Read more

13.4 Petrochemicals

13.4 Petrochemicals

Reforming can produce larger hydrocarbons or a different type of hydrocarbon, called aromatic compounds.. Aromatic compounds contain special ring structures.[r]

5 Read more

14.1 Combustion of Hydrocarbons

14.1 Combustion of Hydrocarbons

Complete hydrocarbon combustion reactions follow a general format: hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water vapour You can use this general format for the complete combustion of any[r]

10 Read more

15 Measurement and significant Digits

15 Measurement and significant Digits

communicate your understanding of the following terms: matter, properties, physical property, chemical property, significant digits, accuracy, precision.. Describing Matter You must obse[r]

14 Read more

15 The Mole

15 The Mole

proportion by mass in a compound. proportion by mass in a compound.. Find the # of moles of each element. Find the # of moles of each element. Express the mole ratio between the 3. Ex[r]

51 Read more

22 Acid Theory

22 Acid Theory

3. The base that is often used in oven cleaners is sodium hydroxide. This base is very corrosive, and it can burn skin easily. A corrosive acid, such as hydrochloric acid, could also remove baked-on grease and grime from ovens. Why are bases a better choice for oven cleaners?

11 Read more

18 Percent Yield and Purity

18 Percent Yield and Purity

Calculating Percentage Yield The percentage yield of a chemical reaction compares the mass of product obtained by experiment the actual yield with the mass of product determined by stoic[r]

11 Read more

20 Solutions Chemistry

20 Solutions Chemistry

Dissolving solute in pure liquid will change all physical properties of liquid, Density, Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Osmotic Pressure. Colligative Properties are pr[r]

26 Read more

22 Solutions Stoichiometry Practice Problems with Answers

22 Solutions Stoichiometry Practice Problems with Answers

a) What is the theoretical yield of silver nitrate in kilograms. Calculate i) the mass of the yellow precipitate formed. a) Write the balanced chemical equation for the neutralizati[r]

5 Read more

22 Conjugate acid pH

22 Conjugate acid pH

Using logarithms is a conven- ient way to count a wide range of values by powers of 10. Chemists are not the only scientists who use such loga- rithms, however. Audiologists (scientists who study human hearing) use logarithms, too. Research the decibel scale to find out how it works. Present your findings in the medium of your choice.

13 Read more

11 NAMING AND FORMULA-WRITING

11 NAMING AND FORMULA-WRITING

2) hydrogen is written second with the appropriate prefix if needed (so if it is “mono”, then you don’t need to write it). 3) Name of anion is written last[r]

43 Read more

Exam Review Ans

Exam Review Ans

17. Indicate whether the following are ionic or covalent bonds and draw the Lewis structures. Describe polar covalent, non-polar covalent, pure covalent, and ionic bond with respect to e[r]

11 Read more

Exam Review 2

Exam Review 2

surroundings, if the temperature is increasing, then the average kinetic energy of the particles in the surroundings is being increased by the addition of heat from the exothermic react[r]

17 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...