Most of the scientific papers on urban planning and sustainable development begin by emphasizing the multiple benefits of urbanopengreen space. When it comes to the benefits of urbangreen and open space, one should concern on the facilities provided to promote human or societal wellbeing, either directly or indirectly. In this study, a review of identified peer-reviewed literature from the most popular online databases was carried out and its contribution to improve our understanding of urbanopengreenspaces and their environmentalbenefits to the human being are discussed. These many benefits cover various areas such as natural conservation which increases biodiversity of flora and fauna, affecting urban climate by reduction of air temperature and urban heat islands, improving air quality, decreasing air pollution and carbon sequestration, noise reduction and cleaning up contaminants. As urbanopengreenspaces contribute to human and social wellbeing, they are essential for livable and sustainable cities.
Some researchers believe that the need for meaningful contact with nature may be as important as people’s need for interpersonal relationships (Kaplan, 1993). Moreover, impediments to meaningful contact with nature can be seen “as a contributing factor to rising levels of stress and general dissatisfaction within our modern society” (Zubevich, 2004). Many urban buildings are positioned along busy streets and transportation routes where access to green space is negligible. Green roofs provide a measurable psychological benefit to urbanites by adding tangible, accessible natural viewing space for social interaction, recreation, and relaxation. A green roof offers building occupants proximity to common spaces where they can relax, dine, meditate, do yoga, interact with friends or business colleagues, and enjoy proximity to green plants. A study of tenants at 401 Richmond Ltd, Toronto, revealed that building occupants greatly value access to their green roof and refer to it as “an oasis in the city” (Cohnstaedt, Shields, & MacDonald, 2003). Similarly, research on graduate students at 30 Charles Street, Toronto, suggested that a view of their green roof “provides sanity and relief” from the pressures associated with dense urban living (Bass et al. 2004). Research on human behaviour suggests that a view of gardens and green plants serves to restore calm and reduce stress in humans - particularly those that drive a vehicle (Cackowski & Nasar, 2003). Other studies suggest that humans generally prefer a view of natural settings rather than congested or cluttered built environments and that accessibility to nature, specifically by way of a window or a walk, improves worker concentration and job satisfaction, and buffers negative job stress (Hertzog, Maguire & Nebel, 2003, Laumann, Garling & Morten Stormark (2003) and Leather, Pygras, Beale, & Lawrence (1998). A study by Tayor et al. (2001) determined that children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were noticeably more relaxed and better behaved after playtime in green settings compared with children who did not have access to green space.
In spite of the fact that urban areas offer better opportunities and improved standard of living, several problems arise from urbanization. Overcrowding and the strain on resources, particularly water and electricity, are the immediate ones. Environmental pollution due to large quantities of waste generation and excessive automobile use leading to increased carbon emissions exacerbates climate change impacts. Moreover, the unplanned urbanization problem is ecologically unsustainable because of the many pressing issues that are afflicting the waste management process. For instance, new immigrants to cities cannot afford municipal amenities like waste disposal and sanitary functions owing to their low incomes and to being either unemployed or underemployed . In developing countries, about 300 million urban residents are reported to have no sanitation access . Over two-thirds of the population in these countries have no access to hygienic means of disposing excreta and wastewater . Thus, untreated sewage is often directly discharged into open, natural water bodies . For instance, New Delhi, a megacity in a humid sub-tropical setting, has complex patterns of urbanization in terms of its commercial, residential, mixed-use areas, and traffic intersections. For this, the major contributing factors are high population density, high density of road network, and a very high amount of traffic flow.
Zoulia, I., Santamouris, M., & Dimoudi, A. (2009). Monitoring the effect of urbangreen areas on the heat island in Athens. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 156(1–4), 275–292.
Lucia Bortolini graduated in Agricultural Sciences at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Padova, in 1986. PhD in Agricultural Mechanics and Mechanization in 1992. From 1990 to 2002 she was Graduate Technician at the Department TESAF ( Land, Environment, Ag- riculture and Forestry) of the University of Padova, and since 2002 she has been Assistant Professor in the same University for the scientiﬁc sector Agricultural Mechanics. Her re- search activities include (a) the rational management of water resources through the ap- plication of innovative irrigation technologies with low environmental impact; (b) the green structures for the sustainable management of the outﬂows in urbanized environ- ments (green roofs, rain gardens, bioretentions, etc.); (c) the application of hydrological models in agriculture; and (d) the risk analysis in the workplaces for the maintenance of the greenspaces. At the University of Padova she teaches Irrigation and drainage in the First Cycle Degree Course in Land and landscape restoration and enhancement and Main- tenance of green areas in the Second Cycle Degree Course in Forestry and Environment Sciences. She also organizes extra-curricular courses related to maintenance of greenspaces, such as tree-climbing, use and maintenance of the chain saw in man-made envi- ronment, and arboriculture. Supervisor of more than 90 Theses and Dissertations and re- viewer of some scientiﬁc journals. Erasmus Responsible Person for the Degree Course in Land and landscape restoration and enhancement, and Erasmus Departmental Coordina- tor for some European Universities.
The environmental regulatory bodies have come up with more specific guidelines so that the projects will not lead to an overall excessive increase in outdoor temperatures (Tso, 1996). However, most of current policies, strategies, and regulations are barriers to “green” design and green management practices so they should be removed or updated to encourage creativity and the implementation of sustainable practices (Hostetler et al. 2011). In this case, graphics are used to present practical information to show the outcome and so increase the chance of fostering mutual understanding among communities and planners (Kleerekoper et al. 2011).
As golf courses occupy a significant area of cities they have the potential to be the lungs of urban, periurban, suburban living. If this is so, an increase in the number of golf courses would be beneficial to both the natural environment and the local community. To ensure environmental and community benefits, an environmental management programme for the golf course should be a priority. However, if the golf industry, like the tourism industry, is susceptible to economic fluctuations, during economic downturns the amount of money spent playing golf would be affected. This has implications for environmental management and environmental management plans, both of which involve money and a great deal of time, and under difficult circumstances implementation may discontinue. In other words, if golf courses are the lungs of urban living and their economic viability declines, then golf courses could experience the same fate as agricultural lands. At this point it may be useful to look at the development of one particular gold course, the Marriot Worsely Park, and examine the landscape ecology implications of its development.
There are several studies with focus on green space qualities of PSD in association with perceived restorativeness characteristics and positive outcomes. Peschardt and Stigsdotter (2013) was the first study that showed PSD positively and strongly is related with perceived restorativeness characteristics in urban small parks. It showed that ‘serene’ and ‘social’ had the most associations in ratings of non-perceived stressed park users. In the forest stands, Stoltz et al. (2016) examined the stress- reducing effect of these settings through examining the impact of five PSDs of ‘serene’, ‘wild’, ‘species richness’, ‘space’ and ‘culture’. With exception of species richness dimension, restorative potential of forest settings was seen by the mediating effect of other qualities. In examining the health promoting effect of natural landscapes, Stigsdotter et al. (2017) explored the psychologically restorative effects of PSD qualities in a forest environment with designed rooms with eight PSD features. The most rated restorative settings were rooms with PSDs serene, nature, rich in species and refuge. In a visual assessment, Memari et al. (2017) showed that the PSD serene, nature and refuge were the most identified qualities for stress restoration.
The capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka is a megacity with one of the highest population density in the world. Historical documents and records prove presence of marsh or shallow land and natural groves. There were also traces of wilderness and wildlife, canals for accessibility and drainage. On top these, Mughals passion for garden gifted Dhaka with few beautiful ones. Since the independence in 1971, Dhaka became the sole administrative, economic and political center and the phenomena of influx of people increased significantly. Moreover, decades of growing economy accelerated the unplanned rapid urbanization. Gradually, the city started losing its greeneries, waterbodies and openspaces. As a consequence, myriads of problems like waterlogging, air, water and noise pollution, congestion etc. emerged. Though, there have been projects on improving the air quality or environment, or restoring waterbodies sporadically, they never deemed successful or sustainable. Dhaka needs an integrated approach to overcome the existing condition by addressing the physical, cultural and historical phenomenon and context of this city. For our research, we have considered the areas: Wari and Narinda; which bears characteristics of both old and new part of the city. And our every design endeavor reflects this ecological consciousness like greenurban corridor with site specific native plants, improved walkability on shaded promenade, restored water bodies with natural purification system, creating urban forest to reduce carbon emission, minimizing traffic congestion without compromising accessibility etc. This paper briefly depicts the current challenging situation, presents a mechanism to transform the particular area with an integrated approach, incorporating urban forest, as a case study, exploring scopes and opportunities. Moreover, this might project a vision to replicate the model around other portions of the city with similar circumstances.
MADs are usually used to pay for higher levels of landscape and maintenance services along roads and traffic islands, and also for additional park maintenance services such as mowing, weeding and the trimming of trees. MADs can pay for features such as historic replica lighting and children’s play equipment, and for maintenance in natural openspaces. Thus, MADs permit communities in San Diego to assess for themselves the need for increased spending on their parks and openspaces. Under this arrangement, those living in the area vote by ballot to receive the special benefit. The additional charge or total of the ‘willingness to pay’ is calculated according to the proportional benefit received by each household, business, city facility and school. Then the resulting ‘assessment’ is added to each owner’s property tax bill. Typically, landscape and maintenance work is handled by private contractors with administrative and budgetary oversight by the city. The San Diego municipal code also allows for not-for-profit groups to administer MAD contracts, overseen by city staff.
urban landscapes. Laws and regulations govern the acquisition, ownership, use and disposal of land in the urban area. Even though there were several potential sites, access to land was a major challenge to this project. While the law in Ghana permits private ownership of land, land use and physical planning, and land administration in general, are the responsibilities of public agencies. Poor land administration and inefficient justice system have meant an erosion of the customary trust with which persons lease land to others for various purposes, whether short- or long-term. Registering and obtaining a title deed for one’s piece of land is a very cumbersome and expensive process. As a result, very few parcels of land bear title deed. Multiple sale of the same piece of land and informal occupation of vacant lands is commonplace. As a result, the cost of defending a piece of land is higher than the cost of acquiring that same piece of land. Stronger and effectively enforced regulatory framework for land use and physical planning, land ownership and transactions are prerequisites for successful up- and out-scaling of the edible urban landscape project. This will enable regulated access to available urbanspaces for subsequent use as edible urban landscape. It will provide security for both the owner and tenant. City managers can also use their authority for local regulations to drive formal acquisition and management of openspaces for edible urban landscapes. For example, incorporation or consideration of urban farming from edible landscapes perspectives into urban planning and development schemes would create the needed physical space for such purposes.
- surface roots of trees and shrubs destroy hard ground surface (asphalt, precast or tile paving). When estimating the aesthetic importance of woody plants, their positive and negative impacts on the aesthetics of the environment are determined. Woody plants that improve the environmental aesthetics have the following characteristics: the trees have uniquely shaped or coloured crowns, stems or leaves; the plants have unique characteristics or age; the trees hide objects that are not aesthetically pleasing. Woody plants which have negative impacts on the environmental aesthetics hide artistic buildings or sculptures, cultural or natural heritage objects or valuable landscapes.
The study conducted by Nilufer (1999), identifies that the precious openspaces of Dhaka are highly used and there also remains a great demand of more openspaces in our urban life. In spite of growing densification of built- up areas in newer parts of Dhaka, a number of medium and large scale openspaces are scattered in the city. The stock of public openspaces under DCC control is approximately 190 acres and under PWD is 302 acres. These two authorities cover 0.768 sq. miles of area, which is only 1.4% of Dhaka's land. The southern part, the older part of the city offers more large public spaces which is more culturally active and historically significant, like – Ramna Park (established during British period in 1908), Sohrawardy Uddayan in 1972 (Mughal Garden during 1825 (Habib, 2010), later became race course during British period), Osmani Udyan, Dhaka university open areas, Shahid Minar, Majar of Three Leaders (beside Sohrawardi Uddayan), Dhanmondi lake - “Sadly, with Dhaka’s rapidly growing population, unless they can be replicated, their value will be diminished by over-utilization and these valuable assets permanently impoverished” (Nilufar, 1999). But the northern part of the city has North and South Plaza of National Assembly Building, (which is restricted of public entrance) and Chandrima Uddayan are only large scale urbangreenspaces available for public gathering (see Figure 2).
In most cities around the world bicycle planning and promotional campaigns are usually being carried out by local authorities, though there are some institutional processes in the national level, especially since 2004, when the European transportation ministers in Ljubljana signed a declaration pro national policies for bicycle promotion. This declaration set common targets and actions among the various ministries and government bodies, enhanced promotional activities in the political agenda and mainly aimed at encouraging and motivating local authorities to act in favour of cycling. Many countries worldwide have already shaped national planning principles and policies for bicycle integration in the urban environment, while others are making smaller or bigger increments in this direction.
3.2 Social sustainability and governance: two intertwined concepts
Conceptualising the term “social sustainability” to have a common meaning has been a problem in the academic and research circles as it has received different interpretations from different scholars. Dillard et al. (2009) defines social sustainability as the creation of social health and well-being through the operation of social institutions that facilitate environmental and economic sustainability now and future. In the estimation of McKenzie (2004), social sustainability is achieved through the working of formal and informal processes, systems, structures and relationships which actively support the creation of healthy and liveable communities for both current and future generations. From the UNESCO ‘MOST’ Program 4 , social sustainability is used to signify a kind of development that is compatible with the harmonious evolution and contribution of civil society, cultural and social diverse groups which promote social integration and improvement in the quality of life of people (Brennan, 2009). Apart from these varied definitions, conflicting ideas have also been expressed about the overall focus of social sustainability. Vallance et al. (2011) argue that social sustainability should address matters concerning underdevelopment, basic needs, and the promotion of stronger environmental ethics. Agyeman (2008) opines that social sustainability should be grounded in social justice, equality and democracy whilst others too claim that it should be focused on preservation of social values, culture, traditions and ways of human life (Koning 2002; Barbier, 1987).
lives and all in all developed urbanenvironmental sustainability when proving the targets of sustainable development. Mohammadi et al. (2012) investigated a research entitled “analyzing and evaluating the distribution and sustainable development of urbangreenspaces; a case study of Miandoab city” through descriptive-analytical method in 2002 and 2012. They indicated that despite national and international standards toward using urbangreenspaces and high environmental capability, this city has fundamental deficiencies and there exists discrepancies between districts in terms of using greenspaces. Chiesura (2004) in an article entitled “The role of urbangreen space in having a sustainable city”, meanwhile pointing to the importance of urbangreenspaces, he emphasized on the importance of city’s nature for citizen’s convenience and city’s sustainability. His results indicated that the nature’s experience was the source of positive feelings and beneficial services in an urban environment which provides worthy incorporeal and spiritual needs. Milward and Sabir (2011) in an article named “Advantages of having an urban forest park”, provided various valuable social, economic and environmental services which were also measurable for cities. They tried to show the advantages of having such a park in cities quantitatively, so that its` importance could be understood. Table 1, shows the suggested share of using urbangreen space suggested by related individuals, organizations and organs. This study has been carried out in Shiraz in 2018.
Although urbanization serves as an important factor in the destruction of greenspaces, however, there are other equally important factors that also contribute greatly to the depletion of urbangreenspaces but they have not been given the necessary attention. Most of the literature on greenspaces tend to over concentrate on urbanization as a factor but fails to touch or give much credence to other eminent factors. It was therefore to bridge this knowledge gap that this study was undertaken to explore other major factors apart from urbanization that are responsible for the loss of urbangreenspaces. The study concentrated on Kumasi (Ghana), once the garden city of West Africa but now experiencing excessive deterioration of its greenspaces [18-20]. The paper gives a broader view on the losses of urbangreenspaces which is now a major problem in many cities and hence draws ones attention to other key factors (aside urbanization) that are militating against the rapid destruction of urbangreenspaces. This effort is expected to serve as a guide for policy makers, city authorities and environmental agencies in their decision making process to take broader measures that takes into account the factors highlighted by this paper in addition to urbanization to protect greenspaces in the physical landscape of cities.
Assuming functionality is linked to health outcomes, the different uses of urbangreen space is likely to yield different health benefits. For example, based on the studies reviewed thus far, eg, social benefits such as the reduction of social isolation is predicated on social contact happening in an urbangreen space. That space may have to be situated in the right locality, carry some social meaning for the neighborhood, and its user groups permit or facilitate social interactions to occur. 30 The observation that some minority groups do not
Green space and plantings can be easily incorporated into almost any form of development to accommodate drainage and runoff. Dallas has hundreds of creeks and streams that form the web of its riparian system. The typical way of handling these today is to reroute the stream or creek into a concrete channel in an alley- like service area. This is a wasted opportunity to bring a natural element and human scale to many developments. All efforts should be made to leave these areas in a natural condition and incorporate them as a site feature.
whole region. For greenspaces, we considered mobile phone data from grid squares having their centroid inside the green finger polygons. In spatial and temporal comparisons, we used the information from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., because this time interval received the most activity across greenspaces in the mobile phone data set. For more details about the data processing, see Supplementary material (S5) and Bergroth (2019) . PPGIS data was acquired from two surveys conducted by the local municipality: the Helsinki 2050 survey from 2013 and the National Urban Park Survey from 2017. The Helsinki 2050 survey was conducted in order to support the development of an upcoming general plan for the City of Helsinki ( Kahila-Tani, Broberg, Kyttä, & Tyger, 2016 ). The survey contained 16 question in total, out of which we considered two questions related to greenspaces. The National Urban Park Survey was designed to support the planning of a national urban park in Helsinki – a project that aims to secure cultural and landscape values in cities. We considered all 12 questions that allowed users to add point markers on the map. For both data sets, we only considered PPGIS point markers located in Helsinki, and further only those markers intersecting the greenspaces ( Table 1 ). We also calculated the number of PPGIS users in each 250 m × 250 m analysis grid square. Both PPGIS data sets are openly available online in the Helsinki Region Infoshare open data portal ( https://hri.fi/en_gb/ ). See further details about the PPGIS data sets in the Supplementary material (S6) .
Dr Anna Jorgensen is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Landscape at the University of Sheffield UK. She is the editor of the Routledge book Urban Wildscapes, and the Managing Editor designate. Her research deals with the human benefits and social significance of urbangreen space, with a particular interest in wilderness-like and biodiverse urban settings.